Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related Materials

Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related Materials Parti ICSCIII-N'97 Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Silicon Carbide, III-Nitride...

0 downloads 22 Views 6MB Size
Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related Materials Parti ICSCIII-N'97 Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related Materials, Stockholm, Sweden, September 1997

Editors:

G. Pensl, H. Morko$, B. Monemar and E. Janzen

TRANS T E C H PUBLICATIONS L T D Switzerland • Germany • UK • USA

Table of Contents Sponsors Committees Preface Overview

v vi viii x

PART 1: Chapter 1: SiC Bulk Growth SiC Seeded Boule Growth V. Tsvetkov, R.C. Glass, D. Henshall, D. Asbury and C.H. Carter, Jr.

3

High Purity and Semi Insulating 4H-SiC Crystals Grown by Physical Vapor Transport G. Augustine, H.McD. Hobgood, V. Balakrishna, G.T. Dunne, R.H. Hopkins, R.N. Thomas, W.A. Doolittle and A. Rohatgi

9

Sublimation Growth of 50mm Diameter SiC Wafers A.R. Powell, S. Wang, G. Fechko and G.R. Brandes

13

Experimental Investigation of 4H-SiC Bulk Crystal Growth K. Chourou, M. Anikin, J.M. Bluet, V. Lauer, G. Guillot, J. Camassel, S. Juillaguet, O. Chaix, M. Pons and R. Madar

17

Step Structures and Structural Defects in Bulk SiC Crystals Grown by Sublimation Method A. Okamoto, N. Sugiyama, T. Tani and N. Kamiya

21

Influence of the Growth Direction and Polytype on the Stacking Fault Generation in a-SiC J. Takahashi, N. Ohtani, M. Katsuno and S. Shinoyama

25

X-Ray Section Topographic Investigation of the Growth Process of SiC Crystals S. Milita, R. Madar, J. Baruchel and A. Mazuelas

29

Physical Vapor Growth and Characterization of High Conductivity 1.4 Inch 4H-SiC Bulk Crystals St.G. Müller, R. Eckstein, W. Härtung, D. Hofmann, M. Kölbl, G. Pensl, E. Schmitt, E.J. Schmitt, A.-D. Weber and A. Winnacker

33

The Structural Evolution of Seed Surfaces During the Initial Stages of Physical Vapor Transport SiC Growth V.D. Heydemann, G.S. Rohrer, E.K. Sanchez and M. Skowronski

37

Defect Formation Mechanism of Bulk SiC M. Sasaki, Y. Nishio, S. Nishino, S. Nakashima and H. Harima

41

XII

Silicon Carbide, HI-Nitrides and Related Materials

Enlargement of SiC Crystals: Defect Formation at the Interfaces M. Anikin, M. Pons, K. Chourou, O. Chaix, J.M. Bluet, V. Lauer and R. Madar

45

Impurity Incorporation During Sublimation Bulk Crystal Growth of 6H- and 4H-SiC N. Ohtani, M. Katsuno, J. Takahashi, H. Yashiro, M. Kanaya and S. Shinoyama

49

Optically Transparent 6H-Silicon Carbide A.S. Bakin, S.I. Dorozhkin, A.S. Zubrilov, N.I. Kuznetsov and Yu.M. Tairov

53

Modelling of the PVT-SiC Bulk Growth Process Taking into Account Global Heat Transfer, Mass Transport and Heat of Crystallization and Results on its Experimental Verification St.G. Müller, R. Eckstein, D. Hofmann, L. Kadinski, P. Kaufmann, M. Kölbl and E. Schmitt

57

Modeling Analysis of Temperature Field and Species Transport Inside the System for Sublimation Growth of SiC in Tantalum Container Yu.E. Egorov, A.O. Galyukov, S.G. Gurevich, Yu.N. Makarov, E.N. Mokhov, M.G. Ramm, M.S. Ramm, A.D. Roenkov, A.S. Segal, Yu.A. Vodakov, A.N. Vorob'ev and A.I. Zhmakin

61

A Coupled Finite Element Model for the Sublimation Growth of SiC P. Räback, R. Nieminen, R. Yakimova, M. Tuominen and E. Janzen

