Hr. l·!.F. HO\lie D:r. H.J. Smither Nr. A.A. Cross Dr. S. Holmes Hr. J..R.Kolff van Ooste:::-.'ijk }~r. G.C. Schr.d.dt 11r. P... Jom Kr. A...

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24TH Alm 25TH }10m·iTIER 1971

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... ,. ".',

PAGE List of Delegates


Hr. l·!.F. HO\lie

Welcome end Introduction


D:r. H.J. Smither

Use of Asbestos - Some Re:ent AdVances in the Hedical Background


Nr. A.A. Cross

The UK Asbestos Resulations _,1969


Dr. S. Holmes

The Research behind the Vt. Standards


Hr. J..R.Kolff van Ooste:::-.'ijk

Hcalth and Asbestos - Situation Paot


end Present in Holland Rep<>rt of the ,lest Germen Dalega tion


11r. P... Jom

The Situation in Francc


Kr. A. Palomttki

The Situation in Scandinavia


Hr. A. Cal2.I!l2l1d.rei

Brief Review of Current and Prospective Regulations.in Ital:r


Ur. W.P. Raines

Brief Review of Current Regulations - USA •



G.C. Schr.d.dt



. ,. Action Taken in the UK to De~.~ Asbestos



}Ir. '!.P. Raines

Brief Review of Attacks on A]bestos


end our Defences - USA. !-Ir. K.P. Howe

Pinal Comment and S=ary List of



of Delegates.


. --: , '" ""-



List of Dcle:;e.t.es

1Ir" J" yen Har..t~n I·:::..~"

::..1:..R. !:olff van Oo.stQ:tuijk



Dr. J. Lepou trc I'J. J....


Pin:dsh Asbsst03 !-Ir. A. Palo:,c!!.J,i

/' lir.



Hr. P. CO'las Nr. G. Flouest


R. Join

}!r. G. Ire.h'-lt

D::.-. J. i1.\'"2"il ...-!

., -,




.":- ~~;. ::.;.


. , .... :., ..



D:l'. C. Fer.l't.ech

l-:r. H.


Dl'. H.




Ix. H. Er. D.


Askevold }~'3rkel

l'r. H. SC;1aefter



G. ::;:::![;eL"'.!.s...""1l1

!.:r. R.




Er. A. Calacarldrei

. '." ".


I!r. A. Jönsson






Dr. S. Hol",es

Secretary, ARC

Dr. i-.'. J. S:::!ither

lIedicaJ. Aclvisor, A.1C .

Er. A.A. Crozs


r:r . ';I.? • HO·,-Il:.rd Ix. D. \'l::-irrht

Sec!'eta:r:r, AIC


l:r . J.D. Grieve



A. Ha:3terton-3=:ii th

l-:r. D. F. Brady


Eill l<: Kno·.:l tO:1(l.il~)Ltd.




.,.;. ......




........ ;......... ,-',



U.S.A. Asbestos I:·~r:l!7.1a ticn ASGocia tior!.,I;~or:!l A~crica

I1r. H.P. Eaines.



. ,











lrr. H. F. Ho"e, Deputy Ch"ir.o,a", Asbestos Infortlation COJrullittee

As your Conference Chairman arid 'on behalf of the Asbestos Information First International Conmittee, it gives ~e ~eat pleasure to welcome you to the , , Conferenoe of Asbestos



of you here today attended the Conference held i.~ London two years ago. Thst Conferenee aimed at ma~ing availab1e to our European friends the benefit


vle hope i t was useful. At that time, the AIG was the on1y Information Eody in the l
So this year we feit lt would be


Conferenee of


Bodies so that we might &11



to hold


facts, viewa end


Tne fact that there are 35 of us here from 11 eountries underlines the ~port~~ee of the subjects whieh "e .shal1 diseuss. Speaking for the delegate~ from ~


the Asbes tos Infoma tio,,' go=i ttee end the Asbes tosia R~l!Ii'feh COll.'1cil, "e are eertain tha t we shsll 'benefi t grea tly from the ey.eha~r, cf information and ideas. I hope that :rou, the delegates from the other l,peountries, ,dll benefit similarly. I know that "e are &11 regarding this es a working eonference a..'1d i t is ta..'


In these and many other countries, Government Departments are


interest in :ectory and other


related to asbestos •

Interest in the subjcct of environr.lental polluticn is !?erLsps only no\,' in i ts

infancy. Conference.

ThesE: f:.!'e


subjects ,,!hieh


shall be discussing duxint; our




Dr. \{. J. Smither.

Asbes tosia Research CO'lncil

In recent years t!lere have been several international conferences on the biological effects of excessive inhalation of asbestos dust.

Since the New

York Academy of Seiences Conference of 1964, world-'dde interest has been stimulated and naintained. At that confe::ence the lergest nUlOber of pApers from any single country came from the U.K., and the largest contribution frem the U.K. was made by members of the Asbestosis Research Council • .t In the int,ervening period, the'li terature on the subject has been ext::emely extensive, so much so tr.at it is impossible for one man to be conversant with the whole output.::;.. I have attempted to select and report the results of "

work done mainly by researchers whom I know, and whose reputations commend international respect. I must emphasise that the selection i8 my own, and the 9Pinions I express ere personal ones: Discases Associated with Asbestos Exuosure Table I shows the disorders associated ~~th excessive exposure to asbestos. I propose to deal ~riefly with these. We can first dismisa the last of these listed. Asbestos corns, in my vie'tj, are

Let us first recapitulate.

~re 3isnif~cance tr~

the foreign body reaction to any kind of sliver in the skin, ~~d need not concern us further here, except to say that they ere simple to prevent and to treat.

increasingly rare, have nc






Cancer of lung

(1) peritoneal (~esothelioma) (1) asbestos corns

Cancer of intestinal tract Skin Table 11


Fibrosis of

~ '~

fibrosis of 1- ,} fibrosis cf pIe.- 'a <.±. calcification) bronchial I' , pleural (",eothe),io",a)


the position with


to asbestos.


Dose related: ? "" conc. x time Host individuals 13l!Sceptible Causes

d~sacility ~~d

shortens life

Progresses after :-e::loval frot!l dust after a certain stage

Severi ty P?ssibly, de:;:ec'lds on t;::pe of asbestos L1c.ost certai:tly prevcntable by practicabla dust control



"'t'.... ,': : .... ,

J..... . . .'- '-.• -'." -..~ " :r~. .:..

-6DOSE REU_TIOI1SRIP The dose relationsnip is becoming increasingly evident.

S~ce the vork of

Dr. Nevhouse in this country vhich de~onstrated the dose relationship in a crude way in a factory where all types of asbestos vere used, new studies have corroborated the point. In the Quebec mining areas, Dr. HacDoll2.1d made the observation that the ill effects of chrysotile inhalation were far more marked in those men who had worked in the dustiest areas, and similar results have been shown in Cyprus. It is worth looking again at the results of the Newhouse study•. • f--,.,

Dose equals degree of exposure multiplied by time. "


~ ..

For all causes of death; tho'se men with exposure of low to moderate amounts either short or prolonged, had no exoess of deaths over the number expected. For those men with severe &xposure for a prolonged period,. there was an excess of deaths from all causes. Fer those 'with severe exposure for a short time, those men not submitted for regular medical examination in the early years had an excess of deaths from all causes. There is a paradoxical situation in that a group with severe exposure for a short t~!Ile who were sUbjliqt to initial and periodic medical examir.a tion had no greater incidence o{'death from a11 causes. This ma~SSiblY be due to the initial rejection of men for such work who had signS of some other disease, so that these men would be healthier than the ~neral population. However it is known that these were the men who worked in so-called "scheduled occupations", that is those recognised as the most dusty by the framers of the first British legislation for the industry. Early efforts at dust control wcre concentrated in these occupations, so that although conditions were severe, they were subject to the first measures of control. Another factor in the better record of this graup is that periodic mediosl examinations may hsve removed them from exposure at the eerlier signs of chest trouble. Dr. Newhouse showed that all respiratory dise~se other than e~~eer of the lung, that is all nor~malignruZ respiratory diseases whieh inelude asbestosis, is more likely to ooeur in those workers subjected to eevere'


-7levels for a :~

, ., ,


LI ..' "," : .



time, partieularly if they are not medieally



There is as yet no eonelusive epidemiologieal evidenee that susceptibility in individuals varies greatly.



sponsored by the A.R.C. at the

llrompton Hospital end done by Dr. ~!a.rgaret Turner-\~aroick on the presenee of certain abnormal pro teins ~~ the blood of eases of asbestosis end other interstitial pulmonery fibroses. It ~as hoped that there might be found a meens by blood test of discovering which individuals were more likely to develop asbestosis in the future. Unfortunately it ~as found that blood changes ~hich did oceur in a ~~rtain proportion of asbestos workers did not precede other signa of the disease, but tended to accompany them.

In other

failed to rind a me~ of seleeting those men 'least likely to , .:"P: surfer from exeessive eXpostire tc asbestos.





A fau years ago the prognosi8, once asbestosis had been diagnosed, ~as that the disease ~ould rapidly progress, For the past ten years or so, ~fforts to diagnose the disease at en early stage have met with some success. The more sophisticated teehniques of measurement of lung runction have enabled us to diagnose asbestosis at earlier stages. Recently there has been some disenehantment ~ith the results of lung runction tests. There are some research ~orkers who are sure tha t lung fu.~etion changes oceur earlier than other signa or inters.titial pulmonary fibrosis, ~hile others find them to ,: .

occur no earlier than i.-ray ehanges.



This is no occasion to discuss the diagnosis of early adbestosis, exeept to say that any recent research with ~hich I am remiliar has eonfirmed me in my belief that diagnosis rests on a table ~ith four lege. These ere history


elinieal findings, x-ray changes, end fairly simple lung runction tests. In the survey of workers in the industry, records must be carefully preserved from the initial exemination om/erds, so that each man m~


be used as his



Absolute values are of less signifieanee than relative ehanses in all the diagnostio eomponents. Each leg of the table must be fi~. If any one co~ponent of diagnostic supports is laeking

or shaky, the diagnosis of asbestos related disosse in li fe i8 not truly seeure. Havine seid that, I must report a personal i~pression, which is shared by


other e)~erienced colleagues, thet early diagnosi~ and removal fro~ further risk may so reduce th. rate of .progression of pulmonary fibrosis aS to


cnable the vorker to live & reasonably full life. TYPE CF ASBESTOS AllD P:lSVS!ITICN Except to s~ that recent work, sone published and some in the course of publication, suppprts these vievs, I propose to quote with little comrnent, the views of a most distinguished worker in the whole field of pneumoconiosis. Dr. J.C. Gilson, head of the

Research Unitin



to whom I


Research Cou.'lcil's Pneumoconiosis indebted for some of the tables sho;.'11 ,

presented recently at an International Conierence on Pneumoconiosis Some personal impressions with which I heartily concur: ..... Chr;tsotile "It scems falrly cleer now that it should be possible to mine, mill and

manufacture chr;tsotile in safety, given good housekeepine;. There must be some uncertainty about i ts use for building and ships where contrel of the dust is much more difficult, but I think it probably can be used at an acceptable level of risk, if the new codes of practice ere followed." Amosite "In mining and mlling, great progress ~ dust control hes been achieved by using wet processes a.'ld exhaust ventilation at the begging plants. The dust control problem in this part of the process does not look insoluble. When the material is




into boards and insulating sections, dust control

egain shouJ.d beechievabH,··at a..'l economic cost. In ins1~ing work in buildings and ships at least as high a standard es for c"jjsotile will be required. At present I am less coniident tha..'l in the c&e of chrysotile that the work can be done safely, but even \-Then the material is sprayed it looks aS though the exposure of the insulators and those in the neighbourhood can be kept at an acceptable level if all the preoautions recommended ere followed. The greatest uncertainty is in the removing of old insulation when supervision i8 difficult. n

Crocidolite "In this case I am natural1y irSluenced by the experience and sit:Jation in my country. On the one hand, there are many cases cf meoothelioma, some cf which appeer to be linked with paot expcsures to crocidolite alone, but L'l thc majority to more than one type of fibre. On the other band there is the evidence of the ra?idly


icports of this type of fibre.

