Principles of Environmental Engineering and …

Principles of Environmental Engineering and Science ... INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 11. ... A Short Outline of...

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Principles of Environmental Engineering and Science Second Edition

Macken%ie L. Davis Michigan State University-East Lansing

Susan J. Masten Michigan State University-East Lansing, MI McMaster University-Hamilton, ON

fB McGraw-Hili

t:M Higher Education Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA New York San Francisco SI. Louis Bangkok Bogot8. Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi Santiago Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto

Contents

Preface Acknowledgments Aboutthe Authors About the Cover Artist

1 1-1

1-2

WHAT IS ENVJRONMENTAL SCIENCE?

2

2

2

2

WHAT IS ENVIRONMENTAL

ENGINEERING?

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Overview Hydrology Water Treatment Wastewater Treatment Air Pollution Control Solid emd Hazardous Waste

1-4

HOW ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERS

AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTISTS

WORK TOGETHER

1-5

INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLES OF

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

AND SCIENCE

1-6

1-7

ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION

AND REGULATION ENVIRONMENTAL ETH[CS Case I: To Add 01' Nut 10 Add Case 2: You Can 't Do Everything At Once

iv

3

3

3

3

3

4

4

8

9

2 2-1 2-2

22

22

23

31

01'

Not tu MTBE?

INTRODUCTION BASIC CHEMICAL CONCEPTS Atoms, Elements, and the Periodie Table Chemical Bonds and Intermolecular Forces The Mole, Molar Units, and Aetivity Units Chemical Reaetions and Stoiehiometry Chemieal Equilibrium Reaetion Kinetics

2-3

2-4

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

2-5 2-6

33

33

34

36

37

44

56

61

62

63

63

WATER CHEMISTRY

64

SOlL CHEMTSTRY ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY

64

65

66

69

75

Chapter Review Problems Discussion Questions References

76

78

80

81

86

86

Biology

89

Case Study: Poison Warer?

90

91

Fundamentals

3

32

32

Allwnes, Alkenes, and Alkynes Aryl (Aromatic) Compounds Funetional Graups and Classes of Compounds Physical Properties of Water States of Solution Impurities Concentration Units in Aqueous Solutions

01' Suspensions Buffers

10

19

[9

23

24

25

29

Chemistry Case Study: To MTBE

9

11

Where Do We Start? 11

A Short Outline ofThis Book 11

ENVIRONMENTf\L SYSTEMS OVERVIEW 12

Systems as Such 12

Water Resource Management System 13

Air Resource Managemel1/ System 17

[7

Solid Waste Management Multimedia Systems 19

[9

Sustainability

Acts, La ws, ell1d Regulations

1-8

xv

I

Engineering Environmental Engineering

1-3

XIV

Introduction Natural Scienee Environmental Science Quamitative Environmental Seience

Chapter Review Problems Discussion Questions References

xi

XIII

(~r Gases

3-1

INTRODUCTION

3-2

CHEMTCAL COMPOSITION OF LIFE Carbohydrates Nuc/eie Acids Proteins Lipids

91

91

93

96

96

Contenl;

:M)

23 24



-)

29

3-4

ENERGY AND METABOLlSM Cells, MalIei; and Energy

3-5

CELLULAR REPRODUCTION The Cell Cycle Asexual Reproduclion Sexual Reproduetion

98 100 101 103 109 109 109 110 IJ2 1/2 IJ4 1/4

DIVERSITY OF L1VING THINGS

1/5

PROKARYOTES Archaea Baeleria

116 117 117 120 120 122 125

31

32 'J

'-

3-6 3-1

3-8

3-9

3-10 3-11 3-12 .16 ,9

5

THE CELL Prokaryoles and Eukaryoles Cell Membrane Ce/! Organelles of Eukaryoles Cell Organelles of Plal11 Cells Ce/! Organelles (!f Prokaryoles

PROTISTS Protozoa Algae Slime Molds and Water Molds

MICROBIAL DISEASE

125 125 125 125 126 126 127 128

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS Chapter Review Discussion Questions References

