Organic-Inorganic Heterojunction White Light

Preface This thesis discusses the design, fabrication steps and characteristics of organic-inorganic hetero junction white Light Emitting Diode (LED) ...

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LiU-ITN-TEK-A--08/022--SE

Organic-Inorganic Heterojunction White Light Emitting Diode Lubuna Beegum Shafeek 2008-02-19

Department of Science and Technology Linköping University SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden

Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap Linköpings Universitet 601 74 Norrköping

LiU-ITN-TEK-A--08/022--SE

Organic-Inorganic Heterojunction White Light Emitting Diode Examensarbete utfört i Elektronikdesign vid Tekniska Högskolan vid Linköpings unversitet

Lubuna Beegum Shafeek Handledare Magnus Willander Examinator Magnus Willander Norrköping 2008-02-19

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© Lubuna Beegum Shafeek

Master Thesis

Organic-Inorganic Hetero Junction White Light Emitting Diode

SHAFEEK LUBUNA BEEGUM

Preface This thesis discusses the design, fabrication steps and characteristics of organic-inorganic hetero junction white Light Emitting Diode (LED) and the physics behind their performance. It also contains some introduction and properties of Zinc Oxide and conjugated polymer. Since my line of work mostly consisted of fabricating the new devices, this document does not contain large amounts of theory behind the device. The first chapter introduces the basic idea about the LED. In second chapter you could read some of the different properties and synthesize methods of Zinc Oxide. Conjugated polymers and their properties are described in the third chapter. In the fourth chapter you can find the theory and LED structure use and this chapter also gives an idea about different materials used in this device fabrication process. In the fifth chapter you could find different device structures and fabrication steps of the device. In final chapters I conclude my work and give some future possible research in the organicinorganic LEDs.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This master thesis has been carried out within the physical electronics group at ITN, Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, Sweden. Many people have helped me and influenced my work in many ways and I would like to express my sincere thanks to the following people: My examiner Prof. Magnus Willandar for giving me the opportunity to work in the field of organic-inorganic heterojunction LEDs. I would like to thank him for many discussions, encouragement and optimism on new ideas. My Supervisor, Associate Professor Dr. Omar Nour, for valuable guidance and support and discussions. Despite of his busy schedule he found time to get me familiarized with SEM, wet etching, RIE and parameter analyzer. He not only supported with my master thesis work but also he helped me a lot to in my other academic issues. Amal Wadesa, Ph D Student, for all the fruitful discussions and help in the Laboratory and being a good colleague through out this thesis work. Co-worker, Raja Sellapan, for his co-operation, help and discussions both in theory and practical work. Lili Yang, Ph D student for showing m e ZnO nanorods growth mechanism. Dr. Peter Klason, Gothenburg University for giving me some tips on how to grow good quality ZnO nanorods. Lars Herlogsson PhD student from organic electronics group for teaching me how to handle the spin coating machine. Fredrik Jakobsson, PhD student, from organic electronics group for his support to get me familiarized with some instruments in the lab. My parents, brother, sister and all family members and all in my spouse’s family for all encouragements and support. Finally my loving husband Shafeek Anwarudeen for all endless support, patience and encouragements and my sweet naughty son Shalu Shafeek for love and giving my life a new dimension.

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ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis work is to design and fabricates organic-inorganic hetero junction White Light Emitting Diode (WLED). In this WLED, inorganic material is ntype ZnO and organic material is p-type conjugated polymer. The first task was to synthesise vertically aligned ZnO nano-rods on glass as well as on plastic substrates using aqueous chemical growth method at a low temperature. The second task was to find out the proper ptype organic material that gives cheap and high efficient WLED operation. The proposed polymer shouldn’t create a high barrier potential across the interface and also it should block electrons entering into the polymer. To optimize the efficiency of WLED; charge injection, charge transport and charge recombination must be considered. The hetero junction organicinorganic structures have to be engineered very carefully in order to obtain the desired light emission. The layered structure is composed of p-polymer/n-ZnO and the recombination has been desired to occur at the ZnO layer in order to obtain white light emission. Electrical characterization of the devices was carried out to test the rectifying properties of the hetero junction diodes.

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Abbreviation list 1 LED

Light Emitting Diode

2 WLED

White Light Emitting Diode

3 ZnO

Zinc Oxide

4 HTL

Hole Transporting Layer

5 ETL

Electron Transporting Layer

6 EL

Emitting Layer

7 LD

Laser Diodes

8 UV

Ultra Violate

9 DBE

Deep Band emission

10 ABE

Acceptor Bound Excitons

11 PL

Photo Luminescence

12 GL

Green Luminescence

13 RL

Red Luminescence

14 HMT

Hexa Methyl Tetramine

15 ACG

Aqueous Chemical Growth

16 ZNH

Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate

17 VB

Valance Band

18 CB

Conduction Band

19 Eg

Energy gap

20 HOMO

Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital

21 LUMO

Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital

22 SCL

Space-Charge-Limited

23 PEDOT

Poly (3, 4-Ethylene Dioxy Thiophene)

24 PSS

Poly (Styrene Sulfonate)

25 NPD

N, N-Di-(1-Naphthalenyl)-N, N-Diphenyl-1-Diamine

26 BCP

2, 9-Dimethyl-4, 7-Dimethyl-1, 10-Phenanthroline

27 PVK

Poly9-Vinylcarbozole

28 PTCDA

3, 4, 9, 10-Perylene Tetra Carboxylic Dianhydride

29 PFO

Poly 9, 9-Di-n-octyl-9H-fluorene

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Contents

1 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………

1

2

ZINC OXIDE-INORGANIC LAYER…………………………

3

2.1 Introduction……………………………………………………

3

2.2 Selected ZnO Properties………………………………………

4

2.3 Degects in Zno………………………………………………..

5

2.4 Electrical properties of undoped ZnO…………………………

6

2.5 Charge Transport in ZnO………………………………………

7

2.5 Optical properties of ZnO………………………………………

8

2.6 Growth procedure………………………………………………

9

CONJUGATED POLYMER………………………………………

13

3.1 Introduction………………………………………………………

13

3.2 Electronics structure of the conjugated polymer………………..

13

3.3 Charge carrier……………………………………………………

15

3.4 Energy band………………………………………………………

18

3.5 Charge transfer……………………………………………………

20

3.5.1 Variable range hopping conduction……………………….

21

3.6 Effect of disorder…………………………………………………

22

3.7 Optical properties…………………………………………………

23

LED STRUCTURES…………………………………………………

25

4.1 Introduction……………………………………………………….

25

4.2 Device structure…………………………………………………..

26

4.3 Electrode interfaces……………………………………………….

27

4.4 Charge injection and charge transport……………………………

29

4.5 Electron-hole recombination and light emission…………………

30

3

4

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4.6 Materials Used……………………………………………………

31

4.6.1 PEDOT-PSS ……………………………………………

31

4.6.2 α –NPD………………………………………………….

32

4.6.3 PVK …………………………………………………….

33

4.6.4 PFO………………………………………………………

34

4.6.5 PTCDA ………………………………………………….

35

4.6.6 TFB………………………………………………………

36

PROCESSING OF LED………………………………………………

37

5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………

37

5.2 Substrate Cleaning…………………………………………………

38

5.3 Preparation of polymer solution…………………………………

38

5.3.1 Wettability…………………………………………………

39

5.4 Cover up (mask) positive contact…………………………………

40

5.5 Spin coating………………………………………………………

40

5.6 ZnO nano rods growth……………………………………………

41

5.7 Insulation layer coating………………………………………….

42

5.8 Photo Resist Etching………………………………………………

42

5.9 Negative electrode deposition……………………………………

42

5.10 Positive electrode deposition……………………………………

43

5.11 Testing……………………………………………………………

43

5.12 Different structures of LED………………………………………

43

5.12.1 Device 1: NPD/PTCDA/ZnO…………………………….

44

5.12.2 Device 2: NPD/BCP-PVK BLEND/ZnO………………..

50

5.12.3 Device 3: TFB/PFO/BCP-PVKBLEND/ZnO………….

54

5.12.4 Device 4: NPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO……………………….

56

5.12.5 Device 5: TFB/PFO/ZnO………………………………….

60

6 CONCLUTION…………………………………………………………..

63

7 FUTURE WORKS……………………………………………………….

68

5

8 REFERENCES……………………………………………………….......

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List of figures Figure 2.1: Wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO……………………….

5

Figure 2.2: Energy levels of native defects in ZnO. ……………….

6

Figure 2.3: (a) ZnO nano wires grown with out seeding layer (b) ZnO nano wires grown with seeding layer……….

10

Figure 2.4: SEM images of ZnO nano wires grown in different concentration of growth solution a) 0.06 mole\ liter b) 0.02 mole\liter c) 0.04 mole\liter d) 0.09 mole\liter…………………….

11

Figure 2.5: Unwanted growth on the top of vertical nano-rods…………

12

Figure 2.6: Vertically aligned ZnO nano rods grown on plastic………

12

Figure 3.1: a) 1s Atomic orbital b) 2s Atomic orbital c) 2p Atomic orbital…

14

Figure 3.2: sp2 Hybridization ……………………………………………….

14

Figure 3.3: a) Sigma bond b) pie bond (π)……………………………….

15

Figure 3.4: Schematic representation of soliton in polyacetylene From the top: neutral, positive, and negative ……................

16

Figure 3.5: Schematic representation of aromatic and quinoid structure….

17

Figure 3.6: Schematic representation of quasi particles: positive polarone (P+) Negative polarone (P-), positive bipolarone (BP++) and negative bipolarone (BP--) …………………………………

17

Figure 3.7: Conductivities of different materials…………………………….

18

Figure 3.8: Difference in band gap energies in three different types of materials 19 Figure 3.9: Variable range hopping……………………………………………

21

Figure 3.10: Schematic representation of photoluminescence and electroluminescence………………………………………

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23

Figure 4.1: Schematic structure of LED…………………………………….

26

Figure4.2: Schematic structure of hetero-junction LED……………………..

26

Figure 4.3: Simple schematic representation of energy level diagram of single layer organic-inorganic device……………………………

28

Figure 4.4: Space charge limited current………………………………………

29

Figure 4.5: Thermionic /or field injection (contact limited current)…………..

30

Figure 4.6: Chemical structure of PEDOT:PSS……………………………….

31

Figure 4.7: Chemical structure of NPD……………………………………….

33

Figure 4.8: Chemical structure of PVK……………………………………….

34

Figure 4.9: Chemical structure of PFO………………………………………..

34

Figure 4.10: Chemical structure of PTCDA…………………………………… 35 Figure 4.9: Chemical structure of TFB………………………………………… 36 Figure 5.1: Energy band diagram of NPD/PTCDA/ZnO on PEDOT:PSS…….. 44 Figure 5.2: (a) optical microscope image of NPD film coated on the top of PEDOT:PSS (b) PTCDA film coated on the top of NPD… 45 Figure 5.3: ZnO nano-rods on PEDOT:PSS\NPD\PTCDA NR at a) 0 degree b) 20 Degree on plastic substrate…………………… 46 Figure 5.4: I-V characteristics of NPD/PTCDA/ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated plastic substrate……………………………

47

Figure 5.5: (a) ZnO nano-rods on PEDOT:PSS\NPD\PTCDA a)NR at 0 Degree on glass (b) 20 degree tilted view……………... 48 Figure 5.6: I-V characteristics of NPD/PTCDA/ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated plastic substrate…………………………….. 49 Figure 5.7: Energy band diagram of NPD\PVK-BCP BLEND\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS…………………………………………………… 50

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Figure 5.8: optical microscope image of PVK-BCP blend film coated on the top of NPD…………………………….

51

Figure 5.9: ZnO nano-rods on PEDOT:PSS\NPD\BCP-PVK-blend -NR at a) 0 Degree b) 22 Degree on plastic substrate…………

52

Figure 5.10: I-V characteristics of NPD\PVK-BCP blend\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated plastic substrate……………

53

Figure 5.11: ZnO nano-rods on PEDOT:PSS\NPD\BCP-PVK-blend -NR at a) 0 Degree b) 22 degree on glass…………………………

53

Figure 5.12: Energy band diagram of NPD\PVK-BCP BLEND\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS………………………………………….