This s trongly




::; ..


__ ,.;._


suggests that. it may not be really essential except for a very few purposes. If this is so then, in viaw of the present uncertainty of the relative risk of using crocidolite against other types of fibre, why not phase out its use in new products as soon as practicable? This will leave much of it in old insulation. The removal of this should only be done with the strictest control and


more supervision than is.essential for dealing with

chrysotile in the SBJl:e circ\llOstances." TABLE III

Fibrosis of pleura Information rar l~ss complete ~~ oeeur alone or eombined with fibros1s of lung Alone not '1-: cause cf severe disability -, Prognosis ~gently needs further study Probably preventable by practieable dust control The fibrosis of the pleura whieh oceurs in people exposed to asbestos has attraeted considerable at~ention in the past few years. I have no evidence to change the opinions expressed in this table, but I ean elaborate on a few points. Thickened pleura ~v later beeome hardened by calcium so that it is visible on the x-ray as a pleural plaque. They are Plaques oeeur with different,frequency in different countries. especially prevalent in the anthophyllite areas of Finland, and oeeur with They have been found in areas where eonsiderable frequeney in South Africa. there are no asbestos


or works, in farmers ",ho t111 soil which contains

a high proportion of asbestos. experience of pleural fibrosis has been in &.'1 area pf London where there were many who worked in asbestos factories or lived very close to them in the Our

days be fore dust emission from the factories was eontrolled. The pleura in this group has been more frequently affected than the lungs themselves. ~le are coming to the conclusion that comparatively slight exposure, particularly be fore the age of 21, 1s more likely to lead tc pleural effects. We are also fairly sure that these pleural


have l1ttle


as far as

disability is eoneerned. In ~ opinion, the presence of pleural plaques or thickening alone is no more siginifieant than the presence of asbestos bod1es in the lung or sputum, bei!lb merely evidence of past exposure to asbestos •

. ·.2



Bronchial eareino~ Common tumours Ineidenee related to severity of asbestosis henee intensi ty cf dust exposure

Other faetors - eigarette smoking type of asbestos? - air pollutien (smail) Specifie asbestes effe~t probably preventable by practicable dust control


The Newhouse series showed the dose relatienship to which is now gene rally "Ifceepted.


of the lung,

, Professor Selifoff of the


Sinai Research Uni t now has, I believe, 87 non-

s:nokers in his large end intensIve

studies group of insulation workers.

In this group, tbe incidenee of earcinoma of tbe lung is no greater than that in tbe general population.

The suggestion whieh Dr. Selikoff made Some

years' ago about the role of eigarette smoking in asbestos "accumulating more corrocorative evidence.


i8 slewly

TAEL:;; V Pleural and peritoneal (mesotheliomas) Rare tumours ~19sely assoeiated with exposure to asbestos A small prop;~hon of those exposed develop tumours Long latent period (? 20 years)


Dust exposure short end possibly small in so~e.eases . In mines and mil1s ineidenee apparently related to type ef asbestos: BJ'Ilosi te, anthophylli te <... eroeidoli te, ehrysotile. In manufacturing industry no asbestos pro·~ed inneeent Other faetors - not due to eigp~ette smoking, others not identified Prevention?

I propose to say a few words about some ef tbe statements in the table. The interesting fact about mesothelioma is tbet eases. although they beve increased in nuobeI3 considerably, es interest in their diacnosis has increased, continue to occur

As more and ~osure



those areas in which asbestos i8 most extensively used.

of these eaSeS sre investigated, the association with

becomes more evident.


Contrary to earlier gloomy predictions,there has

~ :-.



not been explosion of cases among the general population end, as more series

. -. ,. l"'il. '..


ere repo=ted, i t i8 found that cases of l:lesotheliollL9. show an increased n~ber of asbestos bodies, well above the level of so-called ferruginous bodies found in the general population. In a reeent series a history of industrial exposuxe was obtained in


of Cases.

It is a personal opinion, that those who develop these tumours ere 'those who have bad heavy, al though possibly short, exposuxe in youth. ~le may yet find a dose relationship, if we consider that the 5igni~icent dose in the case of mesothelioma is the aI:lount of asbestos whieh actually gees through the lung end reaches the pleura.


With tbat idea in mind.let us consider the d:J,fferenoe , ~... --" various typesof asbestbs.


the fibres of

In some elege..."lt experiments, Dr. 'l'imbrell of the Pneumoconiosis Research Instit~te

hB.s demonstrated the great effect of fibre shape and diameter on

the ability of the fibre to penetrate deep into the lung. Tbe curly fibres of ehlcJsotile appear quite different from the straight amphibolcs'of amosite and cl'ocidolite when they reach the lowel' air passages in the lungs and approaeh the point at ~hich the air.~:lStrated .' ',. deeply end are retained':U; greater amount tha."l equal wewr of chrysotile. In a similer serieB of experiments, Dr. Timbrell has sho\m that the depth of penetration iB dependent more upon the fibre diameter than the fibre length., Tbe fine fi))):,es, of North-',1est Cape crocidoli te penetra te mueh more deeply than the fibres of Transvaal cl'ocidolite.

These'latter have a fibre

diameter, much neerer the diameter of Transveal·amosite, and are therefore much thicker. It has been recognised for many years that erocidolite produced more I:lesothelioma than ar.osite.


reccntly it has been revealed that, ...hile

North-,lest Cape crocidolite produced human mesothelioll:~,fibres of crocidolite from the Transvaal produced none. Similarly arnosite produced very very few. The penetrability of the fibres 'provides the reaoon. crocidoli te fibreo from the


into thc d6epest recesses of the lu'g,

The fine straight

Cape ere elearly [!lore able to penetr a te ~"ld

to the pleura itself.

It is a


... :: --'/.'.-.' ..: ..







. .r~ ! " , •.:





,::,;.--~~.:, ~


personal opinion, not yet substantiated experilllentally, that tho,se mesotheliol!l2:3 whieh have oeeurred in ehrysotile ereas may well: be due to inhalation of fibres of ehrysotile whieh ere the straighter and harsher. Some ehrj-sotile


do contain these fine straight fibres.

When I spoke to this audienee two yeers ago, I listed some of the exposures, ether than exposure te asbestes, whioh o~~ preduee fibrosis ef the lungs very similer in many


to asbestesis.

Similarly there ere new beir.g feund

eases ef mesethelioma in Afriea in whieh no evidenee ef asbestos exposure ean The idea is gaining support that there may well be some other be found. faetor besides asbestos itself,whioh eauses mesothelioma. Onee again I wish te quote Dr. Gilson of the Pneumoeeniosis Research Unit • .;./!

Reeently at an internationai eenferenee on pneumoeoniosis he urged the assembled delegates te keep the whole matter ef the bielogieal effeets ef asbestes in perspeetive, cemparing the likeliheod ef death fram these effeots with the likelihood of dea~~ frem some other exposures and oooupations. Dr. Gilson's table shows the exoess mortality in a few seleoted oocupational groups. ,The S.M.R. is the standard mortality rate, caloulated by multiplying the observed number of deaths in a group by 100, end dividing i t by th~ expected number ef deaths in the absence ef exposure. It is e. means ef measuring the comparative rioks. The eutstanding faot emerges that asbestos workers, coalminers and even fishermen, who heve oneof the highest oocupational risks in tha"U.K., ere all at less overall risk than those who .•. '



smoke twenty or more cigarettes per day oompared to non~~okers.

" Dr. Gilson also made the'point thst all epidemiologicaTreseareh in oeeupational medieine tends to emphasise the ill effects. We need to look more at the benefits of asbestos, and oonsider the ill effeots on ths oommunity of depriving it of asbestos. Finally I 'lould say that, in my own personal view, speaking only ror myself and implieating none of the distinguished speakers whe are yet to address you, the real purpose of this oonferenee is to find the means to oontinue to offer to the oommunity the great benefits of asbestos while doinz all we ean to minimise and even eliminate its ill effeets on some individusls.


"-,',.,.-.. - ,.':,'.-.'









All Causes.





Ob.erved deaths x 100 Expected deaths in abse:cce of exposuxe






Nining (Q,uebect }!ar,uf: (London) Insul, <:,rp." Y,:,rk)

92 150 139·

All deaths since 1950 "/ 6 years-first exposu=e /'20 yea:rs-first exposuxe

All miners &: ex-miners ~üners >11th simple pne, Miners with Comp1i.pnc. Doctors (UX) 25+ pd. Gen. pop.(US) 20~ pd Fishermen (UX)

43 1 125]

Age 25-14


Coal llining Rhondda S. Wales Cigarette Smoking Seafaring


16~} 200

Age 35-14








- i

.-. ...





f ..:"


,; :

.I .)

DIscussrll ON PAPER BY DR.I·I.J. SmTIm\


J. VPI liAAG:::t!


IVhat ere t!le dangers cf Asbestos fibres in the sto~ach?


The question is wide open. Asbostos haa be~n found in peritoneal t~ours. We be1ieve it has a direct effect. The question is how does" it get the=e?


There ere two theories on



}Ic,st dust particles get i.'lto the stomach'by swallowins, e.g. by cou,g:hing 81ld swallowing, etc •


Others demonstrate that fibres c~'l be blood borne, but I personally am not happy abo".lt this theory.




\./. P • EO':I A.llD ,

AlC, tlK


On the subject cf s>la11oW"'..o1:, does Dr. Sni ther think that s·.allowing can ba ed.verse? In spe~~ing of ~wallow~ I refer to heavy exposures. Ny overall view i8

that dose relationship is the signific~t factor. DR.~.EYER




Ans,. . er:

HO>l do you measure the efficiency of lung fu.'rlction t"ests ""ains t x-ray "examination as a me ans of early diagllosis? ~rt There ere differences of opinion.


One group cf opinion says tC4~t those are cha'rl~ea in lun5 functio~ be~ore x-ray ex~ination shows ch~~ges. Others say this i9 not so. One Dust have a good health service ~~d depend o~ the "fouzo legs" of the diagnosis table. It is Q~wise to rely on "ote legt! only. sm. CAL.'2·lPJlDREI SIA


Does Dr. S~ither think that the use of a.Destos in filtration has •..n adverss effect?


Nu - tnG zllOunts are infini tesi.r:l:ll

DR.S. ROU"2S,ARC,"'G":: em?h2.~ised the insignificance of ingested fibre o!"':';in2.ted from filt=ation processes.





This is an important cdiihibU:Üon es the B:<'i tish Asbestos Regulations have ~nese Regulations will probably have bee~ in full operation for lt years. a big influence upon future Regulations to be introduced by ether countries. }!r. Cross, Chairman of the Envirorur.ental Control Co:m:dttee ef the Asbestosis Research Council


Dr. Holmes, Secretary of the Asbestosis Research Council,

have been closely concerned with this subject froQ the beBinning. The~ are here to tell us, emongst other things, ebout the principles behind the British legislation, the Qeasures which have to be adopted under these Regulations and the ways in which different forms of respiratory protection are to ba used ror different dust levels.


.-: .... . ...... ..~

·--~- ".




T"rB UK ASB:':STOS :8GULiTION3 - 1969

A.J..Cross,NBE, ctai.rman, FZvironmental Control CO;:'..7.ittee A..t{C

At the conference of representatives of the European asbestos industry in London two years ego we discussed S?l:lC aspects of the United Kingdom Asbestos Regulations whieh had just been introdueed. other countries have introduced


Sinee then tnal1Y

ceasures for the

asbestos workers or ere actively' considering " .



form of control.



of these have follm/ed .fairly closely the llethods adopted in this country; others appear to b e t.u:ing B~f'e"hat different linee. I1; see"", to us, therefore, that i t migfi't be 'helpful i.f "e were to review briefly th& fundamental prineiples behind our legislation end the main featu=es of our law as it 1e being ap,lied. As you know, the older established see tors of asbestos manufeeturing , industry had been zubject to legally enforceeble eontrols in this eountry sinee 19)), so that the basie approach to a new end more eomprehensive la', was to build on those parts of the old law whien experienee had ShO\ffi to be effeetive, to expend and·';l.efine more elearly the control methods required, and to extend the ap?lieation of the la" to cover all persons "ho might be exposed in their work to harmful q1la-'lti ties of dust.