129 130 131 132

Materials and Energy Balances

J33

FUNGI Chytridiomycola Zygomycola Aseomycota Basidiomyeola Deuleromyceta VIRUSES

Reoclors Reaelor Analysis

4-4

5

4

1

:6

b

4-1 4-2

INTRODUCTION

4-3

MATERIALS BALANCES Fundamenlais Time os a FaClor More Complex Syslems Efficiency The S,a,e ofMixing lncluding Reaetions

UNIFYING THEORIES Conservation of MaIleI' Conservalion of Energy Conservalion 01 Maller and Energy

134 134 134 134 134 135 135 136 137 140 143 145

v

149 150 158 158 159 166 168 169 176 177

Ecosystems

179

Case Sludy: DDT-Curse 01' Blessing?

180 18J 181

5-1

INTRODUCTION Ecosyslems

5-2

HUMAN INFLUENCES ON ECOSYSTEMS

181

5-3

ENERGY AND MASS FLOW Bioaccumulation

182 187

5-4

NUTRIENT CYCLES Carbon Cyc/e Nilrogen Cyc/e Phosphorus Cyc/e Sulfur Cyc/e

189 189 190 193 194

5-5

POPULATION DYNAMICS BaClerial Population Growlh Animal Populalion Dynamics Human Populalion Dynan,ies

195 195 197 202

5-6

LAKES: AN EXAMPLE OF MASS AND ENERGY CYCLING IN AN ECOSYSTEM Slratifieatio/1 anel Tumover i/1 Deep Lakes Biologieal Zones Lake ProduClivily EUlrophicalion

205 206 207 208 212

ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS TO PROTECT ECOSYSTEMS Chapter Review Problems Discussion Questions References

2J4 215 216 219 219

6 ()

ENERGY BALANCES FirSI Law ofThermodynamics Fundamentals Second Law ofThermodynamics Chapter Review Problems Discussion Questions References

I

5-1

6

6-1 6-2

Risk Perception, Assessment, and Management 221 Case Sludy: No Swimming!

222

INTRODUCTION

222

RISK PERCEPTION

222

vi

I

Contents

6-3

RISK ASSESSMENT Data Collection and Evaluation Toxicity Assessmen/ Exposure Assessl11en/ Risk Characlerization

225

225

231

237

RISK MANAGEMENT Chapter Review Problems Discussion Questions References

238

238

239

241

241

Hydrology

243

Case Study: The Dying ofa Sea

244

7-1

FUNDAMENTALS OF HYDROLOGY The Hydrological Cycle

246

246

7-2

MEASUREMENT OF PRECIPITATION,

EVAPORATION, INFILTRATION, AND

STREAMFLOW Precipilation Evaporation Infiltralion Streamfiow

254

254

257

260

262

7-3

GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY Aquifers

264

265

7-4 7-5

GROUNDWATER FLOW

269

WELL HYDRAULICS Definition ofTerms Cone of Depression

273

273

275

6-4

7

Environmen/allmpacts Terrain Effec/s Suslainable Energy Sources Energy Conservo/ion

306

8-3

MINERAL RESOURCES Rese,-ves Environmentalll11pacts Resource COl1serva/ion

310

310

3J J

312

8-4

SOlL RESOURCES El1.ergy Storage Plant Production

3J5

315

315

8-5

PARAMETERS OF SOlL SUSTAINABILITY Nutrient Cycling Soil Acidit)' Soil Salinity Tex/ure and Structure

3 I6

316

318

318

319

8-6

SOlL CONSERVATION SoU Man.agement SoU Erosion Chapter Review Problems Discussion Questions References

3\9

319

320

326

326

328

328

224

7-6

SURFACE WATER AND GROUNDWATER

AS A WATER SUPPLY 280

7-7

DEPLETION OF GROUNDWATER

AND SURFACE WATER Water Use Land Subsidence Chapter Review Problems Discussion Questions References

9 Water Quality

Management 9-1

9-2

28\

28\

28J

283

284

286

286

8 Sustainable Energy, Mineral and Soil Resources

289

Case Study: A New Precious Metal-Copper!