54

Figure 5.13: a) ZnO nano-rods on PEDOT:PSS\TFB\PFO\BCP-PVK-blend a)NR at 0 degree b) NR at 20 degree…………………….

55

Figure 5.14: I-V characteristics of TFB\PFO\PVK-BCP blend\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated plastic substrate. …………………

55

Figure 5.15: I-V characteristics of TFB\PFO\PVK-BCP blend\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated on glass substrate………………………………………….

56

Figure 5.16 Energy band diagram of NPD\ PFO\PTCDA\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS. 57 Figure 5.17: a) ZnO nano-rods on PEDOT:PSS\NPD\PFO\PTCDA a)NR at 0 Degree b) NR at 22 Degree……………………………. 58 Figure 5.18: I-V characteristics of NPD\PFO\PTCDA\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated on glass substrate…………………………..

59

Figure 5.19: I-V characteristics of NPD\PFO\PTCDA\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated on plastic substrate……………………………………….

59

Figure 5.20: Energy band diagram of TFB/PFO/ZnO on PEDOT:PSS……….

60

Figure 5.21: ZnO nano-rods on PEDOT:PSS\TFB\PFO a) NR at 0 degree and b) NR at 22 degree………………………..

x

61

Figure 5.22: I-V characteristics of TFB\PFO\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated on glass substrate a) Linear scale and b) Log scale…………

61

Figure 5.23: I-V characteristics of TFB\PFO\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated on plastic substrate a) Linear scale and b) Log scale………….

62

Figure 6.1: Current-Voltage characteristics comparison between three devices NPD/PTCDA/ZnO, NPD/PVK-BCP/ZnO and NPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO…………………………………

63

Figure 6.2: Current-Voltage characteristics comparison between three devices in logarithmic scale NPD/PTCDA/ZnO, NPD/PVK-BCP/ZnO, andNPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO……………

64

Figure 6.3: Current-Voltage characteristics comparison between two devices TFB/PFO/ZnO and TFB/PFO/PVK BCP/ZnO…….

64

Figure 6.4: Current-Voltage characteristics comparison between two TFB/PFO/ZnO and TFB/PFO/PVK BCP/ZnO in log scale….

65

Figure 6.5: Current-Voltage characteristics, comparison between all five NPD/PTCDA/ZnO, NPD/PVK-BCP/ZnO, NPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO, TFB/PFO/ZnO and TFB/PFO/PVK BCP/ZnO…………………

xi

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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

The relatively new field of organic-inorganic electronics offers a variety of exciting technological opportunities. Put into use different but well-established materials into existing technologies often leads to dramatic improvement in functions and/or cost. Inorganic materials offer the potential for a wide range of electronic properties, magnetic and dielectric transitions, substantial mechanical hardness, and thermal stability. Organic molecules, on the other hand, can provide high fluorescence efficiency, plastic mechanical properties, ease of processing and structural diversity. Organic compounds generally have a number of disadvantages, including poor thermal and mechanical stability. Room temperature mobility is fundamentally limited by the weak Van der Waals interactions between organic molecules. The long life time, high efficiency, small size and short reaction time of Light Emitting Diode (LED) will make feasible alternative to conventional light sources. Now LEDs play prominent role in displays, indicators, control panels, signs, decor lights, back lighting, panel indication, decorative illumination, emergency lighting, animated signage etc. Light from a typical incandescent bulb must be filtered so that only light from a particular part of the spectrum (red, amber or green, etc...) is visible. While LEDs deliver 96% of their energy as colored light, incandescent bulbs waste 90 percent or more of their energy in light blocked by the colored lens or filter [1]. The key strength of LED lighting is reduced power consumption. When designed properly, an LED circuit will approach 80% efficiency that means 80% of the electrical energy is converted to light energy. The remaining 20% is lost as heat energy. The main limitation to the adoption of white LED lighting as a lighting standard is the current high cost of LED bulb [2]. I am confident that if this White Light Emitting Diode (WLED) works out the cost will keeps going down. Combination of organic inorganic structure gives high performance electro luminescence device that contains the advantages of both organic and inorganic semi conductors such as high luminescence efficiency of organic material and high carrier density, mobility, steady chemical properties and physical strength of inorganic material [3]. The

architecture of LED consists of the p-type polymer and the n-type Zinc Oxide (ZnO) sandwiched between two metallic electrodes. The device discussed in this thesis encompass organic-inorganic WLED, it consists of a positive and a negative electrodes, organic Hole Transporting Layer (HTL), inorganic Electron Transporting Layer (ETL) and the Emitting Layer (EL). Injection of holes of positive electrode in to the polymer layer must be matched by the injection of the electron from the negative electrode in to the inorganic layer [4]. By introducing barriers for charge transport at the hetero-junction between the organic and inorganic layer, we can control the rate of electrons and holes [5]. To optimize the efficiency of LED; charge injection, charge transport and charge recombination must be considered. Operation of the LED takes place, when injection of the electrons and the holes in the semi conducting layer under the application of a voltage in forward bias between two electrodes [4]. Capture of oppositely charged carrier will result in the formation of exciton and this can decay radioactively to produce emission spectra [6].

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Chapter 2

ZINC OXIDE-INORGANIC LAYER 2.1 Introduction ZnO semi conducting nano-rods with controlled dimension and morphology will be beneficial for the fabrication of electronic and optical nano-devices. ZnO has wide band gap of 3.37 eV at room temperature makes it suitable for short-wavelength optoelectronic devices, including LEDs and Laser Diodes (LD). ZnO can be used for optical waveguides, transparent electrodes, transistors, spintronics, UV detectors, nano-generators, acousto-optic devices, surface acoustic wave transducers etc. [7]. One main problem of utilizing ZnO in photonic devices is the lack of stable reliable p-type dopants impurity for this material. Despite intensive research to develop a reliable stable p-type impurity scenario, no real success is reported till today. Nature of n-type conductivity in undoped ZnO is due to the impurities of some native defects and non-controllable impurities introduce during the growth. These defects results green band in ZnO luminescence spectra maintaining a broad peak around 470 to 530 nano meters. The advantages of ZnO are being explored by depositing n-type ZnO films on ptype material (p-n hetero structure). ZnO has the ability to sustain the large electric field, low noise generation, high temperature and high power operation. The energy distribution of electrons in ZnO is unaffected by low electric field. ZnO has two emission spectrums in the Ultra Violate (UV) and the visible region. So we can use it as a light-emitting layer, which emits white light [8]. Table 2.1 compares key properties of ZnO with those of competing compound semiconductor materials currently in use. ZnO has a high exciton binding energy of 60 meV that renders it more applicable for making room-temperature light emission and UV laser devices. This also gives ZnO strong resistance to high temperature electronic degradation during the operation.

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Crystal

Lattice parameters Band Gap

Material

structure

A

C

ZnO

Wurtzite

3.25

5.207 3.37

ZnS

Wurtzite

3.82

ZnSe

Zinc blend

GaAs

Exiton Binding Dielectric constant

Energy (eV) Energy(meV)

ɛ(0 )

ɛ(g)

60

8.75

3.75

6.261 3.80

30

9.6

5.7

5.66

…… 2.70

20

9.1

6.3

Zinc blend

5.65

…...

1.43

4.2





GaN

Wurtzite

3.19

5.185 3.39

21

8.9

5.35

6H_SiC

Wurtzite

3.18

15.117 2.86



9.66

6.52

Table 2.1: Comparison of some wide band gap semiconductor material properties. 2.2 Selected ZnO Properties [9] * Molecular mass ………….……….....................

81.389

* Specific gravity at room temp…………………..

5.642 g/cm3

* Crystal Structure……...…………........................ Wurtzite, rack salt and zinc blend * Lattice constants at room temp…………………

a=3.250, c=5.205

* Mohs hardness………………….........................

4

* Melting point …………………………………… 2250 K * Electron mass …………………………………... 0.28 * Hole mass……………………….… …………

1.8

* Band gap energy at room temperature…………

3.37 eV

* Exciton binding energy…………………………

60 meV

* Specific heat…………………………………….

0.125 cal/gm

* Thermal conductivity…………….

0.006 cal/cm/K

…………

* Thermoelectric constant at 573 K……………..

1200 mV/K

* RT linear thermal expansion coefficient………

a-axis direction 4.75 c-axis direction 2.92

4

The crystal structures shared by ZnO are wurtzite, zinc blend, and rock salt. At ambient conditions, the thermodynamically stable phase is wurtzite. Wurtzite zinc oxide has a hexagonal structure with lattice parameters a = 0.3296 and c = 0.520 65 nm. The structure of ZnO can be simply described as a number of alternating planes composed of tetra-hedrally coordinated O2− and Zn2+ ions, stacked alternately along the c-axis and is shown in figure 2.1. The tetrahedral coordination in ZnO results in non-central symmetric structure and consequently piezoelectric and pyroelectric.

Figure 2.1: Wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO (from ref [10]).

2.3 Defects in ZnO The control of defects and the associated charge carriers are highly important in applications that exploit the wide range of properties of doped ZnO. In nano structured ZnO, the small length scales and large surface-to-volume ratio mean that surface defects play a stronger role in controlling properties. ZnO has a relatively open structure with a hexagonal close packed lattice where Zn atoms occupy half of the tetrahedral sites. All the octahedral sites are empty. Hence, there are plenty of sites for ZnO to accommodate intrinsic defects and extrinsic dopants. The electronic energy levels of native imperfections in ZnO are illustrated in figure 2.2. There are a number of intrinsic defects with different ionization energies.

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There are number of defects within the band gap of ZnO. The donor defects are Zni**,Zni*,Znix,V0**,V0*,V0 and the acceptor defects are VZn”, VZn’,Vo’,Vo’’. The defect ionizations energy varies from 0.05 to 2.8 eV [10]. Because of the different ionization energies, the relative concentrations of the various defects depend strongly on temperature. However, the partial pressure of oxygen and zinc, pO2 and pZn, are also very important. Hence, under very reducing conditions and at high temperatures, oxygen vacancies may predominate, depending on the relative pO2/pZn ratio.

Figure 2.2: Energy levels of native defects in ZnO. (From ref [11]).

2.4 Electrical properties of undoped ZnO ZnO is associated with a large band gap material that includes higher breakdown voltages, ability to sustain large electric fields, lower noise generation, and high temperature and high-power operation. The electron transport in semiconductors can be considered for low and high electric fields. At sufficiently low electric fields, the energy gained by the electrons from the applied electric field is small compared to the thermal energy of electrons, and therefore, the energy distribution of electrons is unaffected by such a low electric field. Since the scattering rates determining the electron mobility depends on the electron distribution function. Electron mobility remains independent of the applied electric field and Ohm’s law is obeyed. When the electric field is increased to a point where the energy gained by the

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electrons from the external field is no longer negligible compared to the thermal energy of the electron. Then electron distribution function changes significantly from its equilibrium value. These electrons become hot electrons characterized by an electron temperature larger than the lattice temperature [l2].