-.. ' ~"..,

It should be no ted that'the law in this eountry speeifi~~y eatering for asbestos is eonfined to working situations. There~!ino statutory ccntrol speeifieally designed to deal with possible hazexds to the general public.

In such ma. tters a.s disposal cf asbestos

diseharge of filtered air from asbestos



overspill of fibre

from spraying o~erations, the offieial view so far has been that existing powers of loeel authorities are suffieient to deal \lith any nuisenee whieh ean be identified. In one oase, i.e. disposal cf, asbestos waste, adviee dre,,,, up by the Asbestosis Research Couneil has been issued to loeal authorities by the Governnent


eoncerned, the

Deparbnent of the Environment, pointing out the need for conzideration of a potential l:azard.





.. ........ ~



The ne\l Asbestos Regulations themse1ves are based on a number of clear princip1eSl 1.

They on1y ap;>ly to processes >!here dust


a certain level can be

produced. 2.

They app1y wherever and whenever emp10yed persona are exposed to such levels of asbestos dust.

(There are some l~ited exceptiona such as

dockllorkers who will be covered by separate reQllatior..s.) ,.

They discriminate agai."l31; b1ue asbestos in that they call for additional measures of contro1 end a 10wer standard of dust





They envisa.,"

extent of the hazard. 5.

They do not spe11 out standards of dust levels or dOSTees of hazard. They re1y for the detailed e.pp1ication of the 1aw on the pub1ication of explanatory documents lmown as Technice.1 Data Notes >!hich oen be varied

8s experience or fresh lmow1edge dictates.

For e~~le, in

the Regulations the various contro1 measures sre to be app1ied "here asbestos dust can escape into the "W"orkplaoe.

Asbestos dust is then

defined as "dust consisting of or containing asbestos to such an extent as is 1iable to cause danger to the Heal th of emp10yed persona". We a:r<' continually rem:lndcd by Dur Department of Emp10yment that "nat this means in precise


only be decided in due


the courts,

but for practical purposes at present this is defined in the Department's Technical Data Note 13 as "in the case of cbrysotile measured in a certai."l way.

kd amosi te 2 fibres/cc"

Should e>--pert opir..ion chsnge e..."ld indicate

that this is unnecessarily high or is too 10w, all that i9 needed is the issue of a revised Technical Data note. \'!heu by these standards e. process is recognised as coming 'li tr.in the scope of these Regulations, the measures to be adopted fall into the following c1early defined grOUPSI • J


No p:-ocess to which tt..e Regulations ap:;>ly ca.n be carried on unless

e,.-.haust ver.tilation is provided ..hich prevEnts the entry into the air of any >!orkplace of a3bestos dust (as defined).



Only .here the provision of exhaust ventilation eqaip~ent 16 icpracticable(a~d this means impracticable in engineering terms) 1s personal protective such cases the




acceptable as an alternative.

provided must consist of approved

respiratory protective equipment and protective clothing.


ventilation equiprnent is pro-lided but d,~e3 r.ot reduce the dust cencentration sufficiently, then personal protection may be required in addition to the ventilation equipment.

At the present time there

1s soca uncertainty as to what level of dust concentration achieyed by exhaust ventilation will be considered to be lew enough to 'necessity of wearing pro(ective equipment.,



We have been .orking to

a level of 12 fibres/cc but there is sooe indication in recent conths that a lower stan~d t!,an this will be tlemanded. " Part III of the RegulHig:, standards cf factory hygiene ere demanded. atiohs whichisentirely concerned with the cl;~~iness cf premises'and plant requires that all maehinery and premises should be regularly 'cleaned by me ans of vacu'.l!ll eleaning equipcent sui tably des1gned or by some ether dustless cethod. ,/here a dustless roethod is not posoible, then persorulel emnloyed on cleaning must oe supplied I-li th 'personal protection a.'1d so must any other persons "ho may be in the vieini ty of such cleruring work, 4.

The Regulations require that ne" buildings used for the first time for processes giving rise to dust above the pe:mi tte:l. level and "here such processes oceur for more than 8 hours in any week, should be constr1!cted in suc,Ji;"~' way as to reduee the nossibility of ,



accUI:lulations of dust and should be provided wi th ~cu= cleaning system having filters and a source cf suction lecated at a fL~ed /'


central point and ,rith pipes throughout the building with suitaUy placed inlets from whieh portable


implements can be



Accommcdation for workers' clothing must be provided in such a position or in such a fo~ that there should be no risk cf asbestos dust beina deposited on i t, and accoI:l::lodation for chan{;ing into end cut of protective equipment and clothing, as weIl as for the acco~~cdation


cf such equipment and clothing when not in use, must be



.0 ,."1 .....,_ '\\. U .' ! .... ' -



loose asbestos or waste stored or distributed within a factcry

must be contained in suitable closed receptacles which prevent the




escape of asbestos dust thereirOD. Young persons, i.e. people under eighteen years of age, may not be employed in any processes where it is necessary for them to be provided with protective clothing and respiratory equi~ent. The special requirements concerning blue asbestos include the need for notification to the local factory inspector befora .starting any process or operation invo.lving crocidolite or blue asbestos and the requirement to mark any receptacles eontainir~ blue asbestos with the words "blue asbestos - do not inhale dust".


The Regulations, r.aving allowed for 12 months' grace, eame into full effect in Hay 1970. In that time, the Factory Inspectorate has been getting familiar with the ex1sting practices in various asbestos factories and in particular among those people who are using asbestos materials without previously being concerned with regulations for its control.


particularly applies to ",eople in the eOn!Jtruetion industry al'ld in work a."ld nore especially \there spraye

measurements has paid many visits to factories and site situations tekL"lg measurements of the air in the breathing zone of workers and has, on the. whole, appeared to adopt..fJ. flexible and understanding attitude.


in recent months there ··;";e signs that their atti tude i~,~uehenil'.g and indeed the first prosecution under the ~ew Reeu1ations ~~6urred on November 10th. It is to be expected that they will apt.ily increasir~ pressure for the development of more effective forms of ventilation equipment, for the modification of processes to be less likely to emit dust, and for the weariDJ of protective equipment, i.e. both respirators and protective elothing, where they are not Batisfied with the dust levels whieh ar. attained by engineering controlB. It i9 also to be expected that they will be increasingly severe in their requirements for high standards of facto"Y hygiene. The attitiude touards si'te \lorkinJ e.Jain has been so far



ap?ear to have been gratified by tho efforts of the industry to develop less dusty metr.ods of workinc;. particularly. for example, in


t~e develop~ent

development of


cf predarnpins methods far sp!ay and

tools fo::: worldnc;

~ti th



asbestos board.!! of .;11


kinds, but where individual concerns are


to take a!var.tage of such

methods known to h5.\'e becn satisfactorily developed llnd tested to the Inspectorate's satisfaction, it is to be expected that they viII be They !lave se.id t!Jat they >IiU not hesi tate to particularly toue-h. prosecute, for exemple, if they find spray contractors who are not using prcdamping equipment end "hose eoployees are not usin;; the more sophisticated type of respirators such as positive pressure respirators. From time to time "hen the Asbestos Regulations were published, i.e. in Hay discussions 1969, Ulltil the present.time there have been regular informal ., between various membera.,pf tpe Factory Inspectorate, particularlj those specialist branches concerned with the measurement of dust levels and those concerned with the development of control equipment. This has been helpful to the industry.

It has meant that we have been able to

enticipate to some extent the way in "hich the Regulations w~uld be interpreted by inspectcrs, and it has also enabled us to advise our customers and users of asbestos matarials generally on the measures


need to take in order to satisfy thc



cf the new law.

unofficial contacts have also been helpful in enlar;;ing the Government Official's Ullderst~~dinz of the different types of asbestos products that are in re.;ular use and the manner in which they are used. Tney have appreciated the fact that many asbestos materials do not produce ~



quanti ti es of dust. Th.e.'Inspectorate Headquarters has'1,:';d!; fact, issued a list of asbestos produc-ts which, in their opinion, are ~fil
Other Govern!lent Departments have consulted the Asbestosis Research Council ir. the fo~ation of advisory documents or in dealing with enquiries from the general public or from institutions. These have included the Horne Office, the




the Dcpa=tment

cf Health end Social Sccurity; the Customs end Excise Department.


the38 references h2..ve been at thc sUJ3'estion of the Departo.ent of Fztplo,yment.

.. : . .' .'J.~


While undoubtedly there are oany


and individuals who take

an extrene view of the possibi1ity of risk, we believe that the sensible ap?lication of the new ReGUlations enab1es us to claim that oany asbestos materials entail no risk and that ror others it is usually possible to prevent any risk to users by the application of practical control measures.

.. : ./

w~ I'

... ,..:

·"': -~-"~ ~ ...

.- .'.' _: .....







Dr .. S. Holmes



Asbestosis Research


Further to the report which Hr. Cross has just given, I "ould like to add a few words explaining how the British standard for chrysctile asbestos has been established. At the same time, I would like to cleer up one or two misunderstandings that obviously still persiat regarding the relationship between the size of the asbestos fibres counted a.,d'the hazerd to health. Many yeers before the British Occupational Hygiene SocietY decided to .;.~



explore the idea of a standard for asbestes, the asbestos companies bad adopted for routine factory monitoring the fibre coUnt, restricted to fibres above 5}Dn in length and having a length/diameter ratio of at least 3 to 1. 'trnen thc B.O.H.S. Committee was leoking for infonnation on dust expoSUl'e and hasard to health, the only figures available on dust levels were these fibre counts collected over the years by the industry and the figures were given to the Co~ttee slong with the health records of the people exposed. As most of you are aware, the'B.O.H.S. standard eventually recotl-,ended was in the fonn of a total permitted exposure to asbestos dust expressed as dust concentration multiplied by time of exposure. The figure for chrysotile was lOO.fibre-years per nil/'and was put for.ard as the e;posure limit if not ":'.'


more than 1% of those exposed were to get the first sign~~f asbestosis. This allowed 10 years exposure at 10 fibres/ml., 20 years,exposure at


fibres/ml~, and so on.


It "as ou,;gested that the standard should not be used for levels above 10 fibres/ml., because little was known about t~e effects of high exposure even for ahort periode cf time. AB the chrysotile standard has become widely known, a misunderstanding has , arisen to the effect that fibres less than 5)l111 long are not hazardous in any way.

There is, of course, a lot of medicsl evidence pointing to the view that the longer fibres are of special significance biologically, but there is nothing about the figure of 5)Um. It was arbitrarily chosen many years ago end has continued as the lower litlit for counting for historicsl reasons. It is therefore more correct to think of the fibre count as an



••• , . • c·_c • . ·


index to exposure but the


of fibre sizes in an



cloud does not ch~~e ~uch for the different industrial processes, and the figure we use is still a reli~ble measure of t~e health risk. It has the added advantage

thst it represents more than 90% of the total veight

of asbestos, and also it ensures that only asbestos fibres are counted. '''hen the Factory Inspectorate was considering how to incorporate dust standards into the 1969 Asbestos Regulations, the report of the p.O.B.S. In making use of the report the Co~ittee was conveniently av~ilable. lnspectorate did two things:1. They assumed that the asbestosis r~zard from mnosite and anthophyllite w~ the·same as for chrYsotile and therefore made the limits the same for all three types. 2.

They decided that the limits for crocidolite(blue asbestos) should be ten times more strict.