65

Studies on SiC Liquid Phase Crystallization as Technique for SiC Bulk Growth M. Müller, M. Bickermann, D. Hofmann, A.-D. Weber and A. Winnacker

69

Dissolution and Growth of Silicon Carbide Crystals in Melt-Solutions V. Ivantsov and V. Dmitriev

73

Sublimation Growth of Bulk p-SiC Crystals on (100) and (111) ß-SiC Substrates H.N. Jayatirtha and M.G. Spencer

77

Chapter 2: SiC Epitaxy 2.1 Homoepitaxial Growth SiC Epitaxial Layer Growth in a Novel Multi-Wafer VPE Reactor A.A. Burk, Jr., M.J. O'Loughlin and S.S. Mani

83

Contents

xiii

Growth of SiC Epitaxial Layers in a Vertical Cold Wall Reactor Suited for High Voltage Applications R. Rupp, A. Wiedenhofer, P. Friedrichs, D. Peters, R. Schörner and D. Stephani

89

Growth and Characterisation of SiC Power Device Material O. Kordina, A. Henry, E. Janzen, and C.H. Carter, Jr.

97

Growth and Characterisation of Thick SiC Epilayers by High Temperature CVD A. Ellison, T. Kimoto, I.G. Ivanov, Q. Wahab, A. Henry, O. Kordina, J. Zhang, C.G. Hemmingsson, C.-Yu. Gu, M.R. Leys and E. Janzen Growth of Thick Epitaxial 4H-SiC Layers by Chemical Vapor Deposition O. Kordina, K. Irvine, J. Sumakeris, H.S. Kong, M.J. Paisley and C.H. Carter, Jr. ~ ' Impurity Incorporation Mechanism in Step-Controlled Epitaxy Growth Temperature and Substrate Off-Angle Dependence T. Yamamoto, T. Kimoto and H. Matsunami

103

107

111

Nitrogen Doping Efficiency During Vapor Phase Epitaxy of 4H-SiC L.B. Rowland, A.A. Burk, Jr. and CD. Brandt

115

Boron Compensation of 6H Silicon Carbide M.S. Mazzola, S.E. Saddow and A. Schöner

119

CVD Growth and Characterisation of SiC Epitaxial Layers on Faces Perpendicular to the (0001) Basal Plane С Hallin, A. Ellison, I.G. Ivanov, A. Henry, N.T. Son and E. Janzen

123

Homoepitaxial Growth of 4H- and 6H-SiC in a Commercial Horizontal LPCVD Reactor F. Wischmeyer, D. Leidich and E. Niemann

127

Growth of 4H and 6H SiC in Trenches and Around Stripe Mesas N. Nordell, S. Karlsson and A.O. Konstantinov

131

Planar 6H-SiC p-n Junctions Prepared by Selective Epitaxial Growth K. Christiansen, T. Dalibor, R. Helbig, S. Christiansen and H.P. Strunk

135

Epitaxial Growth of SiC on a-SiC Using Si2Cl6+C3H8+H2 System S. Nishino, T. Miyanagi and Y. Nishio

139

High Growth Rate of a-SiC by Sublimation Epitaxy M. Syväjärvi, R. Yakimova, M.F. MacMillan, M. Tuominen, A. Kakanakova-Georgieva, C.G. Hemmingsson, I.G. Ivanov and E. Janzen

143

xiv

Silicon Carbide, Ill-Nitrides and Related Materials

The Effects of Growth Conditions in Dislocation Density in SiC Epi-Layers Produced by the Sublimation Epitaxy Technique A. Kakanakova-Georgieva, M.F. MacMillan, S. Nishino, R. Yakimova and E. Janzen

147

Domain Occurrence in SiC Epitaxial Layers Grown by Sublimation M. Tuominen, R. Yakimova, A. Kakanakova-Georgieva, M.F. MacMillan, M. Syväjärvi and E. Janzen

151

Epitaxy of High Quality SiC Layers by CST T. Yoshida, Y. Nishio, S.K. Lilov and S. Nishino