290

8-1

INTRODUCTION Sustainable Development

290

290

8-2

ENERGY RESOURCES Coal Fonnation Petroleum Formation Fossil Fuel Reserves Nuclear Energy

291

29J

292

293

295

290

299

2<)9

9-3

331

Case Swdy: There She Slows!

332

INTRODUCTION

334

WATER POLLUTANTS

AND THEIR SOURCES Point Sources Nonpoint Sources Oxygen-Demanding Material Nutrients Pathogenic Organisms Suspended Solids Salts Pesticides Pharl11aceuticals and Personal Care Produc/s Enducrin.e-Disrupting Chel11icals

Other Organic Chemicals Arsenic Toxic Metals Heat Nanopanicles

335

335

335

335

336

338

338

339

339

341

342

343

343

344

345

346

WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

IN RIVERS Effect of Oxygen-Demanding H0stes

on Rivers Biochemical Oxygen Demand

346

347

347

Contents

91';

Laboratory Measurement of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Additional Notes on Biochemical Oxygen Denwnd Nitrogen Oxidation DOSag Cun1e Effect ofNutrients Oll Water Qualit)' in Rivers

tl9 99 6 10 10

I1 12

9'-4

5 )5

WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN LAKES Control of Phosphorus in Lakes

lli

Acidification of Lakes

:1:'

352 355 356 357 373

()

GROUNDWATER QUALITY Contaminant Migration in Groundwaters Chapter Review Problems Discussion Questions

6

References

374 374 378 385 386 389 389 393 394 399 399

Water Treatment

403

Case Study: Walkerton-The Town Where Kids Died jrom E. coli

404

16

9-5

8

9-6 9-7

9 ()

9

WATER QUALITY IN ESTUARIES WATER QUALITY IN OCEANS

1<)-7

.6

10-8

10-1

INTRODUCTION Water Qualiry Physical Charoueristics

Chemical Characteristics Microhiological Characteristics Radiological Charaeteristics U.S. Water Quality Standards Water Classification and Treatment Systems

10-2

RAPID MIXING. FLOCCULATION. AND COAGULATION Col/oid Stability and Destabilization

Coagulants Mixing and Floeculation

10-3

10-4

SOFTENING Hardness Lime-Soda Softening Ion-Exchange Softening SEDIMENTATION Overview Determination of Sel/ling Velociry (v s) Determination of Overflow Rate (vo)

10-5

FILTRATION

10-6

DISINFECTION Disinfection Kineties Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products

405 407 408 408 408 409 409 410 412 413 413 416 419 419 425 428 430 430 431 433 434 437 438 438

Chlorine Reactions in Water Chlorine Dioxide Ozonation Vltroviolet Radiation

440 441 441 442

OTHER TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR DRINKING WATER Membrane Processes Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) Carbon Adsorption Aeration

442 442 443 443 443

WATER PLANT RESIDUALS MANAGEMENT Mass-Balance Analysis Sludge Treatment Vltimate Disposal Chapter Review

References

444 445 446 451 451 452 454 455

Wastewater Treatment

457

Case Study: Cuyahoga River Burning

Problems Discussion Questions

11

10

I vii

11-1

INTRODUCTION Wastewater Treatment Perspective

458 459 459

11-2

CHARACTERISTICS OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER Physical Characteristics Chemical Characteristics Characteristics of lndustrial Wastewater

460 460 460 461

11-3

WASTEWATER TREATMENT STANDARDS Pretreatment of lndustrial Wastes

11-4

ON-SITE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS Alternative On-Site Treatment anel Disposal Systems with Water On-Site Treatment Clnd Disposal Systems for Vnfavorable Site Conditions Other On-Site Treatment and Disposal Options Alternative On-Site Treatment-Dispusal Systems Without Water

11-5

MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

11-6

UNIT OPERATIONS OF PRETREATM ENT Bar Rocks Grit Chambers Macerators

Equalization

463 464 465 465 469 471 471 473 474 474 474 476 476

viii

I

Contents

11-7 11-8

PRIMARY TREATMENT UNIT PROCESSES OF SECONDARY TREATMENT Overview Role ofMicroorganisms Population Dynamics AClivated Sludge Trickling Filters Oxidation Ponds Rotating Biological Contactors