Little useful comment i5 possible on the first of these, because although the B.O.H.S. is at present looking at the possibility of a separate ~+'~~dard for amosite, nothing has emerged so far, BO the assumption is a reasonable Tbe adoption of the separate limit for one in the circunwtances. crocidolite is also understendable, in view of its strong association with mesothelioma, but to set it at one-tenth of the cr~sotile figure cannot These limits are derived for asbestosis only ~;d a dose be jus tified. response relation betweo;i,-,crocidoli te and mesothelioma ~;,not yet been established. We can only assume that the Factory Inspe~~rate were dctermined that extra special precautions should be observed in handling I crocidolite and in this they have succeeded. In deciding what should be the.safe level of dust concentration below "hich the e~stantive clauses of the Asbestos Regulations should not apply, the Factory Inspectorate have taken the figure calculated from the B.O.H.S Standard related to exposure over e whole working lifetime i.e. 50 years. This, of course, gives the well-known.tl~eshold limit value(T.L.V.) of 2 fibres/ml. _ -J

In the region between 2 and 12 fibres/ml.(originelly 10, but

raised to 12 for transatlantic r.ee.sons)t the action requi:-ed will depend

on the level and. duratio!"< of the exposurc i.e. t~e B.O.H.S. concept of an exposure calculeted as a product of dust concent=ation and time is to be followed.



above 12 !ibres/cl. are inevitable,: then ".

full personal protection mllSt be wom t nm·lever short the exposure in ·.:iI:lc,



The way in which the Factory Inspectorate intend the dust concentration to be measured 1s also important. The first assessment is based on a 10 minute samp1e taken in, or as c10se as possib1e to, the vorkers' breathing zone.

If the result is 1ess than 2 fibres/mI., then the Regulations are

not app1ied.

If it is between 2 and 12 fibres/ml., then a repeat samp1e

1s taken, but cf 4 hours duration, or aseries of samples, designed to give a 4 hour tilne-weighed average. It is on this longer samp1e that ezJ;f action will be based, representing a considerab1e concession in most cases, because the average exposure of any particular worker over 4 hours is .'. generally much lover than that L~dicated by short period samples. When the 10 minute exp10ratory sample is above 12 fibres/ml.,-,a repeat 10 minute samp1e must be taken. ~~f this is also above 12, then ful1 personal


protection is ca1led for if the job conditions c~~ot be ilnproved. It must be remembered also that the total exposure idea doe~ not app1y in this case - ful1 protection 1s required even i f the exposure is onlY one


per week.

The <>.ioption by the Factory Inspectorate cf the 2 fib~-es/ml. T.L.Y. for safe vorking is ref1ected also in their system of approval for dust respirators.


first~with ori-~sa1

or half.,face respirators, the

cartridge filter is generally very efficient irideed(99% or better) but the weakness: lies in the uncertain seal between the faoe of the wearer end the edge of the mask.

In most cases this reduoes the overall effioiency to

about 95% 1.e. 5% or l/zb-~f the dust will penetrate to ~~inside of the facepiece. If this is not to be more than 2 fibres}:ii., then the conoentration outside must not be above 40 fibres/ml.andrhalf-faoe respirators are the"efore on1y approved up to this figur". Fo" positive pressure respirators, where filtered air is pressure-fed to the face of the wearer the fit of the facepiece is 1ess important, and thc on1y limitaticnis in the efficiency of the filter itself. ~s is about 99% i.e. 1% or 1/100 penetrates, and so these respirators are approved on1y for situations where the concentration is not more than 200 fibres/ml.

- .;

Oneful1-face pressure-fed respirators is approved for use above this level, otherwise it is necessary to provide hoods or helcets fed by a supp1y of fresh air.


.::::; -


... . -




., Finally, the standard has also been used in defining the dust concentration permitted in the exhaust from vacuum cleaners and in filtered air from an asbestos process which is being recirculated. Tue criterion here is that the dust in the recirculated air should cake no significant contribution to the overall dust level in the workroom, and therefore a limit of 0.2 fibres/ml., i.e. 1/10 of the T.L.V., has been specified. The member companies of the A.R.C. have recognised that many asbestos users have nei ther the equipment nor,the technical experienoe to check their own situation by carrying out dust counts.


They. he....e therefore made available

to their customers a d~,t s",:,pling service,Bild where nec~ssary, engineering advice. This has been well received and has no doubt resulted in many companies continuing to use asbestos ~hen they would otherwise have been so daunted by the Regulations as to abandon it •




{rt F





,. -26-

( ,7'.. :;.': .,1





7 •

Nr. A.R. KaUf va.'1 Oostelvijk. C.V.A. Hollend



Tbe first case of asbestosis was officially recorded in Holland around 1934. Since there was at that time hardly any nationally important Froducer or user of asbestos goods in Iiolr~d the attention Faid to this isols.ted case was negligible.

For the same reason no special legislation ., was introduced. ."



After the Second World War this situation of relative Unconcexn slowly chnnged as more end more cases of asbestosis were



total number re:n"ined small. }lost of these cases were e.!so found to occur It was in this period that the major in th~ insulation eontracting field. co:npanies producing or using asbestos containing products begen to introduce periodical medical inc~action of those employees who could be considered to' be frequently exposed to asbestos dust. The factory inspectorate also Their activities gradually paid more end more. ' attention to the situation.


were directed towerd advising on dust süppressing methode and on protective measures to be taken for personnel exposed to dust. There was hardly any general publicity on the biologieal 'effects as asbestosis was considered to



be an oecupa tional diseas,t whieh could only be contracte.t:\lf.fter many yeaxB f exposure to high dust concentrati6ns. Tbis situation r~~allY cha.'lged after the publieation in 1968 of a thesis by Dr. Stumphius wherein the author >

deseribes his experiments on the occurrence cf asbestos bodies in


tissue and the oceurrence of mesothelioma among the male population of a email region of the lletherlands centred around a major shipyerd. He came to the conclusion that a larse part of the population must have been exposed to smail concentrations of asbestos dust because of the frequent occurrence of asbestos bodies 1.'1 lung tis3ue. l'lore far-reaching, however, is his other conclusion that a correlaUon exists bet"ee:1 the exposure to (emall) concentraticns of asbestos dust and the oceurrence of mDsothelioma. This publieation at onee eause1


stream of publicity whe:::-e some or perhaps cost

news channels went so far as to suzgest that thc >
\-lithout going further into this publicity uproar, it is important

to note that sevcral

and the fo11owing '.\

~ore se~ioUL


actions resulted

fro~ S~~phius'



-27These were: a.

the formation of a research coomittee to study the biological effEcts of asbestos by T.II.O., the seI!li-gove=ental research establisb.ent in After a general survey of the asbestos problem this the Netherlands. coomittee has now started several research projects i.e. 1.

epidemio1ogical research of relation between occurrence of mesothelioI!la


exposure to asbestos.


occurrence of asbest9s. dust in outside air.


the generating of asbestos fibres during braking. the develo;ment of apparatus for the detection ·and counting of




asbestos fibres in outside sir. b.

The factory inspectorate started an intensh'e medical inspection of all workers who could be presumed to be exposed to asbestos dust.


first part of this inspection concerning mainly workers in the asbestos industry and in the insulation field has becn concluded.

It is now

intended to extend this inspection to other industries which ere not

obviously connected

\,ri th

asbestos •


It is also the object to repeat these.inspections during regular intervals in the future.

. !t·~~ The factory inspectorate has recently published a b~iet called "Horking with Asbestos". Herein a short sun-ey i5 g;i.ven of the·use of

asbestos, its biological effects, thc permitted dust concentration, the necessary protective mea5ures and some substitute materials. That part of the booklet which gives an outline cf the protectivc measures to be taken when worki!'." ,Ti th asbestes is cemparable to the guides as published by the Asbestosis Research Council. Althoush thia booklet is not backed by tha necessa.-y special 1egislation the factcry in3pe~torate is in the position to enforce the introduction of certain measures advised in it.

In the very nea= future factory inspectors will visit all

industries using asbestos end asbestoscontainL1SGoods


will rigorouzly

check whether th" ,'ori:ing condi tions comply \d. th the rcquireI!lents es set out in the booklet. -',


-. .



Therc is at present in preparation legislation on the use of asbestos. This however will tru,e a long period of time before completion as it is difficult to formally fit it in existing legislation. It may, however, be expected that within a year the use of crocidolite will be forbidden while there is a possibility that the use of asbestos containing Dateriels in the insulation trade will be prohibited. These measures cannot be tuken onesidedly as they could cause economical ~~d technical repercusDions.


It is

the~efore us~ th~t

the industries concemed end the trade unions

ere officially consulted before such adecision is made. The unions beve reacted sha~ply end they beve in fact contributed in no small way toward the adversc end often i=esponsible publicity gi\'en to the biologie al It is their ultllnate aim to obtain a complete ban effects of asbestos. on the usa of asbestos end asbestos containing geods. As this is of course at present impossible, they beve now tried enother app~oach i.e. to include in the collective lebour agreements a clause forbidding the use of asbestos in all i ts forms in the :industries felling As thiB new demend is still under under these collective agreements. consideration, it is .too early yet to comment but we feel that a



dangereus deyelopment.'is under wa:y here. d.

As ia usual under these and similar circumstances, a,.large number of I . interested. Perhaps, characteristically of Holland, is that in our country we feel tl~t no problem can be tackled efficiently organisatior~'become

without foming es many committees as possible. Besides thc committee end organisations already mentioned there ere the following commi ttees (or organisa tions) which ere also im'ol ved in so.. e way or another in the problem of asbestos: 1.

Asbestos commi ttee I:ctherlaruis Soxiety of Safety

2. ,.

Asbestos Committee of the lndustries located in J~sterdam. Asoestoe Co~ittee Society of Insulation Contractors. Safety Institute.

4. 5.





of ;/orkers in the Building rl'd.u.etry.

Safety Dapartment of 11<1 tiJnul Real th '!'d;ninietration.



. '.





P,\PER BY )·:?A.?.. I:OLF?

HIl,'.l. P. HO':! AR!)




Regarding :,rour rnention of the

possibility ef a b~~ er. p~bestes in Hell&ld - "euld ti1is include asbestos



Answer: DR.S. HO!l'SS ARe, UX

He - only asbestos fer insulatiQn.

Dr. Helmes here peinted eu~ that the measure~ent ef asbestes in the general atmesphere bad pregressed. The ARC in the UK had produced resul ts using very s9Phisticated metheas shewing that levels are surprisingly low - in the order cf 10- ;'gms. per cubic ~etre i.e. 1 ::lillionth part ef the level regarded -as negligib1e.



Is thore a general public. censciousness 01: the I1risk" i:1. Holle.nd?



I think NOT.









~'!SST GS;lJ.L~-r



Herr G.C. Schmidt. Secrete.ry I-lirtscbaftsverband Asbest. e V.'

Shortly aft~the danger ~volved ~n the e~~osure to airborne asbestos dust became kno,m, the German asbestos manufacturing companies, together vi th the so-cal~ed Berufsgenossenschaften(employer's liability insurance corporations covering ind~~trial diseases end accidents) ~~d the local Factory Inspection Authorities, begen overcome this problem.

;0 develop precautione.ry measures to


Statutory requirements:

dcfin~ .:".:



do not yet exist ror tne asbestos industry.

aeeeptable dUst eoncentrations However, the uni ted efforts of

the Berufsgenossenschaften, the industrial medicine experts, and the loeal Factory Inspection Authorities have come to eertein agreements whieh are voluntarily observed by the compenies.

These agreements are strictly observed, because e quickly growing number of reported cases of asbestosis might motivate the insur~~ce companies to reise the premiums proportio:1.ally, or even progressi vely.

Due to the high

occupational risk the premiums are alr9ady rather steep - the asbestos manufacturing companies in some cases have to pay ten times the normal premi~. After the "sr end in the Sixties they therefore doubled their efforts to control the dust end r.:iIii!IiJ.se the risks by i:1.sta11ing exhaust ventilation


systems. As


mentioned, the government end the insurance





arrived at mutual ae-reements based on the experience of the past yesrs. asbestos industry has accepted such agreements, although they sre not yet binding. In case of non-observance of the peril points, the viola tor c~~ot be punished. These peril points are defined as follO\;s: 1 es/rn; total dust concentration if the asbestos content aQounts at least to 50 weight-percent





-31should not be exceeded.

This limit is praetiea11y equivalent t;' a

respirable dust concentration of 0.15 - 0.40 mg/m 3• In addition, the individual asbestos manufacturers - to the extent that they are membe!"s of a so-called Berufsgenossenschaft that is ",·rare of the health risk3 of asbestos dust - have developed private guidelines for the medical supervision of employees exposed to dust.