155

Wetting Properties and Interfacial Energies in Liquid Phase Growth of a-SiC R. Yakimova, M. Syväjärvi and E. Janzen

159

High Quality 6H- and 4H-SiC pn Structures with Stable Electric Breakdown Grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy S. Rendakova, V. Ivantsov and V. Dmitriev

163

Thick Film SiC Epitaxy for 'Filling Up' Micropipes I. Khlebnikov, V.P. Madangarli, M.A. Khan and T.S. Sudarshan

167

2.2 Heteroepitaxial Growth A New Radiation Heated 4 Inch LPCVD System for ß-SiC Heteroepitaxy H. Möller, W. Legner and G. Krötz

171

Epitaxial Growth of 3C-SiC without Carbonization Process Using 1,3-Disilabutane K.-W. Lee, K.-S. Yu, J. W. Bae and Y. Kim

175

Growth and Characterization of SiC Films on Large-Area Si Wafers by APCVD - Temperature Dependence C.-H. Wu, A.J. Fleischman, C.A. Zorman and M. Mehregany

179

CVD Growth Mechanism of 3C-SiC on Si Substrates Y. Ishida, T. Takahashi, H. Okumura, S. Yoshida and T. Sekigawa

183

Growth of Epitaxial Cubic SiC Thin Films Using Single Source Precursors J.-H. Boo, S.-B. Lee, S.A. Ustin, W. Ho, H.P. Maruska, P.E. Norris, I.-H. Kim and С Sung

187

Crystallinity of 3C-SiC Films Grown on Si Substrates K. Yagi and H. Nagasawa

191

Effects of Void Formation on Electrical and Optical Properties of 3C-SiC on S i ( l l l ) Substrates H.W. Shim, K.C. Kim, Y.H. Seo, K.S. Nahm, E.-K. Suh, H.J. Lee and Y.G.Hwang

195

Contents

xv

The Mechanism of Void Formation in the Growth of 3C-SiC Thin Film in Si Substrate Y.H. Seo, K.C. Kim, H.W. Shim, K.S. Nahm, E.-K. Suh, H.J. Lee, Y.G. Hwang, D.-K. Kim and B.-T. Lee

199

Study of Initial Stage of SiC Growth on Si(100) Surface by XPS, RHEED and SEM Т. Takaoka, H. Saito,Y. Igari and I. Kusunoki

203

Surface Morphology of 3C-SiC Heteroepitaxial Layers Grown by LPCVD on Si Substrates T. Takahashi, Y. Ishida, H. Okumura, S. Yoshida and T. Sekigawa

207

Effect of Substrate Bias on 3C-SiC Deposition on Si by AC Plasma-Assisted CVD H. Shimizu and M. Shiga

211

Mechanisms of SiC Formation in the Ion Beam Synthesis of 3C-SiC Layers in Silicon J.K.N. Lindner, W. Reiber and B. Stritzker

215

Formation and Prevention of Micropipes and Voids in CVD Carbonization Experiments on (100) Silicon R. Scholz, U. Gösele, F. Wischmeyer and E. Niemann

219

Fabrication of 3C-SiC on Si0 2 Structures Using Wafer Bonding Techniques C.A. Zorman, K.N. Vinod, A. Yasseen and M. Mehregany

223

Growth Mode and Kinetics of Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition of ß-SiC on Si(100) Substrate G. Ferro, H. Vincent, Y. Monteil, D. Chaussende and J. Bouix

227

Germanium as a Possible Surfactant for Growth of Beta Silicon Carbide on Silicon Substrates S. Mitchell, M.G. Spencer and K. Wongchotigul

231

Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of 3C-SiC on Si with Heterointerface Modification by a Si-C-Ge Ternary System T. Hatayama, T. Fuyuki and H. Matsunami

235

Heteroepitaxial Growth of SiC on Si by Gas Source MBE with Silacyclobutane J. Chen, A.J. Steckl and M.J. Loboda

239

Heteroepitaxial Growth of 3C-SiC on Surface-Structure-Controlled MBE Layer by Low-Pressure CVD M. Uchida, M. Deguchi, K. Takahashi, M. Kitabatake and M. Kitagawa