2.5 Charge transport in ZnO For semiconducting materials, a transport property yields the carrier concentration, its type, and carrier mobility. Hall Effect is the most widely used technique to measure the transport properties. The Hall coefficient and resistivity are experimentally determined and then related to the electrical parameters for n-type conduction RH = rH / ne

(2.1)

And μH = RH / ρ

(2.2)

Where n is the free-electron concentration, e is the unit electronic charge, μH is the Hall mobility, and rH is the Hall scattering factor that is depend on the particular scattering mechanism that limits the drift velocity. Crystal mobility is related to the scattering time by μ = q τ \ m*

(2.3)

Where m* is the electron effective mass, q is the electronic charge, and τ is the relaxation time averaged over the energy distribution of electrons. The major scattering mechanisms that generally govern the electron transport in ZnO are as follow: 1 Ionized impurity scattering 2 Polar LO-phonon scattering

3 Acoustic-phonon scattering 4 Piezoelectric scattering 5 Dislocation scattering 6 scattering through defects 7

Nominally undoped ZnO with a wurtzite structure naturally becomes an n-type semiconductor due to the presence of intrinsic or extrinsic defects, which were generally attributed to native defects, such as the Zinc on Oxygen antisite (ZnO), the Zn interstitial (Zni), and the O vacancy (VO) [13]. 2.6 Optical properties of ZnO ZnO has two main emission bands in its photoluminescence spectrum. These are a sharp ultra violet band centered at around 380nm, and another broadband called the green emission band or Deep Band Emission (DBE). Intrinsic optical transition takes place between the electrons in the conduction band and holes in the valance band including exciton effect. Extrinsic optical properties are related to dopants or defects, which usually create discrete electronic states in the band gap which influence both optical absorption and emission process. Many different models were proposed to explain the nature of the DBE. The optical properties of a semiconductor are mainly due to the intrinsic and extrinsic effects. Intrinsic optical transitions take place between the electrons in the conduction band and holes in the valence band, including excitonic effects due to the coulomb interaction. There are two types of excitons named as free and bound excitons. An electronic state of the bound excitons depends on semiconductor material. In theory, excitons could be bound to neutral or charged donors and acceptors. In ZnO conduction band is mainly constructed from the s-like state that has Г symmetry. The valence band is a p-like state, which split into three bands due to the influence of crystal-field and spin-orbit interactions [14]. The near-band-gap intrinsic absorption and emission spectrum is thus dominated by transition from valence bands. The related freeexciton transitions from the conduction band to valence bands or vice versa. For a shallow neutral-donor bound exciton, for example, the two electrons in the BE state are assumed to pair off into a two-electron state with zero spin. The additional hole is then weakly bound in the net hole-attractive Coulomb potential set up by this bound two-electron aggregate. In high-quality bulk ZnO substrates, the neutral shallow DBE often dominates because of the presence of donors due to unintentional or doped impurities and/or shallow donor like defects.

8

Similarly, shallow-neutral Acceptor Bound Excitons (ABE) is expected to have a two hole state derived from the top most valence band and one electron interaction. Other defect-related transitions could be seen in the optical spectra such as free to bound electron-acceptor, bound to bound donor-acceptor, and the so-called yellow/green luminescence [15]. Besides strong and rich exciton-related emissions in the photon energy range of 3.25–3.4 eV, Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of undoped high-quality ZnO usually contains a sharp peak at about 3.22 eV followed by at least two LO-phonon replicas. This emission has been attributed to the DAP transitions involving a shallow donor and a shallow acceptor [16]. The nature of the Green Luminescence (GL), appearing at about 2.5 eV in undoped ZnO, remained controversial for decades. Strong evidence was presented in favor of the oxygen vacancy (VO) as the defect responsible for the GL band. The structure less GL band with nearly the same position and width may be related to a native point defect such as VO or VZn. A Red Luminescence (RL) band emerged at about 1.75 eV in the PL spectrum of undoped bulk ZnO. The samples grown by the ACG shows relatively lower emission efficiency. When ZnO is grown at high temperature, a lot of intrinsic defects are introduced in the structure and these defects are responsible for the light emission. In order to get some idea why the optical efficiency is not identical from different samples grown by different growth approaches you could read the information in appendix 1.

2.7 Growth procedure Aqueous chemical growth method allows growth of nano-rods and other nanostructures at relatively low temperatures. The solution contained equimolar amounts of analytic grade Hexa Methylene Tetramine (HMT) (C6H12N4) and reagent grade Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate (ZNH) (Zn (NO3)26H2O) in deionized water at concentrations between 0.02 and 0.08 mol\ l. The growth time was 5 h at a temperature of 96 ◦C. (CH2) 6N4 + 6H2O ↔6HCHO + 4NH3

(2.4)

NH3 + H2O ↔NH4+ + OH-

(2.5) 9

2OH- + Zn2+ → ZnO(s) + H2O

(2.6)

Hydroxide ions are formed by the decomposition of HMT and they react with the Zn2+ to form ZnO. This method operates at low temperature and a homogenous coverage of nanorods can be achieved over large areas of the substrate. This idea for the synthesis of ZnO nano-rods is mostly based on a two-step process including the deposition of a crystal seed layer/film on the substrates and subsequent aqueous chemical growth. The pre-obtained seeding layer of ZnO film would have some effect on the morphology and the size of the ZnO nanostructures [17, 18]. For this type of growth, a ZnO seed layer is needed to initialize the uniform growth of oriented nano-rods. Figure 2.3 shows the SEM pictures of ZnO nano-rods with and with out seeding layer. ZnO nano rods grown with out seeding layer do not have uniform growth but if we deposit a seeding layer before growing nano-rods then we will have a uniform growth. Indeed by applying repeated seed coating of the substrates we could achieve a better control of nano rods growth.

(a)

(b)

Figure 2.3: ZnO nano-rods (a) grown with out seeding layer (b) grown with seeding layer.

10

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 2.4: SEM images of ZnO nano wires grown with different concentration of growth solution a) 0.06 mole\litre b) 0.02 mole\litre c) 0.04 mole\litre d) 0.09 mole\litre.

Concentration of the growth solution also plays an important role in growth. Figure 2.4 below shows the different structures of ZnO in different concentration. If we increase the growth time the length of the nano-rods also increase. But if we increase the growth time a certain limit then probability of getting some unwanted growth on the top

11

vertical nano-rods is also increases. Figure 2.5 shows that there is some unwanted growth on the top of vertical nano-rods.

Figure 2.5: Unwanted growth on the top of vertical nano-rods.

Figure 2.6: Vertically aligned ZnO nano rods grown on plastic. It is very important that we should have the proper concentration of the growth solution, temperature and growth time and seeding layer to get uniformly aligned vertical nano-rods. Figure 2.6 shows vertically aligned ZnO nano rods grown on plastic substrate.

12

Chapter 3

CONJUGATED POLYMER

3.1 Introduction A polymer is a material whose molecules contain a very large number of atoms linked by covalent bonds, which makes polymers macromolecules. Polymers consist mainly of identical or similar units joined together. Usually the biggest differences in polymer properties result from how the atoms and chains are linked together in space. Conjugated polymers are organic macromolecules which consist at least of one backbone chain of alternating double- and single-bonds. The conductivity of conjugated polymers can be varied. Electronically conducting polymers are extensively conjugated molecules, and it is believed that they possess a spatially delocalized band-like electronic structure. These bands stem from the splitting of interacting molecular orbital’s of the constituent monomer units in a manner of the band structure of solid-state semiconductors. It is generally agreed that the mechanism of conductivity in these polymers is based on the motion of charged defects within the conjugated framework. The charge carriers, either positive p-type or negative n-type, are the products of oxidizing or reducing the polymer respectively. Like inorganic semiconductors they can be doped, to increase their conductivity extremely [19].

3.2 Electronics structure of the conjugated polymer The basic building blocks of the organic molecule are carbon. If carbon atoms are connected as consecutive single and double bonds then it is called conjugated polymers. The properties of conjugated polymer are directly associated with conjugation of polymer backbone. The carbon atom has six electron, electronic configuration of carbon atom consist of 2 electrons in 1s orbital (1s2), 2electrons in 2s orbital (2s2) and 2 electrons in 2p orbital (2p2) and are shown in figure 3.1 below. The electrons in the core orbital do not contribute to the chemical bonding. The carbon can form single, double or triple bonds through different hybridizations (linear combinations) of valance electronic orbital that is 2s and 2p orbital [20]. Linear combination of different atomic orbital will leads to equivalent hybrid orbital to minimize the total energy of the formed compound. 2 electrons from 2s orbital and one

13

electron from 2p orbital make sp2 hybridised orbital and remaining forth electron from 2p orbital resides in pz orbital and are shown in figure 3.2.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 3.1: Schematic representation of atomic orbital a) 1s b) 2s c) 2p.

Figure 3.2: Sp2 hybridization (from ref [21]).

14

When two atoms bond through hybridized orbital, two different types of bond exist called sigma bond (σ) and pie bond (π) are shown in figure 3.3. The main chain of conjugated polymer is formed by σ bonds through the sp2 hybridized orbital and are symmetrical about the axis joining to the two nuclei. The remaining pz orbital form π bonds and is orthogonal to the plane of σ bonds. Sigma (σ) bond is stronger than π bond because the spatial overlap of orbital is larger for σ bonding. The electrons in σ bond is localized where as the electrons in the π - orbital can be delocalized over several carbon atoms. Depending on the overlap of the π - orbital the range of the delocalization differs and the extension of the delocalization defines the conjugation length of the polymer. The electronic wave function is delocalized along the polymer chain so it enables charge carriers (polarons\bipolarons) are move quite freely a certain distance (the conjugation length) along the chain. Hybridization of the polymer determines their electronic properties.

(a)

(b)

Figure 3.3: Different types of bond a) Sigma (σ) bond b) pie bond (π) (From ref [21]).

3.3 Charge carrier Polymers may have different ground state geometry, the so called degenerate ground state and non-degenerate ground state. In the former case an inter change of single and

15

double bonds does not change the total ground state energy for example polyacetylene. But in second case an interchange of the carbon-carbon single and double bonds will change the total grounds state energy. Depending on the symmetry of the ground state different charge carrying species can be found in conjugated polymer such as solitons, polaron, and bipolarons. In degenerate ground state geometry bond alternation disruption may be leads to a new state called soliton. Soliton has no charge but it has spin. The charge can be added or withdrawn from this state leads to positively or negatively charged solitons and are shown in figure 3.4 below. Photo excitation, chemical doping or charge injection may induce the solitons state. The bond alternations could expand over the polymer chain unless it stopped by some defects.

Figure 3.4: Schematic representation of soliton in polyacetylene: from the top: neutral, positive, and negative (from ref [21]). Most conjugated polymers have a non-degenerate ground state so the formation of solitons would convert the polymer geometry to a more quinoid structure. That is addition of extra charges to the polymer would leads to the polymer chain deform such that single and double bonds exchange places to form quinoid structure shown in figure 3.5. The quinoid structure has higher total energy than aromatic structure and that energy is proportional to the extension of bond alternation distortion. The extension of quinoidal structure is localized therefore a single isolated quasi particle is created so called polarons. Polaron states are single-electronic state accompanied by surrounding lattice distortion. Polaron posses a single charge with normal spin-charge relation ship (spin1\2 and singly charged).

16

Figure 3.5: Schematic representation of aromatic and quinoid structure (From ref [21]). Electronic structure of this isolated system consists of two new energy levels with in the forbidden energy gap. When an electron is added to the conduction band, there will be a geometric relaxation and two new electronic states are created. An added electron will create a negative polarons and added hole creates a positive polaron. At higher doping levels pair of polarons can interacts and form doubly charged spin less state called bipolaron. Total energy of the bipolaron is lower than the energy for two separate polarons. The possible combinations are shown in figure 3.6 below.

Figure 3.6: Schematic representation of quasi particles: positive polarone (P+) Negative polarone (P-), positive bipolarone (BP++) and negative bipolarone (BP--) (from ref [21]).

17

3.4 Energy band For a conduction to take place in conventional, inorganic semiconductors, electrons must generally be excited from the valence to the conduction band. Normally, thermal excitation at room temperature gives rise to some conductivity in many inorganic semiconductors. However, unlike the widespread inorganic compounds, doped polymers are semiconductors as a result of their unique, extended π-conjugation. Indeed the extended-overlap π-bands become the valence band and the π* bands become the conduction band in Conducting Polymers (CPs). The π-conjugated system is formed by the overlap of carbon Pz orbitals and alternating carbon-carbon bond lengths and is the common electronic feature of undoped conducting polymers. The semiconducting behavior of polymers originates from these delocalized π-orbitals formed in carbon-containing compounds. According to the conductivities at room temperature materials are classified as conductor, semiconductor and insulator. The conductivity of conjugated polymers can range from insulating to conducting materials and are shown in figure 3.7 below.

Figure 3.7: Conductivities of different materials.

18

Conjugated polymer has a moderate conductivity so it acts like a true semiconductor. If it is doped properly, conductivity value reaches those of metals. The energy difference between Valance Band (VB) and Conduction Band (CB) is called forbidden Energy gap (Eg). Semi conducting materials have a similar structure as compared to insulators at very low temperatures. Forbidden energy gap is absent in metals so electrons pass easily in to the conduction band. For insulator separation between two energy bands is very large. Three classes of materials are illustrated schematically in terms of their energy band in figure 3.8. Conjugated polymers have similar structure but the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) energy level that is the top of the valance band is distinctly separated from the Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) energy level. The conductivity of polymer increases with increase in temperature because the enhancement of hopping probability between the localised site along the polymer chain and in between different chains. Certain conjugated polymers can be doped reversibly to p- or n- type. The doping procedures are usually carried out by exposing polymer films or powders to vapors or solutions of the dopant. Most doped CPs have conductivities ranging from 10-2 to 104 S/cm, some nearly as high as coppers (5 × 105 S/cm).