In most cases these

persons are required to undergo x-ray examinations prior to their employment. If during a subsequent periodical examination asbestosis is diagnosed, the employee will be retired and the Berufsgenossenschaft must pay him a pension. ., As requested by the inäurance' companies und the authorities, the current

agreements and recommendations shall be integrated into a legally binding Regulation, which is in its meaning and effect comparable to the Asbestos Regulations of our Bri tish friends. Probably in the autumn of 1972, this so-ca11ed "Unfallverhütungsvorschrift z= Schutz gegen gesundheits gefährlichen mineralisc!.on Staub" - a safety regulation for the protection against health hazards caused by nineral dust - is expected to come ipto effect in Germany •

A group of experts,

including some from the asbestos industry, worked for two years On this ReguJa tion. , ',.

This Regulation shall appiy to a11 factories which handl;e~jllaterials :I'l'I'~ containing asbestos or free crysta11ine silieic acid. ~ese factories must give notice to their so-cal1ed Berufsgenossenschaft and/the local Factory Inspectiori Authority. All factories, in which asbestos dust is created, must institute appropriate measures for dust sappression and control. Such precautions may be in the field of construction of buildings, design of machinery an~ apparatus, end inst~llatior.



ventilation equipment.

: ..)

..... ,



The Regulation stipl:lates the acceptable dust le,-els as follows: If the asbestos fibre content is below 10%, the total dust concentration may not exceed 2.0 mg/m', if

the asbestos fibre content is between 10 and 5~, the total dust

concentration may not exceed



for an asbestos fibre content above


the acceptable total dust concentration

is limited to 1.0 mg/m'. These peril points have still-Pxovisional character until the final limits the so-called HAK values -are available. MAK means maximum acceptable dust concentration at a~work_place.

A special committee'1s currently working

on these limit values assisted by experts of the asbestos industry. According to the Regulation only particles are defined as being asbestos fibres, which are of a length greater than 3~ and which have a length/diameter ratio of at least ,:1. If we multiply the number of particles by the number of asbestos fibres and divide the product by 100, we receive the asbestos coefficient.

The asbestos coefficient may not be greater than 10.

People employed in the asbestos manufacturing industry are required to unäergo periodical medical examinations every , years. Prior to their emploo~ent an authorised physician must carry out initial examinations end certify that there a.xe no medical obj~ohorui to such employment. The.costs of such ~_\~ examinations must be borne by the manufacturer. He mus~~lso keep health records on all employees.


Full particulars on the scope of examinetions may be found in the Guideline for Nedical Examinations. This Guideline can be taken as a supplement to the Unfallverhütungsvorschrift and among its requirements includes general physical examinations, x-ray of the thor~cic organs and analytical tests to diagnose a lung restriction. It also gives details about medical findings which should give rise to objections to employment. __ .1


I mean, Gentlemen, we have already the right feel for our internal dust The environmental problem vith problem in the German asbestos industr,y. its partially

diseases whieh are diffieult to diagnose This is the greatest of our worries, beeause does, hO>Tever, still exist. we eannot solve this problem ourselves. This is mainly the problem of the unknC\ffi



physicians. colleagues representing all Ge=~~ producer groups: are weIl prepared to answer any questions ru:is'ing from this report •



. ,-.!

. , ~.'.


DISCUSSICll 0:; PA?Z3. :sY NR.G.C.SC;':lIDT, \!VA " \·/AV.


HR.A. PALC~·L"'1{I lüG, FI::L.Uill


you explain how the Tnroshold

Limit Values are a.pplied?


If the fibre content of the prodllct is less than lO~ the TLV is 2 milligramnes pe= cubic metre. If the fibre content of the prod~ct is 101~15). cf the total, .tha TLV is 1.5 milligrammes per cub.ic metre. Above this percentage, the TLV is 1 milliGTacme per cubic metre.


OOST::RIHJK, ques"tion:



AIG, D:::n'L'JlK

How is the concentration





At the present by a Konimeter, but a better method is ne~ded.


\.!hy do yo~ have the relationship between '

The rea80n i8 basically that if a gravi metric method cf dus~ measuzece~t is used the percentage of asbestos in the total dust is signific~~t. However, in the ~l we do not like the Koni~eter and have advised asainst its use, in favour of the membrane method.


Is there not a sienific~~t difference behroen the mixed dust in a factory and the CO~~ition of the prod~ct?


Yes - but no c-onclusions have been


reached on ihis problem. Question:





How da current p~actices in Ge~an factorie8 compare with the s'oandards required by the F=oposed re;ulation9?

I c.an quote one A/c factory where the level i9 up to 2.5 mg. per cubic metre but 'He cannot com.~ent on all factories as the level v~ia5. In brake lining iactories, we do not yet have continuo~ ~onitoring but short te~ checks indicate tnat the position is satisfactory. l-lill'[loard manufacturerR


to be

meetin;- the TLVs but oD.textiles position is difficul t :·tq eiefine.




Question 1:

Are the same TLVs proposed for all types cf asbestos?



Question 2:

\olhat happens if you ey-ceed the TLV?


This is forbidden, bu t we are very near to them BIlY'ray •


. , .. ~


~rf ;-

-, '--




H. Robelt Join




Cl'le.m.bre S;\~dicale ci I :\J!'!iante

Several bodies in France ere concerned with the industrial health and hygiene problems: Facto~


Social Securi ty



Industrial Hedicine Institut lIaticnal de Recherche et de S~curit~ (an association for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases, comprised of representatives cf employers and e~ployees).


There is no particu~ar national reöülation concernil~ the working conditions in the asbestos industry similer to the British Regulations cf Nay, 1969. The on11 general prohibition, applicable in the industr" concerns employment of-yo~~g people und er 18 in SOme dusty occupations handling of raw asbestos, carding, spinning. Th""e erists, howev-er; a 10cal regulation of 1965" cirafted by the Facto"" Inspectorate end the'Social Security Brench of l;O~~, in co-o~eration with Chambre Syndicale de l'Amiante, called "Reco=~ndations concerning the working cendi tions in the asbestes industry". I Despi te i ts ti tle Recocnendations - this document is in fact compulsory fo" all the fi=ms dealil1{l' with asbestos within the jurisdictien ef the Social Security Branch of Nermandy - and there is an important concentration ef fi= in this area. The "Reco:nmende.tions lt concern the preoises and their cleaning, prevention ~~d individual protection measures, medical control ~~d information ef workers of the possible riskj a level of general dust is set, but no asbestos dust level.



-37AlthoU8"h the lIational Social Secuxity Office h"s the possibility of extending local reco~~endations to the whole of the naticnal territory, this has neither been done nor proposed since the Uormandy Recommendations came into force.


Asbestosis has been recognised in France as e. compensable occupational disease since 1949, distinct from silicosis with which it was previously merged.

Under "Table 30 of Occupational Diseases" no diagnosis of asbestosis cen be made, unless the three following conditions are ., gathered =c'..iclogical signs ...·,fun.:tional troubles, asbestos bodies. No other than haart complications is recognised.



a worker thinks he is entitled for compensation, it is his responsibility to file his claim with the Social Secuxity. After a tec~~ical

lnquiry concerning period of occupation, exposuxe to dust etc •••

the file is forwarded to the Factory Inspectorate end then, according to the duration of expq~ure to dust, to an agreed specialist in pneumoconiosis, Or to a panel of three experts who take the decisio~ whether or not to compensate. A procedure of appei.::C provides employees end employt:~ wi th a11 safegua.::ds.

ft~' Beside the huca.n aspect of the question, the employer has a direct I

financial interest in kaeping the number of compensable cases and the amount of compensations at as low as possi1:1e a level since his Social Security contributions for occupaticna.l accidents and diseases are based, who11y Or part;l.y, upon the amount of compensa tions pe.id to his own worke,'s during the previous three-year period. It is therafore -in his interest to ta!te all necessary prevention measures which the

Social Security Administration may support financially, either by low rate of interest lOans, or by reducing the rate of his contributions •







system has never b~en argued inside the Social Security National Technical Co~ittee where Social Security, employers end employees are represented.


There ere co:nparatively 1'e'1 cot".pensated cascs for a.sbestosis.


number can be estimated at about 120-130, at varying rates.




To our knowledge, it is not enticipated that the present position will be Llodilied shortly •

. 8.



de l'Amiante follows closely these questions • .,



It organises meetings factory doctors end manufacturers allowing for mutusl inrormation end fruitful excha.nges 01' views. It has, inter alia, set up recommendations on the medical control 01' workers, taken part in the drarting 01' the Hormendy Recol!lIne:l

diseases, obtained from Institut National de Recherche et !e Securi te '

approval on a method 01' dust sampling, and, recently, it has favoured the foundaticn 01' c6mit~ Francais d'Etudes et de Rec~erches sur les ~."

Errets Biologiques de l ' Amiante (COFEREBA).




As m~ be seen, lack 01' regulations does not imply lack 01' control, and does not prevent the industry from constently working for an improved safety cf workers.




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DISCUSSIOll Oll PAPER EY H. ?03Z?T Jo:m - eSA. ES_UTe,;


Can you clarify the position of the lTor:ne_'1dy Regulations?


FranCe has a total of 14 Social Securi~y Districts. Only Normandy has a Social Security Office with Asbestos Regulati·:n The iTormandy Regula. tions have been in force since 1965.

Tne question cf regulations ror asbestes has never been rais~d at anational level as the !!.sbestos ind'.lStry in France is be~ow the accident rate for most in~ustries. }IR. \./. JO!llTSEII AIG, DE,1IL'_'lK

How do.you meaS1.lXe 2.irborne asbestos unde. the NOrl!landy Re.;u.lations?


Particle st~~1ards ere not specified. The level i8 300,OJO particles of ~ . dust per litre, using soluble membrane fTI::tGr method.

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A. Palomltki

A. loG.


The situation in each of the four Scendinavian countries differs. !-Ir. Pal<>mäki l'resented these differences in relation to Asbestos Regulatior~. Threshold Limit Values end re~uirSments for medical examinations •. 1n t~cree tables • .~~




~:;},' {t; . I



"....,J '\..


Ci .; , .J






TABLE 1 ~~








The name of reaulations Safety preeautions \fhen '/ith asbestos und materials eontai~ asbeat~a

Rel;U1a tion valid from



, ';

Prospeetive reaulations,remarks


dust eol1eoti~, medical exruninations, inspoetion by the 10eal faetory innpeetors, dust preeautions are also eontro~ied by the O\fn equipment of the work .

An inquiry in going on in the Daniah P~linment. Danish Faetory Inspeetorate is diseussing dunt hazards when lrorki~ with asbestos materials in insulation.


dust eolleeting, medieal examinations, inspeetion by the loeal faetory inspoctors once a yenr, the innpeetors give rules

New rulen for handling asbestos and materials eontaini~ asbestos Idll be givon by the authori ties in 1912. New rules in preparation.




Roaulation ru1es and praotieal preeautions.


A Safety und Health Aet .


The eireular NO.235/1962, diroetions for preventing asbestosis.


dust eolleeti~, modieal-examinations, inspeetion by the factory inspeetors, by the Stuto onee a year issued rules by tha eireular


A Workers'Proteetion Aet


A full reconstruction is going on dust eollceting and a new aet '/111 appcar suceos~­ medieal examinations inspeetion by the laQour innpect-lively aa from 1972. ars, ;;enoral rules for 1I0rking wi th ~~bostos havo been givon by the a~thoritiea in 1964.

• ,




q·7 -) r " : : -,

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1 f~













. '.


Threshold Limit Values of Airborne Asbestos Dust "

Country 1




5U!1l per cm 3

Valid from

Rcmarks or prospective steps .



In principle the threshold limit val~es swna a.s those applied .. :inthe Uni ted Kingdom


These lim1t values not revealed in the regulati01


In principle the threshold limit values same as thoscappliiJiin 1970 in the ~I 12f./cm3•


New limit values will be confirmod in 1972, quite eimilar to the latest Amcriean values.


200 partieles/em 3(;,. total·.concentration). TLV have not been fixed. 3The Norwegian general rules refer to 200p/cm l;ike TLV in the USA a~ that time. . .. ~.


No threshold limit values have been fixed.




lIumber of Fibres(particlcs)




The authorities are >lorking for new limit valuas •

Nm, rules for handling of asbestos and product$ containing asbestoa are' in hand. These will contain in all likelihood limit values aimilar to those now valid in Uni ted Kin!)dom.

















