STRAIN MEASUREMENT

Focussing on Wind & Renewable Energy Sales and Development of Products & Systems Hamburg Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines. Strain...

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STRAIN MEASUREMENT for Wind Turbines

LEINE LINDE SYSTEMS GmbH Hamburg

● Business Unit within HEIDENHAIN-Group of Companies ● Focussing on Wind & Renewable Energy ● Sales and Development of Products & Systems

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

Strain measurement in wind turbines Critical sections for strain sensors

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

Strain measurement in wind turbines APPLICATIONS Calculation of Loads •Research & Development •Validation & Certification

Measurements of Turbine Dynamics •Mode of operation •Resonance •Condition monitoring

Turbine Control Integration •Extended monitoring •New control strategies

REQUIREMENTS Robust against •Temperature & Humidity •Lightning strike •Dirt

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

Reliability •Long lifetime •Failure detection

Installation •Easy installation •Easy exchange •Easy retrofit

State of the strain sensor art Electrical sensor

Strain gauge Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

Optical sensor

Fiber Bragg

Digital sensor for absolute position measurment

ESR x25 Series Main components

Aluminium housing Moving arm for strain measurment Velcro fastener to ease glueing process

Glueing pads

Security pads

Stressless measurement of strain between two points Passive compensation of temperature effects Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

Linear to rotary transition

ESR x25 Series Measurement principle

25bit rotary encoder Maximum sampling rate 100kHz Temperature compensation by identical measuring arm material

Basic function: Measuring the change in length between two points along the „length l“ The change in „length l“ between two fixed points is transmitted to the measuring electronics via a measuring arm

Maximum deflection of +/- 5000 µε Resolution of the strain sensor 0.025 µε calculation of dynamic structural characteristics by scanning Dl

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

ESR x25 Series Strain sensor with integrated electronics

High precision

Reliability

Integrated diagnostics

25bit single turn encoder

Sensor based on proven encoder technology and high-volume production

Temperature check

Resolution (Strain): 0.025 µε (200mm measureing length => 5nm)

Protection Class IP64

Sensor range reserve

Measurement range: ± 5000 µε (200mm measureing length => 1mm)

Lightning protection acc. IEC61400-24

Plausibility checks

Temperature compensation by adapted measurement arm

Stressless and fatigue-proof measurement

Electronical name plate

OEM memory area

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

ESR 125 Installation – adhesive version 1

Velcro fastener

2

4

3

5

Ready for use in 30-45min (incl. preparation of test point, installation, hardening) Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

PLEXUS -Adhesive

ESR 125 Recommended 2-component adhesive PLEXUS

MA 300

MA 310

Working time (at 23°C)

3 to 6

minutes

15 to 18 minutes

Fixture time (at 23°C)

12 to 15 minutes

45 to 55 minutes

+18°C…+30°C

+18°C…+30°C

Recommended temperature during application

Temperatures below 65°F (18°C) or above 85°F (30°C) will slow down or increase cure rate.

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

ESR x25 Series Sensor variants

• •

Adhesive installation Material • • •

GFRP CFRP Austenitic steel

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines





Adhesive adapater plate with threaded holes Material • • •

GFRP CFRP Austenitic steel

• •

Screw-on version Material • • •

GFRP CFRP Austenitic steel

Application examples Strain measurement on WTG-components during operation

Rotor blade • Root section • Middle section

Main frame • Generator support • Torque arms

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

Tower • Top • Bottom

ESR x25 Series

Measurement reports and certificates

Each ESR sensor is tested for proper functioning and measured for precision during manufacturing process

Based on article and serial number a quality inspection certificate is supplied with each sensor Optional: On demand a DAkkS calibration according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 can be performed

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

EMS system tests

COMPARISON:

ENVIRONMENTAL:

• Numerous comparative measurement to electrical strain gauges

• Climatic chamber tests for evalution of the sensor adhesive connection

ACCURACY:

LIGHTNING:

• Several measurements to check sensor accuracy and repeatability

• System immunity test due to lightning currenty according to IEC 61400-24

LAB TESTS

FIELD TESTS

• Measurement during rotor blade fatigue tests (>50 m)