CB CB CB E N E R G Y

BAND GAP

VB Conductor

VB

VB

Semi Conductor

Insulator

Figure 3.8: Difference in band gap energies in three different types of materials (From Ref [22]).

19

The electrical conductivity σ can be defined as a sum of two terms σ = (ne μe + pe μh )

(3.1)

Where n and p is the density of charge carriers (n for electrons and p for holes) in cm-3, E is the unitary charge (C) and μ is the mobility of the charge carriers. The mobility μ of the charge carriers is the average speed of diffusion |ν|, or net drift velocity, of the charge carrier (cm/s) as a function of applied electric field (V/cm) μ = |ν|/E

(3.2)

3.5 Charge transfer The charge transport through conjugated polymer is different from inorganic materials. In undoped conjugated polymers, the band gap Eg is large. So, the thermal excitations are negligible, that is the concentration of carrier does not increase with T. However, the conductivity increases with temperature like in organic crystals. From the order of magnitude of the band gap and the conductivity, most un doped conjugated polymers are rather like insulators but these organic polymers do have a conjugated π-system, as a result, they have a low ionization potential (usually lower than ~6eV) and/or a high electron affinity (lower than ~2eV). Charge transfer between the polymer chain and dopant molecules is easy. Inter chain conduction is carried out through the phonon-assisted tunneling between localized states. That is charge can jump to a near by site with the aid of phonons. In organic crystals and highly ordered organic thin films at low temperature regime band-like transport similar to inorganic semiconductors total width and shape of valence and conduction bands formed by interacting HOMO and LUMO levels determine e-and h+ mobility. But in high temperature regime phonon-scattering decrease effective bandwidth charges become localized to single chains/molecules.

20

3.5.1 Variable range hopping conduction [22]

According to the doping level, the charge carrier density and the nature of the charge carriers can be tuned. At moderate doping level and room temperature, charge carriers in an organic crystal are localized. The energy levels involved in the transport from one site to the other (empty, filled or half filled) by hopping are spread over an energy range. This situation is similar to disordered inorganic semiconductors that are slightly doped. In those materials, the charge transport can be described with the variable range hopping. The energy difference between filled and empty states is related to the activation energy necessary for an electron hop between two sites. The charge transport occurs in a narrow energy region around the Fermi level. The charge can hop from a localized filled to localized empty states that are homogeneously distributed in space and around εf. That is with a constant density of states N (ε) over the range [εf – ε0, εf – ε0] and is shown in figure 3.9.

Figure 3.9: Variable range hopping ref [22]. In the semi-classical electron transfer theory by Marcus, the rate of charge transfer between two sites i and j is:

21

KijET ∞ t2 exp (-ΔEij \ kT)

(3.3)

t

(3.4)

∞ exp (- rij \ 2 r0)

ΔE is the activation energy, t is the transfer integral, the localization radius r0 in Mott’s theory appears to be related to the rate of fall off of t with the distance rij between the two sites i and j. The hopping probability from site i to site j in a narrow band formed by doped molecule is given below: P (r, t) ∞ exp- ((rij \ ro) + (- ΔEij \ kT))

(3.5)

kET is proportional to the mobility μ of the charge carrier and the conductivity of the entire system is determined in order of magnitude by the optimal band (States out of the band only slightly contribute to σ).

Average hopping length is the average distance rij between states in the optimal band and it can be calculated by using the formula below < r > ∞ [N (εf) ε0max]-1\3 ∞ r 0 (T0 \ T)1\4 (3.6) As T decreases, the hopping length grows. Indeed, as T decreases, the hopping probability decreases, so the volume of available site must be increased in order to maximize the chance of finding a suitable transport route.

3.6 Effect of disorder [23] Polymer films always have disorder (no perfect crystals), defects cause the wave functions to be localized in a particular region of the film (or part of a polymer chain). Wave functions undergo elastic scattering at defects and interference between the waves creates localization. So this defect can stop or reduce the conductivity. The amplitude of the wave

22

function will then have exp (-R/λ) dependence where R is the distance from the centre of the wave and λ is the localization length. Anderson localization model assumes energetic disorder in homogeneous structure. Well-ordered regions act as charge-reservoirs. Charge carriers that leave the region feels a potential energy difference that acts to prevent the carrier to go back into the reservoir. Mobility will depend heavily on transport between the grains, path length (l), number of jumps between one grain to another and number of paths between the grains [24]. Strategy for improving mobility decrease number of jumps between grains and increases the number of paths connecting the grains.

3.7 Optical Properties of Conjugated Polymer The exited electrons drop back from the LUMO in to HOMO and emitting a photon in the process this phenomenon is called fluorescence. Electroluminescence is created up on recombination of electrons and holes where those two charges have been injected from the electrodes. In the case of photoluminescence the exciton is created up on photo excitation. The

figure

3.10

shows

Schematic

representation

of

photo

luminescence

electroluminescence.

Figure3.10: Schematic representation of photoluminescence and electroluminescence. 23

and

In light emitting devices light is generated not by the absorption of photon but by the combination of a positive or negative polarone or bipolarone. There is a fundamental difference between the formations of excitons by absorption of light and by combination of polarons. The ground state of a molecule carries net spin S=0, and so it is singlet state. The angular momentum of a photon interacts with the orbital angular momentum of the molecular wave function (this leads to parity alternation selection rule). Though to a first approximation, photon angular momentum does not interact with spin angular momentum, and thus cannot flip electron spins. Therefore absorption of a photon can only generate singlet exactions [25]. In electrical generation polarons can combine to form triplet as well as singlet excitons. There are three combinations leading to a triplet and only one leading to a singlet. If polaron-polaron capture were independent of mutual spin orientation, only one out four electrically generated excitons would be able to yield electroluminescence, this limits the efficiency of EL devices.

24

Chapter 4

LED STRUCTURES 4.1 Introduction An LED consists of a p-type and an n-type semiconductor material sandwiched between two metallic electrodes. When sufficient voltage is applied to the LED, electrons in the n-type material and holes in the p-type material can move easily between the p and n regions. When an electron moves sufficiently close to a positive charge, the two charges are recombined and the LED emits light. In my thesis work, I used a conjugated polymer as a ptype and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as an n-type semiconducting material. Since organic material is good for hole mobility and inorganic material is good for electron mobility, it is possible to fabricate a high performance hetero structure electroluminescence device. Hetero junction between organic-inorganic materials is designed such that radiative recombination occurs in the ZnO layer. One main problem of utilizing ZnO in photonic devices is the lack of stable reliable p-type dopants impurity for this material. On the other hand organic semi conducting polymers are among the best candidates for light emitting devices [26]. The electro luminescence efficiency of or organic light emitting devices depends on the carrier injection and recombination efficiencies and the balance between the electron and hole current densities. In general the mobility of holes is much larger in most of the semi conducting polymer

and

this

causes

misbalance

in

the

current

densities

and

hence

the

electroluminescence efficiency. In-organic semiconductor has high carrier concentration with high mobility. This implies that a well-engineered organic-inorganic hetero junction can provide an efficient electroluminescence device.

25

4.2 Device structure In LED devices, n-type ZnO that is an inorganic material works as an electron transport as well as light emitting layer and p-type conducting organic polymer material as hole transporting and electron blocking layer. Typical architecture of LED is shown in figure 4.1. Hole injected from positive electrode can be transported through the polymer layer and the electrons are injected from negative electrode transport through ZnO layer. Oppositely charged carrier recombines in ZnO layer and emits light. To get efficient electro luminescence in the white light wavelength, we must have a good balancing of electron and hole current and efficient capture of electron and hole within the ZnO layer.

EIL

Negative electrode (Al)

ETL/EL

Electron transporting and light emitting layer (ZnO)

HTL

Hole transporting layer (organic polymer)

HIL

Positive electrode (PEDOT:PSS) Substrates (Plastic or glass)

Figure4.1: Schematic structure of hetero-junction LED. Alternative structure of hetero-junction device is also suggested; ZnO nano-rods are grown on n-type Si layer gaps between ZnO nano rods are filled with an insulator. Then ptype polymer layer is spin coated on top of it. The resulting structure is shown in Figure 4.2.

HIL Insulator ZnO (ETL) N-type Si

Figure 4.2: schematic structure of LED.

26

4.3 Electrode interfaces The charge carrier injection and transport of charge carriers is an issue of practical importance for semiconductor devices. Light emitting devices require the injection of carriers of both types from different electrodes. Injection of charge from most electrode materials requires that charges surmount or tunnel through a barrier at the interface. This is expected on examination of the positions of the electrode metal work functions and the positions of the Highest Occupied Molecular orbital (HOMO П orbital) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO П * orbital) in the polymer and valance and conduction band position of ZnO. Carrier injection from a metal electrode in to a semiconductor is controlled by the work function Φ of the metal relative to electron affinity Ea of the semiconductor for electron injection. A simple schematic representation of energy level diagram of single layer organic-inorganic device is shown in figure 4.3.

The nature of interfaces, between the polymer medium and the metal electrode or between the inorganic layer and the negative electrode are of principal importance in determining the device performance. The control of these interfaces ultimately may be among the more important determining factors in the eventual success of light-emitting devices [27]. A combined experimental and theory approach to the study of both ZnO and polymer surfaces and interfaces are done in this thesis work to get optimum output. One particular concern, which is often neglected, is that there is always chemistry that occurs at the interface. The chemistry that occurs at the metal-on-polymer interface varies with the nature of the metal involved, the polymer involved, and especially with the cleanliness of both materials employed and the coating system used in the process [28, 29].

27

LUMO

Φ+

Ec

∆Ee

ORGANIC LAYER INORGANIC LAYER

POSITIVE ELECTRODE

∆Eh

Φ-

Electron Barrier

NEGATIVE ELECTRODE

HOMO Ev

Figure 4.3: Simple schematic representation of energy level diagram of single layer organicinorganic device. Poly (3, 4-Ethylene Dioxy Thiophene), PEDOT, is one of several commercially available conducting polymers. It is often blended with Poly (Styrene Sulfonate), PSS, which dopes the PEDOT. It improves device efficiency, improved device uniformity and long life so it used as positive electrode [30, 31]. These doped polymer electrodes have high work functions, there by providing low barriers for hole injection to the polymer layer. It is also likely that there is at least some diffusion of the dopant in the electrode layer to the semiconductor polymer layer, to give a dopant profile into this layer. Though this is clearly desirable in order to achieve easy charge injection, such a diffusion process must be restricted close to the interface, to provide stable operation over long times. Aluminium (Al) is the most commonly used electron-injecting metals, in the case of aluminium atoms on the surfaces of inorganic semiconductors, atomic diffusion takes place into the near-surface region, and covalent bond formation is localized to within a characteristic length scale; this scale is of the order of an electron tunneling distance. If we deposit Al directly on the top of ZnO vertical nano-rods there is a chance to diffuse Al

28

through the gap between the rods. So it is better to fill the gap between the nano-rods using an insulator and then deposit the Aluminium contact on the top.

4.4 Charge injection and charge transport The size of the barriers for electron and hole injection scales with the electrode work functions. The process of charge injection from metal electrodes and the process of charge transport within the polymer layer are difficult to extricate on the basis of the device electrical characteristics. For diodes with large barriers for charge injection, the injection of charge, either by thermionic emission or by tunnelling, can certainly limit current flow [32, 33]. However, charge injection is not considered to limit current flow for LEDs that show good operating characteristics. Instead, current flow is bulk-limited, principally through the buildup of space charge [34]. The Space-Charge-Limited (SCL) current regime is easily achieved in these structures because the low-field mobility of charge carriers in relatively disordered molecular semiconductors is very low. If there is ohmic contact and/or at high fields then there is SCL Current and if there is a barrier or and low fields then thermionic and/or field injection that is Contact Limited.

Figure 4.4: Space Charge Limited Current.