243

Formation of Pyramidal Pits at the Interface of 3C-SiC and Si(001) Substrates Grown by Gas Source MBE J. Schmitt, Т. Troffer, К. Christiansen, S. Christiansen, R. Heibig, G. Pensl and H.P. Strunk

247

xvi

Silicon Carbide, Ill-Nitrides and Related Materials

Growth of SiC Layers on (111) Si by Solid Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy J. Pezoldt, T. Stauden, V. Cimalla, G. Ecke, H. Romanus and G. Eichhorn

251

Improved Epitaxy of Cubic SiC Thin Films on S i ( l l l ) by Solid-Source MBE A. Fissel, K. Pfennighaus, U. Kaiser, J. Kräußlich, H. Hobert, B. Schröter and W. Richter

255

Observation of 3-Fold Periodicity in 3C-SiC Layers Grown by MBE U. Kaiser, P.D. Brown, A. Chuvilin, I. Khodos, A. Fissel, W. Richter, A. Preston and C.J. Humphreys

259

Chapter 3: Theory Electronic Properties of SiC Polytypes and Heterostructures F. Bechstedt

265

Band Structure Interpretation of the Optical Transitions between Low-Lying Conduction Bands in n-Type Doped SiC Polytypes W.R.L. Lambrecht, S. Limpijumnong, S.N. Rashkeev and B. Segall

271

Calculated Density of States and Carrier Concentration in 4H- and 6H-SiC С Persson and U. Lindefelt

275

Theoretical Studies on Defects in SiC P. Deäk, A. Gali, J. Miro, R. Guiterrez, A. Sieck and Th. Frauenheim

279

An ab initio Study of Native Defects in Cubic SiC: Vacancies and Stacking Faults A. Zywietz, P. Käckell, J. Furthmüller and F. Bechstedt

283

Calculation of Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities for Different Polytypes of Silicon Carbide B. Adolph and F. Bechstedt

287

Comparative Monte Carlo Study of Electron Transport in 3C, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide R. Mickevicius and J.H. Zhao

291

Calculation of the Anisotropy of the Hall Mobility in n-Type 4H- and 6H-SiC T. Kinoshita, K.M. Itoh, J. Muto, M. Schadt, G. Pensl and K. Takeda

295

The Effects of Interfacial Dipoles on the Properties of SiC-Group Ill-Nitride Hetero-Structures G. Lucovsky, H. Yang and G. Lüpke

299

Contents

Pressure-Dependent Dynamical and Dielectric Properties of GaN and AIN K. Karch, J.-M. Wagner, H. Siegle, С. Thomsen and F. Bechstedt Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Lattice-Dynamical Properties of Cubic GaN H. Sterner, A. Schewiola, K. Karch, P. Pavone, D. Strauch, H. Siegle, G. Kaczmarczyk, L. Filippidis and C. Thomsen

XVII

303

307

Electronic States of BC2N Heterodiamond (111) Superlattices Y. Tateyama, K. Kusakabe, T. Ogitsu and S. Tsuneyuki

311

From Precursor Atoms Towards Hetero-Phases: Strain-Dynamics Induced Carbon-Rich Sii_xCx Phases P. Masri, N. Moreaud, J. Calas and M. Averous

315

Chapter 4: Characterisation of SiC 4.1 Surfaces and Interfaces Large Unit Cell Superstructures on Hexagonal SiC-Surfaces Studied by LEED, AES and STM U. Starke, M. Franke, J. Bernhardt, J. Schardt, K. Reuter and K. Heinz Surface Reconstructions of 6H-SiC(0001) and Surface-Structure-Controlled Epitaxial Growth M. Kitabatake Electronic and Atomic Structure of the C-Terminated 6H-SiC Surface M. Hollering, B. Mattern, F. Maier, L. Ley, A.P.J. Stampfl, J. Xue, J.D. Riley and RC.G. Leckey Deposition of Cs on Graphitized 4H-SiC Surfaces V. van Eisbergen, H. Nienhaus and W. Mönch Theory of Si-Rich SiC Surfaces: Consequences for Epitaxial Growth J. Furthmüller, P. Käckell, F. Bechstedt, A. Fissel, K. Pfennighaus, В. Schröter and W. Richter Polarity Dependent Step Bunching and Structure of Hexagonal SiC Surfaces J. Schardt, J. Bernhardt, M. Franke, U. Starke and K. Heinz