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1I :j




Hedieal Examinations Estnblished by the Re/{Ulations







I Valid from

Name of Regulations

Nedieal Examina tions






In oonneotion with TB-examination once a year by.x-ray of all employees X-ray findings lead to olinical examination and full scale x-ray.

Susp.et cases are fo11o .. ed up yearly or onee in


Preliminary examination latest in one mon'oh o.fter , employment.x-ray and lung function. Subse'l.uen:t oxamim,tions once a year or once in three yea;s.


Direetiona for preventi08 asbestosis.


Preliminary examination before employmant: x-ray ineluded. Sub3eqJ.lß1U oxaminations once a year.

X-ray examination of

Royal Proelamation. Hedieal examination to prevent workers for oortain injuries


Preliminary examination within one month after employment and then onee

X-ray examination and lWll: fWlction.

Safety prccautions when worl


-i08 with asbestos



A Safety and Health Aot and its regulation of medieal. examina tion. < ~~,


~ Sweden







a year.


three years. x-r~y


100 x 100mm •

auspected and expoood

persona every 3 years.

.-c ... , '_'_"" .. "".'. ".'




N. RO'l3?T .rom eSA, FJ.A:-:C3.



You say that the TLV in the NOr"·'~Gio.n Regulations is 200 particles per c.c. ls thl" asbestos or all dust?


All dust.


Do you !1aye a time alloW'a."'1ce for a preliminary medical te.st?

. Answer:

~ffi. \·1. JO~:!rSEN AIG. D;:JILL.\iiK


G.C. SC:l/·ITm


&. H1,Y. G:::::lilAliY


, ~.'

Yes . - 2 months . • ~


In Germeny it must be before employment


In Sweden one month's grace is givan' for x-ray and lung fu.."'lcti;:;t. :tests on new employees.




The em:;:loyer.

pays the cos t of the exa;nina tion?


c: ..



E:l.IEF REVE..! CF' CU?.:s:iT


Si5- A. Ca.lpn!5Ild.rei ,Associazione Naz. deSli Industriali l,miantieri

Currently in Italy the processing of asbestos is classified aS harcful to health, but there are no specific provisions establishing a dust limit in the working


The existing norms only prescribe a

before he is hired, followed by an

~edical e·~ination ~~ual

ror the worker

check up from the I.N.A.I.L.

("Instituto Nazionale per gli Infortuni sul Lavoto" - national Institute .;.... for Insurance against Labour Accidents) including x-ray examination for every individual working in the asbestos industry. In the event of asbastosis being diagnosed, a pension is allocated to the

individual who has contracted it, and vhose vorking capacities have been re-

duced by ovar 21%.

This is increased in amoun+' as the disease increases

in severity.

Furtherclore, a11 employees in' the eBbestoe industries are granted an addi tional ;lage amounting to CO. 70


per working hour.

Noreover, the asbestos

manufacturers are responsible for paying an extraordinary insurance for asbestosis which fisuxes.:as·' 4% on the salary. The great outcry ab out the danger of asbestos manufacturing, ou~side of the I present provisions and laws, began some time ago including both the mining of the mineral and the manufacturing processes. The E.N .P. 1. ("Ente Nazionale per la Prevenzione dagli Infortuni" - national Organisation for Accident Prevention) has been studying the problem for some time and has drawn up a plan of norclS which should regulate the matter. Article 6 of tht seid norms states: "Defense a-:ain!=lt



those lines cf canufacture which no=nally give

rise to dust formation, the employer is held responsihle for ado?ting suitable measures iar i~~ibiting as cr~ch as possible the deve~opment.~~.d dirfusion cr '-




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.,.A .•:

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-46dust in the working environffients end thus containing its concent~ation below certain


levels, which - considering their harmful effects -

are to be established by decree from the }linistry of Labour end Social Welfare, prior to the approval of the Permanent Advisory Committee for Accident Prevention end Labour EYgiene, according to article 393 of D.P.R. April 27, 1955 - No.547." The lIinistry of Labour, which is responsible for establishing the maximum level of dust concentration in the working surroundings, has never expressed itself in this regard.


Contacts were made by our Association at Government level through the . "Isti tuto Superiore di ~anit"/(Higher Institute of Health). The results of these exchanges showed that thc problem is not properly represented end that much more importence is being given to rumours end minor events which have been blmm out of proportion often· by ecC'nOl!lic and conventional reasons ratber than actual facts, studied end documented'by competent persons.







PAP;;'::'l Er SIG. A. CA1Al'L'
ER. ,,. JCElfSm AIG, D":";}LI,.IlK


I unde=stend that you have to ?&y additional compensation to eve~r worker if any asbestos comes into the establishment.







you use loeal Chrysotile Asbestes?


\la also use Crocidolite


the regulations do not diffe=entiate





How many post mortem results on workers'mortality are available?


Not many - say


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mrRO;JUGTION FOR :·3. \I. P. RArr3S

REVlli.-l 0" CU?.lD:T A!ill/OR PROSP:i:CTrv=: ilEGULATIOIlS - U.S .A./CAUAllA

lio'''' may I introduce }!r. R9.ines~ who has come avery long way to be here. I sm especially glad that he is present because the situation which his Association faces is any other country.

ei~raordinari1y ...... 11


difficu1t, probably'more so than in goes without saying that the pattern of legislation •

in U.S.A. is certain to have a profound effect throughout the world. We sha11 all listen to Bill Raines' account of current events with the greatest interest.

r-' i









}!r. \'I.P. Raines, I.fJ.!/I~A



COr;'.!il.ent 011

overlappi!lg' jurisdictions cf fcdc:.-al, state Md

mu.nicipal go,"eI"!'lnents.


Protecti!1{) the ':!orker A.




Occupatienal S~fety ~~d Health Act. a. General provisions vis a vis asbestes. b. Present threshold l~it value ef 12 '[ibres per cu~c cehtirnetre. C. Labour Uniol1/Selikoff pressures te leuer TLV to 2 fibres.

d. e.

Prespective meve te 5 fibres level. Unien/Seli!wff pressures fer "emergency standard" ef 2 fibres.



Natienal Institutes for Occt:.pational Safety &: Health(NIOSE) a.

Emergency studies en asbestes and fibre glass.


Investisation cf tlepidemic ll cf mesothelioII!3. ",'orkers 111 Hc.nville J New Jersey area.


State Gevernment







the General ~~blic Federal Gevernment




Clean Air Ac'!; a.

Asbestos cleclared "hazardous subste.nce ll by E'nvi1:on-


mental P.rotection Agency (<:PA) Asbestes enissions standards i.

ii. iii. c.


General Centent Hext Steps

Studies ef asbestes in brue linin.:,'"S and in astestes/ asphalt paving.


Studies to develop E.mcic:1t air ceasUI'enent techniques


Probable future revision cf asbestes emission::.: standards based On 4~cric~ limits


..J .Q...)





"[ate:::- Pollution CO!lt:::-ol Act 8.. In CongreS3 sponsored bl' Huskie and backed bl' NiJcon. b. Possible effects on asbestos. c. Present action under 1899 la1o'.


Toxic Substances Control J.ct 8.. b. d.




In Cong:::-ess - probabll' stalled until 1912 Possible effects on asbast03 Crocidolite "rumour".



Ban on Spraying Asbestos Fireproofing: : ~Illinois ::.~ .' 'New York


Illinois Proposed Regulations 8.. Illinois Pollution CO!ltrol Board b. General content of proposed regulations - especially ban on asbestos in brake l~~s. e. Hearings and testimony. d. Outlook e. Other st8.tes watehing elosell'.

Nuniciual Governme!lts


on Asbestos Spraying: .New York City , "'Boston Philadelphia Chicago Control of Asbestos Spraj~ng: San Francisco




Interest in Banning Asbestos in Ne", York City.



.,-.....! ,.~



'!',' '-' ~



'.. -:' ' ..... ,;.





HR. D.1-l. :11LLS




You su,;:;ested in your paper that the US Asbestos 1ndustry would ~3Tee to a 5 fibres per c.e. naxicum TLV.


The 5 fibre figure waS agreed as a reasonable level by enooineerin; end medieal authorities end by the Government Levels Co~~ittee. Remember that the Unions are pressing in the US for a level of 2 fibres per c.e. There is also e.n allo"ence fo" peaks of 10 fibre

Question 1.

1s the 1llin9is ban in effeet, or is it in preparation?


I hav. just heard tha.t asbestos in brake linings has not been banned but spray has.

Question 2.

Are States' rights superior to and so on?


ASta te ean (;0 f·'Xther than the Federal J.uthori ty and a City ean go further than the State.

A.'tC, trj{



J.:R. N. F. HO·..'E

'" Question:.

AlC, UR Answer.


1s legisJ.ation against "ator pollution likely to affeet asbestos eement water pipes? 1/0, the legislation "p"lies to waste



,rould no';· 1;1i2.rentee

anytl1ir-s. ~!1r~ Selikoff at present maintains that'asbestos cecent pipes are safe. i

1-1. R0B:::RT ".rOIN CSJI...



How has the US frietion materia.ls industry reacted to the 1llinois situation? Can it rely on substitutes? Originally it looked like nO\f altern~.tives



appear to be possible.

Ue do not know what the Automobile indus try said to the Board. General Notors rcsisted the Board but "ould not testify.


,.'.,.· .. ,,:.,... ·_"'_'~~·,.,l ..;.-.·..... ;'.'





The substance of the papers dealing with Attacks on Asbestos s.nd the defence of their positions by industries concerned in various countries have been covered by the s~"aries of these papers circulated be fore the Confezoence. In discussions at the Conference additional points "ere ma1l6 and these

::... We have in &ddi ticn included thc sUJ:lIJlary of the paper given by


'J .P. Raines

On thc situation in the USA and Hr. W.P. Ho,,:ard's paper on action taken in the Uni ted Kin~om.


'-- '




,.. ,.k ".~


. ..


ACTION TA!81! IN TlC U:lITED KP.lGOOH TO D;:::;'EtID ASB:;:STOS Hr. H.P. Eow?rd, Secrete.r:r,Asbestos Information COIl'.""ittee


At the last European Conference two years ago we ezplained what the Asbestos Information Committee was, why it had been formed and the kind of things we do.

I do not propose to go over old

points which were made on tha t occasion.


or to repeat the

\lha t I would like to do for the

most of this talk is to describe some of the things we have done in the past two years since we last met, during which time we have been operating against the

backgro~d ~f

ne" Asbestos Regulations.

In conclusion I ehall outline the way in which our working arrangements have developed. \
Fi::-st of all positive work,

constructive work stressing the virtues and advantages of asbestos,



secondly defensive work which has consisted largely of correcting the false impressions left in people's minds by misleading accourits of the aSbestos/health issue. ,



First then - the positive action. Let us start vi th our advertising c=paigns.

~ii-~ i

Thio advertisement comes from Our 1970 campaign.

Tne theme we adopte.d was "where would we be vithout asbestos" and the three advertisements for this series dealt ::-espectively with safety at sea, the safety of buildings, and eafety on the road.

They "ppeared in the more serious



newspapers like the Financial Times, Daily Telegraph, Sunday Times


-54The Guardian and Scotsman as well as in some key magazines end tech,ücal media - Uew Society, }1anagement Today, 1Ie.. Scicntist, Engineering, E:1.<;ineer, Building, Architects Journal a.'1d Shipbuilding..

At the seme tilne we put

in the journals read by industrial safety officers a.'1 advertisement which explained that advice on the practical aspects of the new Asbestos Resulations was available in a whole Council.


of literature from the Asbestosis Research

It also encouraged safety officers with paxticulax problems to get

in touch with the Council direct. This At the present tilne British papers axe cax:rying our 1971 campaigri. Its theme is tlasbestos - it's a natural tt • i8 our fourth annual campaign. In English this is a clever play upon words. You must take my word for that. " Again we are dealing wi~b sat:e braking" >:ith fire protect~on end with safety We axe using the s2.l!le range of opinion-fonning news papers end magazines and teclL'1ical media as before. \'le think that this paxticulax

at sea.