In a system were traps are present at the single level, the SCL current is given by

29

J = (9\8) ε0 εr µ0 (V 2 \ L 3)

(4.1)

Where V is the applied voltage L is the polymer thickness ε is the permittivity of the polymer. Thermionic emission over a triangular barrier of height Φb Energy gap (from a metal into a high mobility semiconductor),

Figure 4.5: Thermionic /or field injection (contact limited current). In the case of barrier and low fields thermionic and/or field injection contact limited current is given by J = e Ne µ E (0) exp [-e φb \ kBT]

(4.2)

B

4.5 Electron-hole recombination and light emission The process of electron-hole capture in these devices is crucial to device operation. In order to get efficient capture in these structures, it is necessary that one or other charge carrier is of very low mobility so that the local charge density is sufficiently high to ensure that the other charge carrier will pass within a collision capture radius of at least one

30

charge. This is certainly enhanced in the hetero structure devices where confinement at the hetero junction causes a build up in charge density.

4.6 Materials Used 4.6.1 PEDOT-PSS [Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly (styrene sulfonate)] [35] PEDOT [Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)] has excellent transparency in the visible region, good electrical conductivity, and environmental stability. PEDOT is an intrinsically insoluble polymer, which can be chemically or electrochemically doped. Doping transforms PEDOT from an opaque insulator to a quasi-transparent material with high electrical conductivity. The most common form, in which PEDOT is used, comprises poly (styrene sulfonate) abbreviated often as PSS. The distinct property of PEDOT/PSS is its solubility in water. The synthesis of PEDOT-PSS involves polymerization of EDOT monomers in a polyelectrolyte solution of PSS. Polymerization is initiated by removal of charges from EDOT monomers formed in this way radicals promote polymerization of EDOT units while PSS acts as counter ion balancing positive charge residing on PEDOT. .

Figure 4.6: Chemical structure of PEDOT:PSS from ref [35].

31

The final product comprises of aqueous dispersion of PEDOT-PSS and its chemical structure is shown in figure 4.6. PEDOT chain stores charges in the form of polarons/bipolarons. The charges are balanced by presence of SO3- groups of PSS. Long chains of polystyrene sulfonates provide solubility, which makes this polymeric complex ideal for making thin conducting films by spin casting. The blend has intrinsically high work function of up to 5.2 eV that facilitates good conditions for hole injection. PEDOT/PSS is commercially available in a number of grades from H.C. Starck (a Bayer subsidiary) as dispersion in water (typically at 1-3% wt. solids) under the trade name of Baytron. Baytron solutions can be spin coated but this dispersion does not wet well in organic substrates without adding of surfactance. The conductivity of PEDOT can be tuned by adding Di (ethylene glycol) (DEG). Diethylene glycol is a water-soluble liquid and its boiling point 245 OC also soluble in many organic solvents. Diethylene glycol (DEG) is derived as a co-product with ethylene glycol and triethylene glycol. The general formula is (CH2)n(OH)2. They are colorless, essentially odorless and stable liquids with low viscosities [36]. The PEDOT-PSS films were prepared from an aqueous dispersion 10 ml. containing a 0.8 molar ratio of PEDOT and PSS, purchased from Bayer to which 5 weight % of Diethylene glycol were added to improve conductivity. After spin coating the PEDOT films onto glass substrates, they were baked at 125 °C for 5 minutes. 4.6.2 α -NPD: N, N’-diphenyl-N, N’-bis~1-naphthyl-1-1’biphenyl-4, 4’-diamine [37] α -NPD is primarily a hole transport material so its electron mobility is expected to be very small. The HOMO level of NPD is approximately 5.5 eV and LUMO is 2.5 eV. The chemical structure of NPD is shown in figure 4.7. NPD is soluble in some organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chlorobenzene, and toluene. They can be spin-coated (2000 rpm) from their solutions onto PEDOT:PSS substrate.

32

Figure 4.7: Chemical structure of NPD from ref [37].

The resultant films are very transparent and absorb mainly in the UV region so it causes very little interference with the light generated from the device. NPD is functionalized with two styryl groups for thermal cross-linking that by substituting the ester linkage with less polar ether group and connecting the HIL with shorter linker tend to enhance the device performance [38]. The difference between the work function of the conducting polymer film and the ionization potential of the hole transport layer will determines the hole injection barrier between the two films. The vacuum levels of the α -NPD over layer and the PEDOT film is intimately related to the magnitude of the ionization potential of the HTL, the vacuum level shift and the work function of the anode material. 4.6.3 PVK poly (N-vinyl-carbazole) PVK is a very good hole conductor and its melting point is 300 °C. PVK is a good hole transporting and wide band gap material but not an electron transporting material. PVK is a high molecular weight material; it can help to form thin dense films with high uniformity, and improve the film-forming quality of the emitting layer, which helps to improve the stability of devices. The chemical structure of PVK is shown in figure 4.8. The HOMO level of the PVK is 6.1 eV and LUMO level is at 1.2 eV. Chemical structure of PVK is shown in figure. The high LUMO of PVK ~1.2 eV below the vacuum level may block the electron current to eliminate the electron flow from the ZnO layer.

33

Figure 4.8: Chemical structure of PVK from ref [39]. PVK acts as both a hole-transport layer and electron blocking layer. It is very important to control the thickness, if PVK layer is too thick, the electron can be efficiently blocked and confined in the emitting zone. PVK has many advantageous properties such as high photoluminescence efficiencies and lower oxidation potentials than their polyfluorene analogues. These polymers also emit in the blue part of the electromagnetic spectrum. 4.6.4 PFO Poly.9,9-dioctyl Fuorene PFO has a band gap of about 3 eV that makes it difficult to fabricate ohmic contacts for injection of both electrons and holes in order to achieve the balanced injection of carriers needed for high efficiency. In particular, PFO has an ionization potential of 5.8 eV and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level PFO has been estimated to be 5.9 eV. The chemical structure of PFO is shown in figure 4.9.

Figure 4.9: Chemical structure of PFO from ref [40].

34

4.6.5 Perylene Tetra Carboxylic DiAnhydride (PTCDA) The PTCDA molecule consists of a perylene core with two dianhydride groups. These organic molecules present a strong anisotropy in their optical and transport properties due to the molecular structure. PTCDA crystallizes in the monoclinic centro-symmetric space group with two nearly coplanar molecules in the unit cell. PTCDA have of p-type semiconductivity but in some cases both types of conductivity mechanism might hold, depending upon the orientation of molecular planes with respect to the measurement direction. The chemical structure of PTCDA is shown in figure 4.10.

Figure 4.10: Chemical structure of PTCDA from ref [41].

The tetracarboxylic dianhydride bisimide derivatives of PTCDA generally have comparable HOMO and LUMO energies and have been shown to be primarily n-type conductors in pure thin films. 3, 4,9,10 Perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) has a very large electron barrier at hetero-junction. It has very low solubility in all but the most aggressive solvents but it dissolved in water and ethanol. It is possible to create thin film from nanoparticles that have been dispersed in solvent by spin coating the dispersion on the required substrate then evaporating the solvent.

35

4.6.6 Poly (9, 9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-(4-butylpheneyl) diphenylamine) (TFB) TFB is a fluorine-based polymer and it is used as a inter layers in between PEDOT and PFO. It plays two roles as hole transport layer and increasing the viscosity of the blended solution, hence improving the spin-coated film quality. The chemical structure of TFB is shown in figure 4.11.

Figure 4.11: The chemical structure of TFB from ref [42].

36

Chapter 5

PROCESSING OF LED

5.1 Introduction The hybrid organic-inorganic structures have to be engineered very carefully in order to obtain the desired light emission. The layered structure is composed of p-polymer/nZnO and the recombination is desired to occur at the ZnO layer in order to obtain white light emission. This implies that much more holes are needed to cross the junction from the polymer to the ZnO compared to electrons crossing the junction from the ZnO to the ppolymer. For this to occur, the design of the band alignment has to be carefully engineered. We have used many different polymers in an attempt to reach the most optimum structures. This task is not easy as other factors like e.g. mobility value, easiness of polymer processing, compatibility, cost etc. also influence and limit the choice of the polymer. It is important to know the position of electrode metal work function, HOMO and LUMO of the polymer and valance and conduction band of ZnO, because charge injection from electrode material requires ohmic conducts or tunnel through a barrier at interface. The main reason for using different layers of p-type polymer is, one which has ionization potential close to anode, for achieving ohmic contacts with anode and another one is for hole conducting as well as electron blocking layer. Many organic materials are solution possible that is dissolved in solvent and then it is printed or coated. Spin coating produces thin uniform film by spinning liquid drops on a surface at typically 1000 –3000 rpm. Resulting film thickness depends on spinning speed, mg/ml load of solution and wetting compatibility of the substrate. we need a liquid or gel form of the polymer for solution processing. First steps for device fabrication is substrate cleaning. The conjugated polymer that I used in this work is spin coated on the top of substrate to get uniform layer. After depositing polymer layer ZnO nano rods is grown by the ACG. In this ZnO nano-rods synthesis process the main problem when using this substrate for the growth of ZnO nano-rods is that bad vertical alignment and the control of the diameter of the wires. We have varied different parameters when using the ACG approach to achieve 37

well aligned ZnO nano-rods with controllable diameter. There are different steps that we need to follow during the fabrication to get a full device as follows:1 Substrate cleaning 2 Preparation of polymer solution 3 Cover up (mask) positive contact 4 Spin coating different polymer layer 5 ZnO nano rods growth 6 Insulation layer coating 7 Etching 8 Top electrode deposition 9 Remove photo resist mask 10 Paste positive contact

5.2 Substrate Cleaning The substrates undergo careful cleaning using different solvents to remove dust particles and contamination on the surface. This is usually done, first, by thoroughly rinsing the substrate by using an alcohol based cleaner, in my case, isopropanol and acetone. The substrates are cut in to small pieces and then put it in a beaker and rinsed with water. Then samples are placed in a beaker containing an acetone and then the beaker undergoes ultrasonic shower for approximately 15 minutes. This procedure is done to eliminate microscopic cracks and similar imperfections. Then the acetone is removed and again rinsed with demonized water three or four times. Then filled with isopropanole and put it into the ultrasonic bath again for 15 minutes and then rinse it with demonized water again. Once the cleaning is over, the substrates are dried using compressed nitrogen gas.

5.3 Preparation of polymer solution For processing polymers we need a liquid or gel form of the polymer, so we mix the polymer into a solvent to get it as a liquid form. Solubility of the polymer plays an important role to get a desirable polymer solution. Solubility is the amount of substance that can be dissolved in given amount of solvent. Intermolecular forces govern the solubility. That is hydrogen bond, dipole interactions; Van der Waals interactions are the main parameter which

38

helps solubility of the polymer. Environmental conditions like temperature, pressure may change the balance of the system. Other factors also to consider when choosing the solvent, such as 1 Environmental consideration: - organic solvents are often bad for the environment, stronger solvents is more dangerous. 2 Safety:-Organic solvents are often toxic or carcinogenic and highly flammable. 3 Compatibility with equipment and containers. Solvation energy is the energy required for (or released by) dissolving a solute in a solvent and heat of vaporization is heat required to vaporize (boil off) a solvent, cohesive energy density is used to measure this as follows:C = (ΔH-RT) \ Vm

(5.1)

Where c is the cohesive energy density, ΔH is the heat of vaporization, R is Ideal gas constant, T is the Temperature (K) and Vm is molar volume (ρ*mw)-1 Hildebrand suggested that one use δ=c1/2 to represent a solubility parameter. Materials with similar δ are miscible and materials with dissimilar δ are immiscible. It is common to represent Hildebrand solubility parameter in three terms δt 2 = δd2+ δp2+ δh2

(5.2)

Where δd is the dispersion component δp is the polar component and δh–hydrogen bonding. Surfactants can also improve solubility, it has a polar group head and long hydrocarbon tail soap is an example of a surfactant. A solution is only 1 phase and that are usually transparent, even though they have colour. Some believe that conducting polymers can only form dispersions, not true solutions. It really depends on the polymer. Dispersion (suspension) contains at least 2 immiscible phases.