• Various measurement campaigns on wind turbines in rotor blades and towers

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

Field test Measurement in tower bottom of a turbine

Comparison to strain gauge signals

• Good match between strain gauge and ESR • No offset-drift at high deformation levels • Better signal-to-noise ratio through larger measuring distance

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

Field test Measurement in blade root of a turbine Comparison to strain gauge signals • Good match between strain gauge and ESR • Better signal-to-noise ratio through larger measuring distance

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

Field test Rotor blade flapwise bending moments

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

Field test Rotor blade edgewise bending moments

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

Field test Rotor torque versus generator torque

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

Field test

RESULTS • Good match with strain gauge • Higher reliability compared with strain gauges (several strain gauges failed during the test) • No offset drift of the ESR • Constant accuracy at high rotor speed (in comparison to the strain gauges)

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

EMS Overview of available components and systems

Strain sensor

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

Fieldbus gateway

Data processing unit

Fieldbus-Gateways Variants

Technical data

VRG 4:1

CRG 1:1

24 VDC

24 VDC

500 mA @ 24VDC

100 mA @ 24VDC

IP 65

IP 65

-25°C…+50°C

-40 °C…+60 °C

Sensor connection

8pM12

12pM23

Fieldbus connection

5pM12

5pM12

Electrical connection

Bis zu 4x EnDat 2.2

1x EnDat 2.2

Available fieldbusses

CANopen, POWERLINK

CANopen, PROFINET, PROFIBUS, Ethernet/IP

Accessible sensor informatione

Dehnung, Temperatur, Diagnose, Typenschild

Dehnung, Typenschild

Power supply Current consumption (max.)

Protection class Operating temperature

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

Data processing unit Variant

Technical data Power supply Current consumption (max.) Protection class Operating temperature

24 VDC 2000 mA @ 24VDC IP 65 -25°C…+50°C

Gateway connection

3x M12, POWERLINK

Fieldbus connection

1x M12, CANopen

Ethernet connection

1x M12

Accessible information

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

PDB

Grafische Benutzeroberfläche mit Kalibrierung, Kurzzeit-Datenaufzeichnung, Benutzerrollen, Zustandsüberwachung, Diagnose

User Cases Software supported user cases CONFIGURATION

COMMISSIONING

NORMAL OPERATION

• Configuration of hardware setup

• Functional and fieldbus communication test

• Continous measurement of elongation

• Configuration of WTG specific parameters

• Semi-automated calibration sequence (depends on availability of SCADA signals)

• Conversion to fieldbus data

• Plausibility check on configuration settings

• Comparision of limit values and actual values

MAINTENANCE • Staff training: only awareness, no special training needed

• Condition monitoring

• Easy work with standard tool box

• Load monitoring (end limits)

• Short delivery times for spare parts

• Recording of load spectrum

• ESR electronic label for easy recognition of sensor parts

• Ice detection

• Mobile, battery driven diagnostic tools for the ESR • OEM memory space availbale (e.g. customer information)

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

MONITORING

• Structural health monitoring

Summary of benefits

EASY INSTALLTION Velcro fastening during installation

INDUSTRIAL SCALE Robust and proven strain sensor technology

Sensor installation up to 50% faster compared to conventional strain gauges Installation on different surfaces by 2K bonding

Redundant system designs allows further turbine operation and increased uptime

3-level plausibility checks secures safe operation within turbine design loads

APPLICATIONS Short-term measurments

Highly accurate strain measurement ----------------------High sampling rate (e.g. turbine dynamics, resonances, noise) ----------------------Load measurement (IEC 61400-13, DIBt, FGW)

Based on high-volume encoder technology Subsequent electronics (computing) based on reliable standard PLC technology

Easy replacement with standard tools

Sensors re-usable

RELIABILITY

Automated & scalable in-house production lines

Robust & Reliable Strain Measurement at Wind Turbines

Algorithms based on standard C libraries

Long-term measurments Operation time extension (DNVGLST-0262) ----------------------Individual Pitch Control (IPC) ----------------------Turbine control optimization