321

327

331 335

339

343

Collective Surface Excitations in 3C-SiC(100) T. Balster, V.M. Polyakov, F.S. Tautz, H. Ibach and J.A. Schaefer

347

FTIR-ATR Analysis of SiC(OOOl) and SiC(OOOl) Surfaces H. Tsuchida, I. Kamata and K. Izumi

351

Polytype and Surface Characterization of Silicon Carbide Thin Films B. Schröter, M. Kreuzberg, A. Fissel, K. Pfennighaus and W. Richter

355

XVIII

Silicon Carbide, HI-Nitrides and Related Materials

Characterization of Mechanically Polished Surfaces of Single Crystalline 6H-SiC M. Kanaya, H. Yashiro, N. Ohtani, M. Katsuno, J. Takahashi and S. Shinoyama

359

AFM Study of In Situ Etching of 4H and 6H SiC Substrates S. Karlsson and N. Nordell

363

Surface Morphology Improvement of SiC Epitaxy by Sacrificial Oxidation C.J. Anthony, A.J. Pidduck and M.J. Uren

367

The Formation of Super-Dislocation/Micropipe Complexes in 6H-SiC J. Giocondi, G.S. Rohrer, M. Skowronski, V. Balakrishna, G. Augustine, H.McD. Hobgood and R.H. Hopkins

371

High Resolution Photoemission Study of the 6H-SiC/Si0 2 Interface B. Mattern, M. Bassler, G. Pensl and L. Ley

375

Combined Ab Initio Total Energy Density Functional Calculations and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Experiments of the ß-SiC(OOl) c(4x2) Surface L. Douillard, F. Semond, V.Yu. Aristov, P. Soukiassian, B. Delley, A. Mayne, G. Dujardin and E. Wimmer

379

Angle-Resolved Photoemission Study of the ß-SiC(100)-(2xl)-Surface H. Hüsken, B. Schröter, W. Richter, P. Käckell and F. Bechstedt

383

Self-Organized One-Dimensional Si Atomic Chains on Cubic Silicon Carbide Surface F. Semond, V.Yu. Aristov, L. Douillard, 0 . Fauchoux, P. Soukiassian, A. Mayne and G. Dujardin

387

High Resolution Photoemission Spectroscopy Using Synchrotron Radiation Study of the SiO2/ß-SiC(100)3x2 Interface Composition D. Dunham, P. Soukiassian, J.D. Denlinger, B.P. Tonner and E. Rothenberg

391

Raman Investigation of Stress Relaxation at the 3C-SiC/Si Interface J.M. Bluet, L.A. Falkovsky, N. Planes and J. Camassel

395

4.2 Structural Characterisation Extended Defects in SiC and GaN Semiconductors P. Pirouz

399

Defect Characterization of Homo-Epitaxially Grown 6H-SiC on (0001) Silicon and (0001) Carbon Faces J. Stoemenos, L. Di Cioccio, V. Papaioannou, D. David and C. Pudda

409

Contents

xix

Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigation of Defects in B-Implanted 6H-SiC P.O.Ä. Persson, Q. Wahab, L. Hultman, N. Nordell, A. Schöner, К. Rottner, E. Olsson and M.K. Linnarsson

413

The Origin of Triangular Surface Defects in 4H-SiC С VD Epilayers W.L. Zhou, P. Pirouz and J.A. Powell

417

Gaseous Etching for Characterization of Structural Defects in Silicon Carbide Single Crystals J.A. Powell, D.J. Larkin and A.J. Trunek

421

Equilibrium Growth Morphologies of SiC Polytypes St.G. Müller, R. Eckstein, R.F.P. Grimbergen, D. Hofmann and B. Rexer

425

Experimental Studies of Hollow-Core Screw Dislocations in 6H-SiC and 4H-SiC Single Crystals W. Si, M. Dudley, R.C. Glass, V. Tsvetkov and C.H. Carter, Jr.