·advertisement, which deals wi th safety at sea,i;, a particulaxly effective one because it underlines the isolation of a people at sea, and hencc the ilnportance of using materials in ship construction which resist fire. Our next positive step was the production of the film U\o/hy Asbestos?"

which you have all seen. separate

This has been a verJ successful venture.

'. copics have been sold with an English comcentary,


52 in the

Uni ted Kingdom and 34 overseas. We have plans as you know for German and French vers ions which the German end French asbestos industries are now discussing. It may inte.:i'est you 100 know that 12 copie~:.l,jave been placed in film libraries in this country and that as a result ~'M}1000 people have already seen the filE.. Uhen one adds to these 12copies the /.

audiences that must have seen the other 40 copies circulating in this country, you can ilnagine the ilnpact.

The audiences that have seen the

film include technical colleges, universities and schools, safety officers and professional people like axchitects and engineers, as well of course as customers of the ;.ndustry. For the benefit of lay viewers, like school childxcn, we produced for distribution at film showings,a leaflet entitled U\.fuy Asbestos?"

\ve also find this booklet useful to send through the post

to general enquirers en~ proiuced, in order to stilnulate interest in showings of the film, a small 4-page leaflet which describes the f.'·.lm end gives vaxious technical details about it.



",~:·;;' •• ~:",i. "'~. '.'._

.•...•. :.~_.•

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, ....

-55Only this week we have started shooting a new film, dealing with the subject of fixe protection.

It will be called "Fire at Work" end i9

beins sponsored by the Asbestos Information Committee end two companies which have a special intcrest in fire protectionl one of them a mß.~ufacturar of fire extinguishers end the other of ventilation equipment. The It will show the film will cover the use of asbestos to control fire. use of fire protecti.e clothing, asbestos fire blankets end the protective use of asbestos buildir.g materials. The cOlIlJ:lentary has been wri tten in collaboration with the Fire Protection Association. This new film will be ready in the New Year end copies" will be available to you, if you would like to buy them. .;'.1>

Another field for positive action has been in the editorial columns of the press. We have produced, in conjunction with the Press Association, a feature article which explains hoo asbestos is used to save



article has already appeared in 17 news papers throughout Britain, though each newspaper has trea ted i t in i ts own way. He have cleared world copyright of this article in case any of you wish to make similar use of it. We have also t~~en the opportunity to enco~age articles like this one in the Leicester Hercury ",/hat "ould we do 107i thout asbestos?" • We have given considerable publicit,i to the publication of the Asbestosis Research Council's Control and Safety Guides end we are currently working with the Financial Times in the production of a special survey on asbestos. This will occupy at least fOüZ-"'llages of the newspaper end will resemble an

Now for some of our defensive eteps. Those have been aimed at putting the health situation into perspective 107herever i t is publicity misrepresented. Vle have l\ed to do this wo""· in the context of the new Asbestos Regulations end also against the ' of a continual series of references in news papers to inquests o· who have died cf asbestos diseases. This map gives en indic extent of these adverse references. Every dot on it reprp reference to a coroner's report in a local news paper.








-56A basic activity has been to produce en armoury of literature which deals with some of the recurrent criticisms been subjected. Control";


questions which we have

You loto" the booklet enti ned "Asbestos - Safety end

we have just produced the third edition of i t.

It has been

very helpful to aales representatives end industry managers in giving them an " authoritative point of view to put across in the face of ill-founded anxieties.

We have also produced a ne" ed;tion of our leaflet entitled "Asbestos Public not at Risk". This deals .'i th some of the more general criticisms which are levelled against the Asbestos Industry for




Next a booklet on a particular point which is involved in these environmental arguments.

"Asbestos bodies - their signficence".

This leaflet explains

the difference between asbestos end ferruginous bodies end the importence of being quite Sltre that the bodies found in the


of many city dwellers

really do contain asbestos end not some ot.her mineral •• To en5\tre that our own representatives end our customers do not overlook the availabilitj of literature on particular subjects, we have set out all the importent pamphlets together in en order form, which is easy to complete end easy for our offices ."to deal wi th • ." ~.

Literature is very valuable for a number of reasons. the

arguments which different meobers of the lndustry use ere consistent.

Secondly, literature covers the main points of our argume~t comprehensively - nothing important is left out. Thirdly, literature just because it has been properly produced end printed carries an authority which a letter or the spoken word somehow does not seem to enjoy. This does not mean of course that we have not bothered to use the spoken word. On the contrary, we have been quit.e active on this front. We have formed an AlC Speakers Panel whose members have now addressed 70 different groups of safety officers.

'i'hcs e safety officers are people on \",hose

advice our custo~ers often rely for detailed expl~~ation of the Asbestos Regulations. \"/e have addressed some 8e(, of the sa.fety officers in the

· ... ,

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. .t- .•


country on the practical steps which can be taken to continuc the use of asbestos products but in such a way that workcro use



These posters are freely available to an,.v asbestos ut·er who wants to educate his workers in safe practices.

We have in this field also continued to give television trainir~ to senior Training a Dan for television, under realistic directors in the industry. studio conditions, gives hirn very·much·more confidence to project what he has to say.

This precaution has paid off as you will see from the clip

which we ere now going to show you from a BBC television ·programme which was .:':'

screened last year.


A year ago we came to the conclusion that the market for solid preformed insulation products was largely lost for asbestos.

Naturally we did not

want the same thing to happen wi th building materials generally , and so with the marketing managers our building material companies we formed


a building materials study group to see what positive steps could be taken to m~~e sure that architects and builders did not surfer from any misunderstanding of the facts surrour:ding the use of asbestos. ~'.,~.


two publications as a result of our discussion.



i'le produced

a simple

cerd which explained that bUildings which incornorated asbestos were perfectly s.afe from the point of view of the oc~upants, t~ether these were schoolchildren, hospital patients, or office workers. On the back of this card "e showed in graphio form the levels of dust count which were considered safe for ernployees of the asbestos industry and demonstrated that even the highest dust count which had been experienced in buildings incorporating asbestos were a long way below the level which would be considered acceptable for a "orker engaged in the industry over a 50 year period. We also produced for erchitects aleaflet entitled "Asbestos and Health in Perspective". . "-..)



J -.- '



,..'- -_.:



.. :

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-58We have encouraged over the years people with enquiries on asbestos or on asbestos end health to telephone or write to our London office, which is in.the offices of our public relations consultants, Hill & Knowlton. In the last two years alone we have answered over 1,000 such enquiries. Some we have been able to deal with by sending them the appropriate literature, to others we have written letters dealing with specific points, others we have passed over to the Environmental Control Committee of the Asbestosis Research Council. Yet in spite of all thevork we have done, and it has been considerable, we , k,few months a.go we had another onslaught on a remain under attack. television programme, this timemounted by one of the eommercial television companies, and directed by the same young man wIlo directed a similar TV programme for the BBC, the one you Saw two years ago. We have also seen the publication, as you have, of "The Doomsday Book" Wp produced a which contains some very misleading pages on asbestos. long critique on this book, sent it both to the author


to the publishers,

unfortunately without receiving from either a satisfactory answer to the -, Hmiever when some of the distertions from points which we have raised. IIThe Doomsday Bookll were repee. ted in newspcpers BJld, magazines our letters

to the editors have put the record straight. " .'<


." ..


The rebuttal cf press cri ticism has in fact continued to h{fI an important part of our work. At least once a month we find that s~me news papers or magazines is saying foolish and misleading things about asbestos productsl for example, that the ho~o hbndyman is at risk from the use cf asbestos cement sheet, or tha t the' "hole com;nuni ty is in danger because drinking water has been delivered via asbestos-cement water pipes, or that we are all at risk because millions of vehicles use asbestos in their brake linings, or tens of tho~ands of buildings use asbestos in their construction. These attacks are by far the most dangerous. We know that there i5 no medical risk from the use of asbestos products. On the contrary, they are used beca~c

to protect the public from fire or from road accident5 end so on.

It seems

to us essentie.l ihat this particular lie is nailed whenever it appears.

one resul t of the many cm.ments that have been made on the polt... tion of the


· ...




-59environment by asbestos has been that we have thought it sensible to join the National Society for Clean Air.

We have nomina ted a representative

to sit on the Council so that we shall be in a position to challenge at souree any misleading co=ents whic!l look es if they may be emenating fro:n this souree end also to suggest a proper line to take should the subject be raised as a possible matter for a paper at a conference or for representations to Government.

I should like to conclude by pointing four morals which emerge from our experience over the past four years with this kind of work. that i t takes up time end it takes up staH.

The first is

,'e, es you l;now, rete.in

public relations consultsnts and I want to emphasise that this is of considerable value, but you must not think that the role of a consultant is to save you doing the 'lork. If you have a consultent, part of his role is to stimulate you into doing the kind of things which have to ;'e done end this will certainly meen that you spend very much more time end deploy more staff on handling the information problems surrounding asbestos then you would without a consultant.

This has certainly ceen our experience.

It is also

of course useful to have independent advice from a consultent, who sees problems more from the public'~ point of view than we do ourselves. Secondly, we have found it convenient to allocate the prime responsibility for particular sectors of _wo::-k to partieular offieers of our mamber companies. One company, for example,--lcioks after the advertising, eno,ther coordinates ~·[t~ literature end film making end draft letters to editors, ahother looks after exhibition work, displays end posters, end so-on. ,,Thirdly, we have eome to the conelusion that i t is no good relying simply on being on the defensive.

It is necessary to propagate the value of asbestos

in a very positive way end this means not only spending time end making staff available, but spending money: on advertising, on film end on literature. We CL~Ot expeet people to m~~e a fair essessment of the value of asbestos in relation to the difficulties that attend its use if they have not been told that it ~ valuable, end why it is valuable.

· ;::::<: "-,'':'':; ~.


,.",- -.. ',.:.. -,:, ._. ' .... :


: ...


;.,. '--.'~~~ ':'')'''~:''',,,,



• ••• ,'



We have only ourselves to blame if ve have not projected those advantages

to the kind 01' people who are


the important decisions.

Finally, a point that differs from the view3 that


01' you have expressed,

we must projeot the ~ positive message in each 01' our respective countries. This is because the problem is becocing more and more an international one. Science knows no frontiers nor do modern media 01' co=unications. "The Doomsday Book" was a good example 01' a publication ....hich was first produced in America but has since appeared in many languages in all our countries

and has done us some damage in all 01' them.

The book oontained many 01' the ,

false, invalid arguments-,.for the belief that asbestos seriously pollutes the urban environment.

These are arguments that we

and ....herever they appear. a ban on asbestos in



challenge whenever

We saw yesterday ho .... our A:,erican friends defeated linings.

The stand inade by one' s country' s

asbestos industry must be. supported by the others. FortunatelYt ve have a




It does prevent the worst results cf fire.

is unique.

It does save lives.

Provided .... e make sure that

other people know this we maY,be confident in the future 01' our industry.



,'-'." . ; .',._'"...\< ::':'.,:',.




' . .;,..

.. ..

.,.,-~ ......... ;



B3.IEF P3VE'H 0:' A?'I'ACKS o:r ASB,:STOS lll'll OlB n::::-E:-1SES

Hr. "'.P. R2.ines. Seeretarv .HA/HA


Attaeks A.

L•.bour Unions - Selikofr •• OSHA 1.


Pressure ror


standard tl

Labour Unions - Selikoff - Aneriean Cancer Sgeiety :..'



}lajor epidemiologieal study


LarJe funding


A.C.S. ability to gain attention

Labour Unions - Selikoff - and Loeel Agitation '

1. 2. ;. D.

l-Ianville, lIew Jersey Waukegan, Illinois Toronto, Canada

Gastrointestinel Cancer 1,":



1"l'f.!:' ."


"Natures" article and Canadian scientisi:s'


Selikoff I s position - no risk from inge'stion

Selikoff and Predictions cf "Epidemics ll 1.



?atterson, Ilew Jersey Amosite Plant and "Neighbourhood"


II Shipyard


a..,d Hesothelioma



Selikoff R!ld Ot:,er"Th::-eats" to General Publie 1.

l·fe)Jnen I ~ Coa ts frol!1 Italy

2. 3.