11-9 11-10

DISINFECTION ADVANCED WASTEWATER TREATMENT Filtration Carbon Adsorption Phosphorus Removal Nitrogen Control

11-11

LAND TREATMENT FOR SUSTAINABILITY Slow Rate Overland Flow Rapid Injiltration

11-12

SLUDGE TREATMENT Sources and Characteristies of Various Sludges Solids Compwations Sludge Treatment Processes

11-13

12 12-1

500 500 501 501 502 503 505 505 505 505

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS Effects on Materials Effects on Vegetation Effeets on Health

12-5

ORIGIN AND FATE OF AIR POLLUTANTS Carbon Monoxide Hazardous Air Pol/utants (HA Ps) Lead Nitrogen Dioxide Photoehemieal Oxidants Sulfur Oxides Partieulates

12-6

MICRO AND MACRO AIR POLLUTION Indoor Air Pol/ution Acid Rain Ozone Depletion Global Warming

12-7

AIR POLLUTION METEOROLOGY The Atnwspherie Engine Turbulence Stability Terrain Effeets

12-8

ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION Faetors Affecting Dispersion ofAir Pol/ulants Dispersion Modeling

529 529 :HO

531 536 536 537 537 537 5JR 5JX 540 540 540 544 546 547 555 555 556 557 559 561

Ultinwte Disposal Land Spreading Landjilling Dedicated Land Disposal (DLD) Utilization Sludge Disposal Regulations Chapter Review Problems Discussion Questions Rel'erences

Air Pollution

523

WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY

Case Study: The Fog

524 525 525 525

Chapter Review Problems Discussion Questions References

582 583 584 585 586

Solid Waste Engineering

589

Case Study: Too Mueh. Waste, Tao Lillle Spaee

590 591 592

SLUDGE DISPOSAL

INTRODUCTION FUNDAMENTALS Pressure Relationships and Units of Measure Relativity Adiabatic Expansion and Compression

12-3

481 48] 481 482 483 495 497 499 500

12-4

506 506 508 515 515 515 515 515 515 515 516 5]7 521 521

Air Pollution Perspective

12-2

480

AIR POLLUTION STANDARDS

12-9 12-10

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL OF STATIONARY SOURCES Gaseous Pol/utants Flue Gas Desulfurization Control Technologiesfor Nitrogen Oxides Particulale Pollutanls Control Teehnologies for Mercury

12-11

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL OF MOBILE SOURCES Engine Fundamentals Control ofAutomobile Emissions

12-12

525 525 525 526

INDOOR AIR QUALITY MODEL

13 13-1

INTRODUCTION Magnitude of the Problem

561 562 568 571 571 574 575 576 579 579 579 58!

Contents

.'

529 529 530 531 536 536 537 537 537 538 538 540 540 540 544 546 547

68

13-2 13-3 13-4 13-5

CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLID WASTE

593

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

596

SOLID WASTE COLLECTION

596

WASTE AS RESOURCE Background and Perspective Green Chemistry and Green Engineering Recycling Composting Source Reduction

597 597 598 598 602 603

13-6

SOLID WASTE REDUCTION Combustion Processes Types of lncinerators Public Health and Environmentallssues Other Thermal Treatment Processes

604 604 606 608 609

13-7

DISPOSAL BY SANITARY LANDFILL Site Selection Operation Environmental COllsiderations Leachate Methalle ami Other Gas Production Lalldfill Design Landfill CIosure Chapter Review Problems Discussion Questions References

609 610 611 613 613 617 620 62J 621 622 624 624

Hazardous Waste Management

627

I

I

14

71

71 74 5 6

Case Study: Not a Good Time atthe Beach

628

14-1

INTRODUCTION Dioxins and PCBs

628 628

14-2

EPA'S HAZARDOUS WASTE DESIGNATION SYSTEM

14-3

RCRA AND HSWA Congressional Actions 011 Hazardous Waste Cradle-to-Grave COl!cept Generator Requiremellts Transporter Regulations Treatment, Storage, ond Disposal Requiremel1ls Underground Siorage Tanks