429

Structural Characterization of SiC Crystals Grown by Physical Vapor Transport E.K. Sanchez, V.D. Heydemann, G.S. Rohrer, M. Skowronski, J. Solomon, M.A. Capano and W.C. Mitchel

433

Investigation of Polymorphism and Estimation of Lattice Constants of SiC Epilayers by Four Circle X-Ray Diffraction H. Romanus, G. Teichert and L. Spiess

437

Site Identification of 6H-SiC Using RBS/Channeling Technique M. Satoh, K. Okamoto, Y. Iwata, K. Kuriyama, M. Kanaya and N. Ohtani

441

Structural Characterization of 3C-SiC Epitaxially Grown on Si-On-Insulator V. Papaioannou, E. Pavlidou, J. Stoemenos, W. Reichert and E. Obermeier

445

4.3 Optical Characterisation Electronic Properties of Doped SiC at Elevated Temperatures Studied by Raman Scattering H. Harima, T. Hosoda and S. Nakashima

449

Optical Properties of Silicon Carbide: Some Recent Developments R.P. Devaty, W.J. Choyke, S.G. Sridhara, L.L. Clemen, D.G. Nizhner, D.J. Larkin, T. Troffer, G. Pensl, T. Kimoto and H.S. Kong

455

Boron Four Particle Acceptor Bound Exciton Complex in 4H SiC S.G. Sridhara, D.G. Nizhner, R P . Devaty, W.J. Choyke, T. Troffer, G. Pensl, D.J. Larkin and H.S. Kong

461

xx

Silicon Carbide, HI-Nitrides and Related Materials

Phosphorus Four Particle Donor Bound Exciton Complex in 6H SiC S.G. Sridhara, L.L. Clemen, D.G. Nizhner, R.P. Devaty, W.J. Choyke and D.J. Larkin , Some Aspects of the Photoluminescence and Raman Spectroscopy of (1010)- and (112 0)- Oriented 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide I.G. Ivanov, A. Henry, C. Hallin, T. Egilsson and E. Janzen

469

The Neutral Silicon Vacancy in 6H and 4H SiC E. Sörman, W.M. Chen, N.T. Son, С Hallin, J.L. Lindström, В. Monemar and E. Janzen

473

Bound Exciton Recombination in Electron Irradiated 4H-SiC T. Egilsson, A. Henry, I.G. Ivanov, J.L. Lindström and E. Janzen

477

Characterization of Deep Levels in SiC by Photoluminescence Spectroscopy and Mapping M. Tajima, Y. Kumagaya, T. Nakata, M. Inoue and A. Nakamura

481

Time Resolved PL Study of Multi Bound Excitons in 3C SiC J.P. Bergman, E. Janzen, S.G. Sridhara and W.J. Choyke

485

465

Changes in the Exciton-Related Photoluminescence of 4H- and 6H-SiC Induced by Uniaxial Stress I.G. Ivanov, U. Lindefelt, A. Henry, T. Egilsson, O. Kordina and E.Janzen Du Revisited in an Modern Guise - 6H and 4H SiC S.G. Sridhara, D.G. Nizhner, R.P. Devaty, W.J. Choyke, T. Dalibor, G. Pensl and T. Kimoto

493

Near Band-Gap Emission in V-Implanted and Annealed 4H-SiC A. Henry, T. Egilsson, I.G. Ivanov, C.I.Harris, S. Savage and E. Janzen

497

Photoluminescence and Backscattering Characterization of 6H SiC Implanted with Erbium and Oxygen Ions A. Kozanecki, C. Jeynes, B.J. Sealy, W. Jantsch, S. Lanzerstorfer, W. Heiß and G. Prechtl '

501

Luminescence Properties of Er Implanted Polycrystalline 3C SiC S.-I. Uekusa, K. Awahara and M. Kumagai

505

489

4.4 Electrical Characterisation Measurement of High Field Electron Transport in Silicon Carbide I.A. Khan and J.A. Cooper, Jr.