5.3.1 Wettability Wettability is important in coating and deposition processes, e.g. spin coating and printing. Wettability is a measure of how a liquid spreads on a surface. If the liquid is

39

water, the surface is termed hydrophilic or hydrophobic, depending on whether it likes water or not. Hydrophobic is a substance that has a positive Gibbs energy of transfer from a nonpolar to a polar solvent (does not like to mix with water). Hydrophilic is a substance that has a positive Gibbs energy of transfer from a polar to a non-polar solvent (does like to mix with water). Complete wetting is extremely important in spin coating. Surfactants may be used to facilitate the process.

5.4 Cover up (mask) positive contact After cleaning the substrate we must cover or mask the positive contact area because when we spin coat the polymer solution it will spread all the substrate and we will not be able to make the positive contact after whole process. First a photo resist named S1818 is painted on the top of positive contact area and it is baked for 5 minutes, after that cover that area using a plastic tape. We can remove this photo resist by dipping that area into acetone.

5.5 Spin coating To get a thin layer of polymer solution we usually use spin coating process. A drop of the polymer solution is spread over the substrate in a spin step. Substrate-liquid interface is critical (how well does the solution wet the substrate) is very important to get a uniform polymer layer. Air flow above the spinning substrate has a large impact on film. Substrate temperature control can be crucial in both the spin and baking steps. Normally four different steps are in spin coating process and these are as follows.-

1 Deposition of the coating fluid Substantial excess of solution is applied on the top of substrate. It is beneficial to use sub micron filters to eliminate particles.

2 Spin-up, accelerating to final speed This step is mostly characterized by aggressive fluid removal. Spiral vortices might be seen, result of twisting motion between top and bottom layer. Finally the substrate reaches its final speed and the viscous shear drag balances the rotational acceleration.

40

3 Spin-off, fluid thinning Fluid viscous forces dominate the fluid thinning process. Substrate is spinning at constant rate. Fluid thinning is generally quite uniform. Newtonian viscosity leads to uniform thickness at anytime.

4 Evaporation-coating thinning Solvent evaporation dominates the coating thinning process. Substrate is spinning at constant rate. The coating effectively gels because solvents are removed when the viscosity increases, which effectively freezes the coating in place [44]. The resulting thickness of the film if evaporation is not too fast, for time independent process the thickness is calculated as follows :δ = KCV [(V \ ω2 R2)1\3]

(5.3)

Where δ -Dry coating thickness (after spin) CV-Volume fraction of solids in suspension ν- Kinematics viscosity (μ/ρ) ω- Angular velocity R -Sample radius K –Constant resulting film thickness (assuming evaporation is not too fast) But in time dependent process thickness is calculated as:δ = KCV [(V \ ω2 R2)1\3 [1+0.395K2 (ω2 \ νR4)1\3 t]1\2 (5.4) Where K=

[(81 \ 16 П) Q] 1\3

Q is the flow rate and t is the time.

5.6 ZnO nano rods growth

The procedure for ZnO nano rods growth is described in chapter 2. In ACG ZnO nano-rods synthesis process, Zinc acetate dehydrate solution has been used as seeding layer

41

for subsequent growth of the nano-rods. First spin coated this seeding layer on to the top of polymer layer at a spin speed of 1800 rpm and then it bake at 110o C for 3 min. Equimolar concentration of ZNH and HMT were dissolved in de-ionized water (0.05 Mole for glass substrate and 0.07 Mole for plastic substrate). Then the substrates have been placed inside a beaker standing horizontally using a sample holder and then the beaker is tightly covered and kept it in an oven at 96o C for 5 hours. Using this ACG technique, very high density, high quality ZnO nano rods are possible to grow on top of all substrates.

5.7 Insulation layer coating When we grow Zinc Oxide vertically there is a gap between the nano-rods. Before depositing the negative electrode have filled the gap between Zinc oxide nano-rods using photo resist (insulator) to avoid the diffusion of Aluminium down to the polymer layer. Photo resist named S1805 is spin coated at a spin speed of 3000 rpm and then bake it for 2 minutes at 110oC. 5.8 Photo Resist Etching A thin film of photo resist is there on the top of nano-rods after spin coated the insulator layer. In order to get a good negative contact photo resist must be removed on the top of nano-rods. In this device processing step Reactive Ion etching method is used to remove the photo resist.

5.9 Negative electrode deposition For depositing negative electrode Balzer BA 510 evaporation chamber is used. Aluminium is used as a negative electrode. The deposition is takes place under a high vacuum environment that contains electrodes. The operational pressure is kept approximately at 10-6 Torr. The samples are placed in such a way that it’s front side facing down. Special masks are used to shape the metal in anyway desired by the builder. The material that needs to be deposited is placed on the boat; once the current is increased at certain level the heat generated from the electrical resistance evaporates the metal. The airborne molecules scatter all over the inner surface of the dome. Some end up impacting the surface of the ZnO, and condense back to their solid state, thus forming the patterns as in the mask.

42

5.10 Positive electrode deposition First remove the photo resist mask in the positive electrode area using acetone. Then clean it using deionised water and dry well using nitrogen flow. Then a very thin layer of silver paste is used to paint that area and bakes it for three minutes at 1000C.

5.11 Testing Once deposition is complete, the current-voltage characteristics are tested by using Agilent’s parameter analiser and then the samples are tested for light emittance. This is done rather simply, by creating an electric potential between the anodes and the cathodes of the substrates. The simplest way to accomplish this is to wire up the substrate to power source then increases the voltage until emission in optical range is detected. On average, substances will light up between 15 and 22 volts. A small fraction might require higher or lower voltages. But one needs to be careful with incrementing the voltage too high.

5.12 different structures of LED To get optimum efficiency I have used different polymers, among which, N, NDi-(1-Naphthalenyl)-N, N-Diphenyl-1-Diamine denoted as (NPD), 2,9-Dimethyl-4,7— Dimethyl-1,10-Phenanthroline denoted as (BCP), Poly9-Vinylcarbozole (PVK), 3, 4,9,10Perylene Tetra Carboxylic Dianhydride, denoted as (PTCDA), and Poly (9, 9-Di-n-octyl9Hfluorene) denoted as (PFO). All of these different polymers were used on glass or plastic substrates first coated with Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly (styrenesulfonate) denoted as PEDOT:PSS. The PEDOT:PSS is used as anode to inject holes to the p-type and then another p-type is spin coated on top and used as hole transport layer. Then in some structures, ZnO was directly grown on top or another electron blocking layer was first sandwiched between the hole transport polymer layer and the n-ZnO nano-rods. The polymer compromising the electron blocking layer was not easy to choose. This was due to the fact that a large offset at the ZnO conduction band and at the same time low offset at the valence band should both be satisfied to only block electrons and allow holes to diffuse to the ZnO. We have in most of the structures used a blended polymer compound to adjust the offset requirement at both the conduction and valence bands. 43

5.12.1 Device 1: NPD/PTCDA/ZnO

The proposed device (1) has two polymer layers on the top of PEDOT:PSS which act as negative electrode. NPD act as hole transport layer and PTCDA act as electron blocking layer. The energy band diagram of this device structure is given in figure 5.1 below.

LUMO 2.2 LUMO 2.6 Ec 3.4 eV

NPD

Al 4.2 eV

PTCDA

ZnO

PEDOT:PSS 5.2 eV

HOMO 5.7 HOMO 6.7

Ev 6.6 eV

Figure 5.1: Energy band diagram of NPD/PTCDA/ZnO on PEDOT:PSS. (Ec and Ev value of Zno is from ref [45]. I didn’t perform any measurement for those Ec and Ev values). P-type organic polymer on glass or plastic has been chosen as a substrate. We must choose a transparent substrate and it allows light generated within the device to leave the diode. The substrate can be either glass or flexible plastic. Here first I show the device fabricated on PEDOT:PSS coated plastic. In order to improve the hole injection use NPD as a hole transport layer. NPD is dissolved in chloroform:toluin solution(1:2 ratio) with a concentration of 5 mg/ml, and then spin coated on to the top of PEDOT:PSS layer at a spin speed of 2500 rpm for 20s and then baked it for 5 minutes to evaporate the solvent. The figure shows the optical microscope image of NPD film coated on the top of PEDOT:PSS.

44

(a)

(b)

Figure 5.2: (a) Optical microscope image of NPD film coated on the top of PEDOT:PSS and (b) PTCDA film coated on the top of NPD. 3, 4,9,10 Perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) has a very large electron barrier at hetero-junction. It has very low solubility in all but the most aggressive solvents but it dissolved in water and ethanol. It is possible to create thin film from nano particles that have been dispersed in solvent by spin coating the dispersion on the required substrate then evaporating the solvent. PTCDA is dissolved in water with a concentration of 10 mg/ml and then spin coated on the top of NPD layer at a spin rate of 2500 rpm for 20 s and bake it for 5 minutes to evaporate the water content. Figure (5.2 b) shows the optical microscope image of PTCDA film coated on the top of NPD. After that ZnO seeding layer (zinc acetate dehydrate solution) was spin-coated onto this p-type film for 3 times to get a uniform layer of seeding layer which subsequently helps the growth of nano-rods. Equimolar concentration of zinc nitrate (0.07M) and hexamethylene trilamine, HMT (0.07M) are used as growth solution for zinc oxide nano-rods growth. The substrate was kept horizontally inside the tightly closed 100 ml beaker at 96°C for 5 hours. To remove the salt the substrate was rinsed with de-ionized water and dried at air for 10minutes. After growing ZnO nano-rods the substrate was characterized under scanning electron microscope (SEM). For glass substrate the voltage is 12V and for plastic it is 8V. Figure 5.3 shows the SEM images of ZnO nano-rods on NPD\PTCDA on plastic.

45

(a)

(b) Figure 5.3: ZnO nano-rods on PEDOT:PSS\NPD\PTCDA NR at a) 0 degree and b) 20 Degree on plastic substrate.

SEM images shows that the ZnO nano rods grown vertically. Before depositing top electrode we need to fill the gap between ZnO nano-rods using photo resist avoiding the diffusion of Aluminium in to the polymer layer. First spin coat the photo resist on top of the ZnO nano wires and then bake it. Using optical microscope check weather the gap is filled or not. The 46

next step is to remove the excess photo resist on top of the ZnO nano rods using oxygen etching. For depositing negative electrode Balzer BA 105 evaporation chamber is used. I-V characteristic of the device was tested using parameter analyser. Figure 5.4 shows the I-V characteristics of the device1.

NPD/PTCDA/ZnO 0,00030 0,00025 0,00020 0,00015 0,00010 0,00005 0,00000 -10

-5

0

5

10

-0,00005 -0,00010 -0,00015 -0,00020

(a)

N P D /P T C D A /Z nO

1E -4

1E -5

-10

-5

1E -6

0

(b)

47

5

10

Figure 5.4: I-V characteristics of NPD/PTCDA/ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated plastic substrate a) Linear scale and b) Log scale The glass substrate is prepared by spin coating PEDOT:PSS on the top. First PEDOT:PSS was added with silane in order to improve wettability and adhesion. Di-ethylene glycol, DEG (5wt %) was added to it for improving conductivity of PEDOT:PSS. This mixture of PEDOT:PSS was spin coated onto the glass substrate at 2300 rpm for 25 s, followed by baking for 30 min. The same steps were repeated for coating NPD, PTCDA coating. For ZnO growth the growth solution concentration is 0.05 mol\l. Figure 5.5 shows the SEM images of ZnO nano-rods on NPD\PTCDA on glass both in top view and tilted view.

(a)

(b)

Figure 5.5: (a) ZnO nano-rods on PEDOT:PSS\NPD\PTCDA a) NR at 0 degree and (b) 20 degree tilted view on glass substrate. I-V characteristic of the device was tested using parameter analyzer. Figure 5.6 shows the I-V characteristics of the PEDOT:PSS/NPD/PTCDA/ZnO device fabricated on glass substrate.

48

NPD/PTCDA/ZnO

0,0003

0,0002

0,0001

0,0000 -10

-5

0

5

10

-0,0001

-0,0002

a) N P D /P T C D A /Z n O

1 E -4

1 E -5

-1 0

-5

0

5

10

1 E -6

(b)

Figure 5.6: I-V characteristics of NPD/PTCDA/ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated plastic substrate a) Linear scale and b) Log scale.