Tale Sehool ehildren and r.odelling compounds


. '-

....•,'.:: .•~--.: .• ~>. ""-'"''.''.''''''.'''.-~''.;'':'>'.~'''''.''' -, ,,:_-- ..: ~ - -,,~.~,

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Press - Radio - Television Interest


CBC-TV(Canada) !leI< York City Channe1 1, NE:<1 YORKER Nagazine and Paul Brodeur

4. 5. 6.

Um... :;papers



BUSlllESS ;!E3K Nagazine Radio


Customer Alarm


Ra1uh !lader


Further Governm.nt Action (Previous1y Discussed)


Work wi th Federal, State and Huniciua1 Goverrunent Officia1s 1.


Federa1 EPA Federa1 Department of Labor NIOSH




Con(;ress State Goverrunents



Present Testirnony at ImDortant Hearings


Federal EPA


Key States

S trengthen AIA/liA 1. 2.

Add new meobers Internal se~inars


'-. .



..... ~ ; ... ,


Pre"axe Li terz;.ture 1.





Cus tomers



Seek Hore Effective Wavs to Get Objective Treatment by Press, TV






Prepared TV Clips



Publicise Favourable Information


}!cDonald study,


Results of Industry Tests on Products Wear, Emissions Essential uses of ast~stos










... '



....-.• , .. ,.


pornTS PRO:·: DISCUSSL)!TS ?OLW'..:nrc ?APZ?.s




A~m !)2~NS2S


Could I ask "hat the situation is in Finland?


Shipbuilders are using asbestos, but are >;ai ting for the availabili ty

AIC,UK llR. PALOK1t!{! FlliLhND


of substitiutes. N. ROBERT JOm


Referred to the construotion of a car ferry in a French yard in which the use of asbestos was bruL~ed.


Refe.rred to a ca.,r ferry buil t in a Netherlands shipyard for TOImsend. in whieh asbestos spray was specified.


He should clarify "hat preeisely we




mean ,.,hen we say insula tion.

In the

UK this means themal insulatbn and not cabin boards.- Dr.Grut. of the Danish Inspectorate, gave the impression in Helsinl,i that while there were substitutes for asbestos in tt~=mal insulation there were no substitutes yet for asbestos based cabin boards. Dr. Grut has also registered ~~t he was impressed by the performance of . dust suppressed eloths. }:R. '..I. JO'l:ISE!I lJENNARK


There was often confusion betueen asbestos eement sheets ~~d cabin boards. fue edg.e .-'grinding" effect was believed to 'rMate dUst and this was the reason for '_the ban on asbestos cabin boards in ,~ome areas.




1.. •• I




Hr. 1l.F. HO\{e. ConIe:.:ence Chairman

I shall not attempt any detailed summing up. summarise

It deys

instead to express

It would be impossible to

of discussions in a few·minutes. ~



If I may, I propose

after listening to all the ConIerence



Wide Range of E>..-oeriences ;:.~

A very wide range of si tua tions c1.ear:j.y- exists.

At one extreme there

is a relatively tranquil situation in countries such as Belgium, Italy, At the other end, we have the embattled situations The other countries represented fall someis n.S.A. and in Britain. where between these two extremes. Germany and France.


Listening to the growing problems facing the asbestos industr1es in America, Holland, Denmark - and, of course, Britain - I believe that sooner or later the-:Vmpo will increase in all areas. In ~ opinion, it will be sooner ~;"iher than later. I would earrffi~lY counsel a11 of you to prepare ~ for greater Govcrnment interest end intervention, and for much stronger publicity attacks. American colleagues have found that time 1s not on your side. 3.

Regulations. As to future Government Regulations, i t goes wi thout say-ing that if you, through your asbestos origanisations, can participate in the preparation of those Regulations that is highly desirable.

If you

cannot participate directly,the next best thing is to ensure the opportunity to


freely on the draft Regulations at an early

· .-. ,.-'! ;". :. :-~ •..


,'e in the U.K. ",ere ur.iquely fortunate in having en active sta,ge. end reputable body like the A.R.C. in existence when the Regulations ",ere in eontemplation. \Vithout the A.R.C., end remember this is en industry-ereated body, the British Regulations would have been far more That is a point ",hieh you should all eontemplate when severe. deeiding the future direction of your various asbestos orgenisations end here may I refer to the offer of T & N assistance made last night by !-Ir. Hardie. That oHer is made also by BBA, Cape end the other eomponent companies of the.A.R.C. 4.



As to information matters, here also I sm eonvineed that, ",here ealm now prevails, it may not prevail for mueh longer. The attacke may originate (end quite suddenly) from medical journalists or medical experts in your O\l1l countries , or they may spring from the wri tings end statements of men outside like Dr. Selikoff end Rattray-Taylor or The at tacks may be directed could be inspired by Trade Unions. firstly at selected products like asbestos spray or insulation, or In my opinion, they may be directed at asbestos us~ as a whole. they will relate to environmental fears to a growing extent. Look to Your Defences··, , ,.



I would urge you all to look to your defences now. a.

Foi, '. example ,,.

Have you the right sort of organisa.tion to deal "i th the eoming attacks? (The New York T.V. film has shown how strong, how unfair end how d"""'i;"ing they cen be.)


Have you en action


end will it have adequate responsibility

end resourees, both finaneial end of technical-mediesl eharacter? c.

Will your


be ready to meet at tacks at all points, wnother

the points be asbestos cement, aobestos textiles, asbestos insulation, brake linings? (It ~ust be apparent that no asbestos usage can be regarded as safe from attack).


• .:_S·



Very important, have you selected a ~ill Raines or a Wilfred Howard as yo= seeretary-eU!ll-spokesman end is he properly trained in this task?


Have you eontaet wit:, Pu':.lie Relations Consulta!lts who ean give you sound P.R. advice and have they knowled.ge of the extent of your likely problems - both occupational and environmental?


Have you sui ta~le ltterature(perhaps like "Asbestos - Safety and Control") ready ·for when it is needed? -;... ~

None of this is cheap, either in terms of money or of execut1ve time,


but I believe that it 1s indispensable.

And please remember that the

A.R.C. end the A.I.C. either as bodies or through the component companies sre ready to help wi th advice and information in



way end at any time.

IISleeping Degs ll

Please do not think that I am being critieal of what your organisations Mve done so far. Th~'maxim "let" sleeping dogs l1e" has a good deal in its favour when the tempo is s10w and publie and press interest is light.

But sleeping dogs wake up suddenly end use their voiees and

their teeth. And)'hen they are awake they will no~~ J'leep 2.o"'2.in! That 1s a lesson whieh we have learned in Bri tain and I ~'~sure the AIA/NA , . has learned in U. S.A. We have learned the painful "way and perhaps


we can save yeu seme pain.

Yeu must nrepare in advance.

CONCLUSION Now to my eoneluding remarks.

I eertainly hope that you feel, as I feel,

that our Conferenee has been full of interest and well worthwhile.


that is the gene rally held vie" you nay well feel that a seeond International Conferenee should t~~e place at some time in the future - perhaps in 18 months or 2 years' time.

I should weleome vie~s about this after you return

>--<>'".... ~ •• "~'...'••"'.::::,.





If there is support for another Conference we in the A.I.C.

"ill be happy to take the initiative agaiJl, whether or not it should be held in Bri tain.

If' we hold a second Conference, I have an uneasy

feeling that more than 11 countries will want to be repsresented! In the meantime, I hope and believe the close friendships forged'in

those two days will haelp all ,cf uso


behalf cf the A.I.C. and the

A.R.C. may I a,,"2.in repeat .our wish to help you in any wa:y that "e can. ;.'



'--' .J




List cf Delegates

Hr. W.P. Rsines

Johns-M ..:wille Corporation, 22 East 40th Street, Hew YorE., N.-Y:. 10016

Dr. C. Fernbaoh

Frenzelit Asbestwerke

, G.rn.b.R. & Co. KG., Zweigv:erk Fr·3.n.1d'urter Asbest\lerke, 6000 Fre.ru-..i'urt "'" Hain, Hahnstrasse 2. Ur. H. }!chling

Texter G.re.b.H •• 5090 Leverkusen, Postfach 544

Dr. H. Meyer


G.C. Schrr.idt

Deutsohe Kap-Asbestwerke A.G., 2050 H=burg Postfach 80 ,/irtschaftsvel:b"'1d Asbest e. V., 6 Frankfu:rt/l{'!N'~ 50, Harbachweg 59 dl' <'

fu. H. Askevold

Jurid "lerke O:11!. b.R., 2057 Reinbek, Postfaoh 6.

I'.r. Dieter };erkel

Hartin Herkel KG., 2102 H=burg-Wilhe1msbu:rg, Postfach 930280.

}rr. Renning Sohaefter

Eterr.it A.G., Postfach 100, 1 Eerlin 11.


Eternit G.m. b.H., Neuss.


R. Skrczypczek

Eterni t A.G., Pos tfEtc;, 100 1 Eerlin 11



.. ~.~~' ' '-.": _v ..• ·A·_• .-·.~.:..: •..:..·.


... :,.'~;. _.



Associa:ione llaziona1e degli Industria1i Amiantieri, c/o'SoCieta Italiana per

A. Ca1amandrei


10096 Le::..'Oann, Tuxin. }'RAlICE

J1r. C.X. Latty

Be1dam Latty S.A., 82 rue St. Lazare,

Paris, ge.

Hr. R. Join

Chambre Syndica1e de 1 'Amiante,

10, ru~ de la P~piniere, Paris, Se. J1r. P. Con!
S.A. Fran~aise du Ferodo, , 64, avenue de la Grande Armee, Paris, 17e.

J1r. G. F10uest

Nanufactu.re de Joints Il.!Ii.iante et Caolltchouc, Viry-Cha tillon.

Hr. G. Hahut

Everi tube S .A.,


24 rue ~e Prony, Paris 17e.

Dr. J. Avri1



S.A. Frencaise du Ferodo, 64 avenue~de la Grande Armee, Paris 17e.


Hr. W. Johnsen




Dansk Eternit>rabrik DK-9100 Aa1borgf!~




Ur. Antti Pa10mäki


L. YJlutsen

Paraisten Kalle1<:i Oy, NineriVksikkö Huijala.

Norsk Eternit Fabrikk, 3470 Sle~estad.


Mr. Ake Jönoson

Skendil12.viska Et,erni t A.B. t Box 43, '-' S-234 oe> Lomma. '










• .... ~:.,,';.....•.•.. ~ ..,.,..,:.'. ... ,', ',C,,',,',i-i::,.',,:,,',",' : .\'... .:~ ..





-3HOLLlu'TIJ N.Y. Eternit,

1·1r. J. '\;an Haagen


l:ieuwe Doele:ls trna t 20/22, Amsterdam, G.

Hertel Holding N. V., Postbox 3026, Gras".g 49,

A.R. Kolff van Ovsterwijk


Amsterdam, N. BELGIW!

Eterni t S.A., Kapelle-op-den-Bos,

Dr. J. Lepoutre


Eternit S.A. Kapelle-op-den-Bos. Halines.

}Ir. A.. Eyben

UNITED KIl-:GDOH Asbestos Information Committee, Faulkncr House, Faulkner Street, Nanchester '

Hr. M.F. Howe


Dr. S. Holmes

Asbestosis Research Council, 1'.0. Box 40, Rochdale, ,




Dr. W.J. Smither


Road South,

Dagenham, Essex •

}Ir. A.A. Cross

• < ,"




Environ.:!ental ~,~rol Commi ttee,

114, Park Street: ' Lendon, WlY 4All. Hr. W.P. Howe.rd


Asbestos Information Committee, 77/79 Fountain Street, Manchester, M2 2EA.


&. D. Wright

Asbestos Information Committee, c/o Sc~~dura Ltd., 1'.0. Box 18, Cleckhoaton, Yorkshire. ~.











-; ....."



. ....


Nr. J .D. Grieve


A. Has terton-SIlli th

Nr. D.F. Brady

Asbestos Infc~aticn Co~~ittee, e/o Centra1 Asbestos Co. Ltd., Central House, Thomas Road, London, E.14. Asbestos Information Co=ittee, 10 Hardour Street, London, ,llV ,HG. B5A Group LiIllited. P.O. Box 20, C1eclr.heaton, Yorkllhire.