509

Ionization Rates and Critical Fields in 4H SiC Junction Devices A.O. Konstantinov, Q. Wahab, N. Nordell and U. Lindefelt

513

Contents

Measurement of the Hall Scattering Factor in 4H SiC Epilayers from 40K to 290K and up to Magnetic Fields of Nine Tesla G. Rutsch, R.P. Devaty, D.W. Langer, L.B. Rowland and W.J. Choyke Electrical Conductivity of Single-Crystalline Bulk 6H-SiC and Epitaxial Layers of A1N in the Temperature Range 300-2300 К D.D. Avrov, A.S. Bakin, S.I. Dorozhkin, A.O. Lebedev and V.P. Rastegaev Minority Carrier Lifetime Measurements in 6H-SiC Using the Photoconductive Decay Technique W. Zhou, I. Khlebnikov, T.S. Sudarshan, M.A. Capano and W.C. Mitchel

XXI

517

521

525

Depth- and Time-Resolved Free Carrier Absorption in AH SiC Epilayers: A Study of Carrier Recombination and Transport Parameters V. Grivickas, J. Linnros and A. Galeckas Evaluation of Auger Recombination Rate in 4H-SiC A. Galeckas, J. Linnros, V. Grivickas, U. Lindefelt and C. Hallin

533

Ground States of the Ionized Isoelectronic Ti Acceptor in SiC T. Dalibor, G. Pensl, N. Nordell, A. Schöner and W.J. Choyke

537

Radiotracer Identification of Ti, V and Cr Band Gap States in 4H- and 6H-SiC N. Achtziger, J. Grillenberger and W. Witthuhn

541

Deep Levels in SiC:V by High Temperature Transport Measurements W.C. Mitchel, R. Perrin, J. Goldstein, M. Roth, M. Ahoujja, S.R. Smith, A.O. Evwaraye, J.S. Solomon, G. Landis, J. Jenny, H.McD. Hobgood, G. Augustine and V. Balakrishna

545

Deep Level Defect Study of Ion Implanted (Ar, Mg, Cr) n-Type 6H-SiC by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy M.B. Scott, J.D. Scofield, Y.K. Yeo and R.L. Hengehold

549

529

Oxygen-Related Defect Centers in 4H Silicon Carbide T. Dalibor, G. Pensl, T. Yamamoto, T. Kimoto, H. Matsunami, S.G. Sridhara, D.G. Nizhner, RP. Devaty and W.J. Choyke Electrical Characterization of the Gallium Acceptor in 4H- and 6H-SiC T. Troffer, G. Pensl, A. Schöner, A. Henry, C. Hallin, O. Kordina and E.Janzen

557

Observation of Metastable Defect in Electron Irradiated 6H-SiC CG. Hemmingsson, N.T. Son, O. Kordina, J.L. Lindström and E. Janzen

561

Electrically Active Defects in n-Type 4H- and 6H-SiC J.P. Doyle, M.O. Aboelfotoh and B.G. Svensson

565

553

XXII

Silicon Carbide, HI-Nitrides and Related Materials

Phonon Spectrum of Band-to-Band Optical Transitions in 6H-SiC as Determined by Optical Admittance Spectroscopy S.R. Smith, A.O. Evwaraye and W.C. Mitchel

569

Electrical and Transmission Electron Microscopy Characterisation of 4H-SiC Homoepitaxial Mesa Diodes A. Czerwinski, J. Ratajczak, J. Katcki, A. Bakowski and M. Bakowski

573

High-Temperature Annealing of 6H-SiC Single Crystals and the Site-Competition Processes S.I. Vlaskina, Y.P. Lee, V.E. Rodionov and M. Kaminska

577

4.5 Magnetic Resonance Characterisation Electronic Structure of Acceptors in Silicon Carbide P.G. Baranov

581

High-Frequency EPR Studies of Shallow and Deep Boron Acceptors in 6H-SiC J. Schmidt, T. Matsumoto, O.G. Poluektov, A. van Duijn-Arnold, T. Ikoma, P.G. Baranov and E.N. Mokhov