49

5.12.2 Device 2: NPD/BCP-PVK BLEND/ZnO

The structure of device 2 has two polymer layers on the top of PEDOT:PSS. This device also has NPD layer which act as whole transport layer. Here PVK-BCP blend layer act as an electron blocking layer. The energy band diagram of this device structure is given in Figure 5.7 below. It shows that LUMO of the blended film is some were between LUMO of the PVK and BCP. HOMO of the blended film is some were between HOMO of the PVK and BCP.

LUMO 2.2 eV LUMO 2.6 eV LUMO 3.2 eV Ec 3.4 eV

NPD

Al 4.2 eV

PVK\BCP BLEND

PEDOT:PSS 5.2 eV

ZnO

HOMO 5.8 eV HOMO 5.7 eV HOMO 6.7 eV

Ev 6.6 eV

Figure 5.7: Energy band diagram of NPD\PVK-BCP BLEND\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS. (Ec and Ev value of Zno is from ref [45]. I didn’t perform any measurement for those Ec and Ev values). NPD is dissolved in chloroform:toluin solution (1:2 ratio) with a concentration of 5 mg/ml, and then spin coated on to the top of PEDOT:PSS layer at a spin speed of 2500 rpm for 20s and then baked it for 5 minutes to evaporate the solvent. The blend of PVK and BCP is fabricated by mixing 1:3 weight ratio and then dissolved in toluene solution with a concentration of 10 mg/ml. Then the blend of PVK and BCP is spin-coated on to the NPD layer at a spin rate of 2500 rpm for 20s and then baked it for 3 minutes. The Figure 5.8 shows the optical microscope image of PVK-BCP blend film coated on the top of PEDOT:PSS.

50

Figure 5.8: Optical microscope image of PVK-BCP blend film coated on the top of NPD. Zinc oxide nano wire growth was done as per device 1 fabrication. After growing ZnO nanorods the substrate was characterized under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Figure 5.9 shows the SEM images of ZnO nano-rods on NPD\PVK-BCP blend on plastic.

(a)

51

(b) Figure 5.9: ZnO nano-rods on PEDOT:PSS\NPD\BCP-PVK-blend -NR at a) 0 degree and b) 22 degree on plastic substrate. Then the device is processed as the same way as device 1 for depositing top electrode. I-V characteristic of the device was tested using parameter analyser. Figure 5.10 shows the I-V characteristics of the device 2. NPD/PVK_BCP BLEND/ZnO

0,0008

0,0006

0,0004

0,0002

0,0000 -10

-5

0

5

-0,0002

(a)

52

10

N P D /P V K _B C P _ B LE N D /Z nO

1E -4

1E -5

1E -6

-10

-5

1E -7

0

5

10

1E -8

(b)

Figure 5.10: I-V characteristics of NPD\PVK-BCP blend\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated plastic substrate and a) Linear scale b) Log scale. The same steps were followed for glass substrate and then it was characterized under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Figure 5.11 shows the SEM images of ZnO nano-rods on NPD\PVK-BCP blend on glass.

Figure 5.11: ZnO nano-rods on PEDOT:PSS\NPD\BCP-PVK-blend -NR at 0 Degree.

53

5.12.3 Device 3: TFB/PFO/BCP-PVK BLEND/ZnO In device 3 TFB is used as an hole injecting layer and PFO is used as a hole transport layer. PVK-BCP blend is used as the electron blocking layer. The energy band diagram of this device structure is shown in Figure 5.12.

LUMO 2.5 LUMO 2.3

TFB

PEDOT:PSS

LUMO 2.4

PFO

Ec 3.4

PVK BCP

ZnO

Al 4.2

HOMO 5.2 HOMO5.7

HOMO 6.3 Ev 6.6

Figure 5.12: Energy band diagram of TFB\PFO\PVK-BCP BLEND\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS. (Ec and Ev value of Zno is from ref [45]. I didn’t perform any measurement for those Ec and Ev values). PFO and TFB is dissolved in toluene solution with a concentration of 5mg/ml and then it spin coated on the top of PEDOT:PSS layer at a spin speed of 2500 rpm for 20s and then baked it for 3 minutes. The blend of PVK and BCP is fabricated by mixing 1:3 weight ratios and then dissolved in toluene solution with a concentration of 10 mg/ml. Then the blend of PVK and BCP is spin-coated on to the PFO layer at a spin rate of 2500 rpm for 20s and then baked it for 3 minutes. After spin coating the polymer layer Zinc oxide nano rods were grown on top of it with the same procedure explained above. After growing ZnO nano-rods the substrate was characterized under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Figure 5.13 shows the SEM images of ZnO nano-rods on TFB\PFO\PVK-BCP blend on plastic.

54

(a)

(b)

Figure 5.13: a) ZnO nano-rods on PEDOT:PSS\TFB\PFO\BCP-PVK-blend -NR at 0 degree and b) NR at 20 degree. I-V characteristic of the device was tested using parameter analyser. Figure 5.14 and figure 5.15 shows the I-V characteristics of the device 3 on plastic and glass substrate respectively.

TFB/PFO/PVK-BCP BLEND/ZnO TFB/PFO/PVK-BCP BLEND/ZnO 1E-4

0,00010

0,00008 1E-5

0,00006

0,00004

1E-6

0,00002 1E-7

0,00000 -10

-5

0

5

10

-0,00002 -10

-5

0

5

10

Figure 5.14: I-V characteristics of PFO\PVK-BCP blend\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated on glass substrate a) Linear scale and b) Log scale

55

TFB\PFO\PVK BCP BLEND\ZnO 0,00008

0,00006

0,00004

0,00002

-15

(

0,00000 -5 0

-10

5

10

15

-0,00002

(a) TFB\PFO\PVK BCP BLEND\ZnO

1E-4

1E-5

1E-6

-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

(b)

Figure 5.15: I-V characteristics of TFB\PFO\PVK-BCP blend\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated plastic substrate a) Linear scale and b) Log scale.

5.12.4 Device 4: NPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO

56

In device 4 PFO is used as a hole transport layer. PTCDA is used as the electron blocking layer. The energy band diagram of this device structure is shown in figure 5.16.

LUMO 2.3

NPD

LUMO 2.4

PFO

PEDOT:PSS

LUMO 2.2

PTCDA

Ec 3.4

ZnO Al 4.2

HOMO 5.7

HOMO 5.7

HOMO 6.7

Ev 6.6

Figure 5.16 Energy band diagram of NPD\PFO\PTCDA\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS. (Ec and Ev value of Zno is from ref [45]. I didn’t perform any measurement for those Ec and Ev values). PFO and PTCDA solution is prepared as mentioned above procedure and then it spun coated on the top of PEDOT:PSS. After spin coating the polymer layer Zinc oxide nano rods were grown on top of it as the same procedure explained above. After growing ZnO nano-rods the substrate was characterized under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Figure 5.17 shows the SEM images of ZnO nano-rods on PFO\PTCDA on plastic and glass substrate.

57

(a)

(b)

Figure 5.17: a) ZnO nano-rods on PEDOT:PSS\NPD\PFO\PTCDA a) NR at 0 degree and b) NR at 22 degree.

Figure 5.18 and figure 5.19 shows the I-V characteristics of device 4 on glass and plastic substrate respectively.

NPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO

0,0007 0,0006 0,0005 0,0004 0,0003 0,0002 0,0001 0,0000 -10

-5

0 -0,0001

(a)

58

5

10

NPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO

1E-4

1E-5

1E-6

1E-7

1E-8 -10

-5

0

5

10

(b)

Figure 5.18: I-V characteristics of NPD\PFO\PTCDA\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated on glass substrate a) Linear scale and b) Log scale.

NPD\PFO\PTCDA\ZnO

NPD\PTCDA\ZnO 0,0007 0,0006 1E-4

0,0005 0,0004 0,0003

1E-5

0,0002 0,0001 1E-6

0,0000 -15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

-0,0001

-15

(a)

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

(b)

Figure 5.19: I-V characteristics of NPD\PFO\PTCDA\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated on plastic substrate a) Linear scale and b) Log scale.

59

5.12.5 Device 5: TFB/PFO/ZnO In device 5 TFB is as hole transporting layer inorder to improve hole injection in the device. PFO is used as a whole transport layer. The energy band diagram of this device structure is shown in Figure 5.20.

LUMO 2.3

LUMO 2.4 Ec 3.4

TFB

PFO

ZnO

PEDOT:PSS

Al 4.2 HOMO 5.2 HOMO 5.7

Ev 6.6

Figure 5.20: Energy band diagram of TFB/PFO/ZnO on PEDOT:PSS. (Ec and Ev value of Zno is from ref [45]. I didn’t perform any measurement for those Ec and Ev values). TFB is dissolved in toluene with a concentration of 5mg/ml and then it spin coated on the top of PEDOT:PSS layer at a spin speed of 2500 rpm for 20s and then baked it for 3 minutes. PFO is dissolved in toluene solution with a concentration of 5mg/ml and then it spun coated on the top TFB layer at a spin speed of 3500 rpm for 20s and then baked it for 3 minutes. After spin coating polymer layer Zinc oxide nano rods were grown on top of it with the same procedure explained above. After growing ZnO nano-rods the substrate was characterized under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Figure 5.21 shows the SEM images of ZnO nano-rods on TFB\PFO on plastic substrate.

60

(a)

(b)

Figure 5.21: ZnO nano-rods on PEDOT:PSS\TFB\PFO a) NR at 0 degree and b) NR at 22 degree. I-V characteristic of the device was tested using parameter analyzer. Figure 5.22 shows the IV characteristics of device 5 on plastic substrate. TFB\PFO\BCP\ZnO

TFB\PFO\ZnO 0.00008 1E-4

0.00006

0.00004 1E-5

0.00002

-15

-10

0.00000 -5 0

1E-6

5

10

15

-0.00002

-15

(a)

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

(b)

Figure 5.22: I-V characteristics of TFB\PFO\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated on glass substrate a) Linear scale and b) Log scale.

61

TFB\PFO\ZnO-GLASS 0.00020

0.00015

CURRENT

0.00010

0.00005

0.00000 -10

-5

0

5

10

VOLTAGE -0.00005

(a)

TFB\PFO\ZnO-GLASS 1E-4

1E-5

1E-6

-10

-5

0

5

10

(b) Figure 5.23: I-V characteristics of TFB\PFO\ZnO on PEDOT:PSS coated on plastic substrate a) Linear scale and b) Log scale.

62

6 CONCLUSIONS Different types of organic-inorganic hetero junction White Light Emitting Diode is designed and fabricated as discussed in the previous chapters. In this section I compared different structures which I fabricated and tested. In figure 6.1 I compared the device in which NPD as hole transporting layer and different electron blocking layer. The compared devices are NPD/PTCDA/ZnO, NPD/PVK-BCP/ZnO and NPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO. As shown in the graph the device with p-type layer NPD/PTCDA has very poor performance compared to other two devices. This is because of the barrier between NPD-PTCDA interfaces. Compared to the other two devices the HOMO barrier is high in this device. If we introduce layer which has a HOMO level in between NPD and PTCDA then its performance increases. In third devices a PFO layer is introduced in between NPD and PTCDA so that its HOMO energy is properly aligned so device performance also increased. If I changed electron blocking layer as PVK-BCP blend then the device performance increased much more. N PD /PTC D A/ZnO N PD /PVK-BCP/ZnO N PD /PFO /PTC DA/ZnO 0,0008

0,0006

0,0004

0,0002

0,0000 -10

-5

0

5

10

-0,0002

Figure

6.1:

Current-Voltage

characteristics

comparison

between

NPD/PTCDA/ZnO, NPD/PVK-BCP/ZnO and NPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO.

63

three

devices

In order to get an idea about the rectification of the device plot the voltage-current characteristics on logarithmic scale as shown in figure 6.2 is analised. NPD/PTCDA/ZnO device has a very low rectification compared to other two. In devices with NPD/PVKBCP/ZNO and NPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO gives very high rectification. N P D /P T C D A /Z n O N P D /P V K -B C P /Z n O N P D /P F O /P T C D A /Z n O 1 E -4

1 E -5

1 E -6

1 E -7 -1 0

-5

0

5

10

Figure 6.2: Current-Voltage characteristics comparison between three devices in logarithmic scale NPD/PTCDA/ZnO, NPD/PVK-BCP/ZnO and NPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO. Figure 6.3 below compares the device with hole transporting layer as TFB. Both devices give good voltage current characteristics. TFB/PFO/ZnO device has high barrier at in hole injection compared to TFB/PFO/PVK BCP/ZnO device thus it gives good rectification and this are shown in figure 6.4.