631 631 631 633 634

CERCLA AND SARA The Supe/fund Law The National Priority List The Hazard Ranking System The National COl1lingency Plan Liability Supe/fund Amendments and Reauthorization Act

638 638 638 638 639 640

9

"9 9 I

;3

14-4

14-5

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT Waste Minimization Waste Exchange Recycling

641 641 644 644

14-6

TREATMENT TECHNOLOG IES Biological Treatment Chemical Treatment Physical/Chemical Treatment Incineration StaIJi/ization-Solidification

645 645 647 650 655 662

14-7

LAND DISPOSAL Deep Weil InjeClion Land Treatment The Secure Landfill

662 662 663 663

14-8

GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION AND REMEDIATION The Process of Contamination EPA 's Groul1dwater Remediation Procedure Mitigation and Treatmenl Chapter Review Problems Discussion Questions References

667 667 667 669 676 677 682 682

Noise Pollution

685

15-1

INTRODUCTION Properties ofSound Waves Sound Power and Illtensity Levels and Ihe Decihel Characterization of Noise

686 687 688 689 691

15-2

EFFECTS OF NOISE ON PEOPLE The Hearing Mechanism Normal Hearing Hearing Impairment Damage-Risk Criteria Speech Inte1erence Annoyance Sieep Interference Effecis on Pe10rmance Acoustic Privacy

695 695 698 700 702 702 703 704 705 705

15-3

RATING SYSTEMS Goals of a Noise-Rating System The LN Concept The Leq Concept The Ldn Concept

706 706 706 707 708

15-4

COMMUNITY NOISE SOURCES AND CRITER1A Transportation Noise Other Internal Combustion Engines Construction Noise

708 708 709 710

15

630

635 637

640

I ix

X

I

Contents

Zoning and Siring Considerarions Levels ro Proreet Healrh and Welfare

15-5

TRANSMISSION OF SOUND

OUTDOORS

Inverse Square lLlw Radiarion Fields ofaSound Souree DireCliviry Airborne Transmission

711 712

15-6

TRAFFIC NOISE PREDICTION Lcq Prediction Ldn Predieriol1

15-7

NOISE CONTROL Souree-Parh-Reeeiver Coneepr Conrra! 0/ Noise Souree by Design Noise Conrral in rhe Transmission Path Conrral ofNoise Souree by Redress Prareer rhe Receiver Chapter Review Problems Discussion Questions References

712 712 714 714

715

716 716 716 717 717

717 719 721 721

722

723

726

727

lonizing Radiation

729

FUNDAMENTALS

Aromic Srrueture Radioaerivily and Radiarion Radioacrive Decay Radioimropes Fission The Produerion of X-Rays Radiarion Dose

730 730

731

733

736

737

738 740

BIOLOGlCAL EFFECTS OF

IONIZING RADIATION

Sequenria! Pallern of Bi%gical Effeers Dererminanrs of Biologieat Effeets

742 742

742

16 16-1

16-2

Aeute Effecrs Relarion ofDose ro Type ofAeute

Radiation Syndrome Delayed Effeers Generie Effecrs

16-3 16-4

RADIATION STANDARDS RADIATION EXPOSURE Exrernal and Inrernal Radiarion Hazards Natural Background X-Rays Radionuclides Nuclear Reaeror Operarions RadioaClive Wasres

16-5

RADIATION PROTECTION Reduerion 0/ Exrernal Radiarion Hazards Reduerion of Inrernal Radiarion Hazards

16-6

RADlOACTIVE WASTE Types of Wasre Managemenr of High-Level RadioaClive Wasre Wasre Isolarion Pilor Planr Managemenr of Law-Level

Radioaerive Wasre Lang-Term Managemenr and Containmenr Chapter Review Problems Discussion Questions References

744

744

745

747

748

750

750

750

751

752

752

753

753

753

757

758

758

759

760

760

763

765

766

767

767

Appendix

A

Credits Index

Propenies of Air. Water, and

Selected Chemieals

769

775

777