587

On the Identification of an Al Related Deep Centre in 4H-SiC Self-Compensation in SiC? B.K. Meyer, A. Hofstaetter and P.G. Baranov

591

X-Band ENDOR of Boron and Beryllium Acceptors in Silicon Carbide A. Hofstaetter, B.K. Meyer, A. Scharmann, P.G. Baranov, I.V. Ilyin and E.N. Mokhov '

595

Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance Studies of Non-Radiative Recombination Centres in 6H SiC N.T. Son, Mt. Wagner, E. Sörman, W.M. Chen, B. Monemar and E.Janzen

599

Chromium in 4H and 6H SiC: Photoluminescence and Zeeman Studies N.T. Son, A. Ellison, M.F. MacMillan, O. Kordina, W.M. Chen, B. Monemar and E. Janzen

603

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Erbium in Bulk Silicon Carbide Crystals P.G. Baranov, I.V. Ilyin and E.N. Mokhov

607

Characterization of Defects in Electron Irradiated 6H-SiC by Positron Lifetime and Electron Spin Resonance A. Kawasuso, H. Itoh, D. Cha and S. Okada

611

ESR Studies of Defects in p-Type 6H-SiC Irradiated with 3MeV-Electrons D. Cha, H. Itoh, N. Morishita, A. Kawasuso, T. Ohshima, Y. Watanabe, J. Ко, К. Lee and I. Nashiyama

615

Contents

Distribution of Paramagnetic Defects in 3C-SiC Epitaxial Films Grown by LPCVD Method with Alternate Gas Supply T. Izumi, K. Kobayashi, E. Hirosawa, T. Kawahara and H. Nagasawa

XXIII

619

4.6 Thermal and Mechanical Properties Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the High Temperature Thermal Conductivity of Monocrystalline SiC St.G. Müller, R. Eckstein, J. Fricke, D. Hofmann, R. Hofmann, R. Horn, H. Mehling and O. Nilsson

623

Deformation of Monocrystalline 6HSiC A.V. Samant, W.L. Zhou and P. Pirouz

627

Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Thin ß-SiC Films between 80 К and 600 К E. Jansen, R. Ziermann, E. Obermeier, G. Krötz and Ch. Wagner

631

Spatial Uniformity of the Mechanical Properties of 3C-SiC Films Grown on 4-Inch Si Wafers as a Function of Film Growth Conditions K. Chandra, C.A. Zorman and M. Mehregany

635

Chapter 5: Measurement Techniques The Measurement of the Thickness of Thin SiC Layers on Silicon V. Cimalla, J. Scheiner, G. Ecke, M. Friedrich, R. Goldhahn, D.R.T. Zahn and J. Pezoldt

641

Thickness Contour Mapping of SiC Epi-Films on SiC Substrates M.F. MacMillan, P.O. Narfgren, A. Henry and E. Janzen

645

Infrared Reflectance of Extremely Thin A1N Epi-Films Deposited on SiC Substrates M.F. MacMillan, U. Forsberg, P.O.A. Persson, L. Hultman and E. Janzen

649

Cathodoluminescence of Defect Regions in SiC Epi-Films M.F. MacMillan, L. Hultman, С Hallin, LG. Ivanov, A. Henry, E. Janzen and S.A. Galloway

653

Contactless Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Thin SiC Layers S. Rohmfeld, M. Hundhausen and L. Ley

657

Cross-Sectional Micro-Raman Spectroscopy: A Tool for Structural Investigations of Thin Polytypic SiC Layers T. Werninghaus, D.R.T. Zahn, R.A. Yankov, A. Mücklich and J. Pezoldt

661

A Non-Destructive Technique for High Field Characterization of Gate Insulators in SiC MOS Capacitors V.P. Madangarli and T.S. Sudarshan

665

XXIV

Silicon Carbide, HI-Nitrides and Related Materials

Raman Determination of Stresses and Strains in 3C-SiC Films Grown on 6-Inch Si Substrates С. Hagiwara, K.M. Itoh, J. Muto, H. Nagasawa, K. Yagi, H. Harima, K. Mizoguchi and S. Nakashima Author Index Keyword Index

669