TFB/PFO/ZnO TFB/PFO/PVK-BCP/ZnO

0,00016 0,00014 0,00012 0,00010 0,00008 0,00006 0,00004 0,00002 0,00000 -10

-5

0

5

-0,00002 -0,00004

64

10

Figure 6.3: Current-Voltage characteristics comparison between two devices TFB/PFO/ZnO and TFB/PFO/PVK BCP/ZnO. T F B /P F O /Z n O T F B /P F O /P N K B C P /Z n O 1 E -4

1 E -5

1 E -6

1 E -7

-1 0

-5

0

5

10

Figure 6.4: Current-Voltage characteristics comparison between two devices TFB/PFO/ZnO and TFB/PFO/PVK BCP/ZnO in logarithmic scale. N P D /P T C D A /Z n O N P D /P V K B C P B L E N D /Z n O T F B /P F O /P V K -B C P B L E N D /Z n O N P D /P F O /P T C D A /Z n O T F B /P F O /Z n O

0 ,0 0 0 2

0 ,0 0 0 0 -1 0

-5

0

5

10

Figure 6.5: Current-Voltage characteristics comparison between all the five devices NPD/PTCDA/ZnO, NPD/PVK-BCP/ZnO, NPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO, TFB/PFO/ZnO and TFB/PFO/PVK BCP/ZnO.

65

NPD/PTCDA/ZnO NPD/PVK BCP BLEND/ZnO TFB/PFO/PVK BCP BLEND/ZnO NPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO TFB/PFO/ZnO

1E-3

1E-4

1E-5

1E-6

1E-7

1E-8 -10

-5

0

5

10

Figure 6.6: Current-Voltage characteristics comparison between all the five devices NPD/PTCDA/ZnO, NPD/PVK-BCP/ZnO, NPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO, TFB/PFO/ZnO and TFB/PFO/PVK BCP/ZnO in logarithmic scale. Finally I compared the current-voltage characteristics of all the five devices in order to find out the most optimum device. The compared devices are NPD/PTCDA/ZnO, NPD/PVK-BCP/ZnO,

NPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO,

TFB/PFO/ZnO

and

TFB/PFO/PVK

BCP/ZnO. Voltage-current characteristics of all this five devices are shown in figure 6.5. All of them give good current-voltage characteristics except NPD/PTCDA/ZnO device. Currentvoltage characteristics comparison between all the five devices NPD/PTCDA/ZnO, NPD/PVK-BCP/ZnO,

NPD/PFO/PTCDA/ZnO,

TFB/PFO/ZnO

and

TFB/PFO/PVK

BCP/ZnO in logarithmic scale is shown in figure 6.6. The device with TFB as hole transport layer has less output current compared to the device with NPD as hole transport layer. Most of the devices give rectification but NPD/PVK BCP blend /ZnO device and NPD/PFO/PTCDA device gives good rectification compared to other.

66

Finally I conclude that it is possible to synthesize vertically aligned ZnO nanorods at a low temperature on all polymer layers on glass substrate as well as on flexible plastic substrate. Size and morphology of ZnO nanorods is easily controlled by adjusting solution condition (reaction temperature, precursor concentration, and reaction time). Organicinorganic hetero junction LED structure has successfully been fabricated on glass and plastic substrate. Except the device –1, all other devices give good diode characterization and produce good current rectification. The samples have been tested for light emittance and I could see the light output in most of the devices.

67

7. FUTURE WORK Now I have completed my master thesis work. After evaluating my work, I conclude that there are four factors by which I could have improved my work and I suggest these four factors as the future work

1. ZnO growth method When ZnO is grown at high temperature, a lot of intrinsic defects are introduced in the structure and these defects are responsible for the light emission. The samples grown by the ACG shows relatively lower emission efficiency because it has lower intrinsic defect compared with high temperature growth. The best method to grow ZnO nano-rodes for LED is the samples with more intrinsic defects and hence more emission source. This will lead to the fabrication of LEDs with strong light intensity. It can be possible to introduce intrinsic defect in samples grown by ACG method by electron irradiation or by some chemical reaction.

2. Optimize efficiency By varying the thickness of the polymer layer, a good hole transport could be achieved. The hole transport will get faster, if the thickness of polymer layer is decreased. It is possible to decrease the thickness of the polymer layer by reducing the concentration of the polymer solution. By experimenting with more polymers with high hole mobility you can improve the hole transport and it will lead to better efficiency of the device.

3. Different positive electrode material As compared to inorganic material, PEDOT:PSS has a low injection capacity. I think, this low hole injection capacity leads to high operating voltage. Indium Tin Oxide which has a high hole injection capacity can be alternative as a positive electrode.

4

Colourless photoresist for transparency Before depositing the negative electrode, I filled the gap between the ZnO nano-rods

using a photo resist (insulator) to avoid the diffusion of aluminum in to the polymer layer. Photoresist called S-1805, colored in orange was used in this work and due to this color I was not able see all light which produced ZnO nano-rodes. So instead of colored photo resist use colourless insulator such as polystyrene.

68

8

REFERENCES

1. http://www.led.net/pages/Utilizing_LEDs/LED_Benefits.htm 2. http://www.lc-led.com/articles/ledlights.html 3. V.L.Colvin, M.C.Schlamp, A P.Alvistors, Nature 370 (1994) 354. 4. D. R. Baigent, N. C. Greenham, J.Gruner, R.N. Marks, R.H. Friend, S.C. Moratti, A.B.Holmes. Elsevier 67 (1994) 3-10. 5. Arne C. Morteani, Peter K. H. Ho, Richard H. Friend and Carlos Silva appl.Phys.86 (2005) 163501. 6. N.F.Colaneri, D.D.C. Bradley, R.H. Friend, P.L. Burn, A.B. Holmes and C.W. Spangler. Phys. Rev. B, 42 (1990) 11671 7. http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/newsrel/science/dwang07.asp 8. Ösgur, Ya. I. Alivov, C.Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.J.Cho and H. Morkoc. Appl. Phy 98.041301 (2005). 9. http://members.aol.com/nanovation/ZnO.html 10. Lukas Schmidt-Mende and Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll Materials Today (2007) 10 ,43 11. Kröger, F. A., The Chemistry of Imperfect Crystals. 2nd Edition, North Holland, Amsterdam (1974), 73 12. M.Barlett and M.Yan,Polm.Mater.Sci.Eng.83,451(2000). 13. J. D. Albrecht, P. P. Ruden, S. Limpijumnong, W. R. L. Lambrecht, and K. F. Brennan, J..Appl. Phys. 86, 6864 _1991 14. A. Mang, K. Reimann, and St. Rübenacke, Solid State Commun. 94, 251 _1995_. 15 Ü. Özgür,a_ Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke,b_ M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan,c_ V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoçd J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005) 16. K. Thonke, T. Gruber, N. Trofilov, R. Schönfelder, A. Waag, and R.Sauer, Physica B 308–310, 945 (2001). 17. Z.R.R. Tian, J.A. Voigt, J. Liu, B. Mckenzie, M.J. Mcdermott, M.A.Rodriguez, H. Konishi, H.F. Xu, Nature Mater. 2 (2003) 821. 18. H. Zhang, D.R. Yang, X.Y. Ma, D.L. Que, J. Phys. Chem. B 109(2005) 17055. 19. Introduction to Polymer Physics O.Inganäs and M. Fahlman, Linköping University 20. Solomons, T.W.G. and C.B.Fryhly, Organic chemistry. 1998, NewYork, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 21. www.itn.liu.se/~matfa/tne048

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22. www.itn.liu.se/~xavcr/tne078 23. www.itn.liu.se/~matfa/tne049 24. P.W.M. Blom, et al, Mat. Sci. Eng. Rep. 27 (2000) 53 25. Robert Kesall,Ian Hamley,Mark Geoghegan Nanascale science and technology John Wiley & Sons Ltd 26. C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, appl. Phys. Lett. 51, (1987) 913 27. Salaneck,W. R.& BreÂdas, J. L. Adv.Mater. 8, 48-52 (1996). 28. Salaneck, W. R., StafstroÈm, S. & BreÂdas, J. L. Conjugated Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996). 29. Brédas, J. L. Adv. Mater. 7, 263-274 (1995). 30. Karg, S., Scott, J. C., Salem, J. R, M. Synth. Met. 80, 111-117 (1996). 31. Carter, J. C. et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 34-36 (1997). 32. Marks, R. N., Bradley, D. D. C., Jackson, R. W., Burn, P. L. & Holmes, A. B. Synth. Met. 57, 4128-4133 (1993). 33. Parker, I. D. J. Appl.Phys. 75, 1656±1666 (1994). 34. Blom, P.W. M., De Jong, M. J. M. & Vleggaar, J. J.MAppl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3308-3310 (1996) 35 www.ifm.liu.se/surfphys/pedot-pss.html 36 http://chemicalland21.com/petrochemical/DEG.htm 37 A. J. Makinen, I. G. Hill, R. Shashidhar, N. Nikolov, and Z. H. Kafafi appl.Phys.79 (2001) 530. 38 O’Brien, D. F.; Burrows, P. E.; Forrest, S. R.; Koene, B. E.; Loy, D. E.; Thompson, M. E. AdV. Mater. 1998, 10, 1108. 39 Wang-Lin Yu and Jian Pei appl.Phys.89, (2001) 415 40 X. Gong, D. Moses,a) and A. J. Heeger appl.Phys.83 (2003) 17 41TakahiroMaruyama. Akira Hirasawa, Toshinobu Shindow, Katsuhiro Akimoto, Hiroo Kato, Akito Kakizak Journal of Luminescence 87}89 (2000) 782}784 42 Harismah Kun, Hunan Yi, Richard G. Johnson and Ahmed Iraqi Polym. Adv. Technol. (2007) 43. www.itn.liu.se/~isaen/tne079 44. B.D. Washo, Rheology and Modeling of the Spin Coating Process. IBM J. Res. Develop. March, 1977, pp. 190-198. 45. Jinzhao Huang,Suling Zhao,Yuan Li,Fujun Zhang,Lin Song,Yongsheng Wang,Xurong Xu Solid state communications 142 (2007) 417-420. 70

INDEX 1

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Light Emitting Diodes Based on n-ZnO Nano-wires and p-type Organic Semiconductors M. Willander*a,b, A. Wadeasaa, P. Klason b, Lili Yanga, S. Lubuna Beeguma, S. Raja a, Q. X. Zhaoa, and O. Nura a Dept. of Science and Technology (ITN), Campus Norrköping, Linköping Univ., SE601 74 Norrköping, Sweden b Dept. of Physics, Gothenburg Univ., SE-412 96, Gothenburg , Sweden ABSTRACT After our recent successful demonstration of high brightness white light emitting diodes (HB-LEDs) based on high temperature grown n-ZnO nanowires on different p-type semiconductors, we present here LEDs fabricated on n-ZnO nano-wires and p-type organic semiconductors. By employing a low temperature chemical growth (≤ 90 0C) approach for ZnO synthesis combined together with organic ptype semiconductors, we demonstrate high quality LEDs fabricated on a variety of different substrates. The substrates include transparent glass, plastic, and conventional Si. Different multi-layers of p-type organic semiconductors with or without electron blocking layers have been demonstrated and characterized. The investigated p-type organic semiconductors include PEDOT:PSS, which was used as a anode in combination with other p-type polymers. Some of the heterojunction diodes also contain an electron blocking polymer sandwiched between the p-type polymer and the n-ZnO nano-wire. The insertion of electron blocking layer is necessary to engineer the device for the desired emission. Structural and electrical results will be presented. The preliminary I-V characteristics of the organicinorganic hybrid heterojunction diodes show good rectifying properties. Finally we also present our findings on the origin of the green luminescence band which is responsible of the white light emission in ZnO is discussed. Keywords: ZnO nano-wires, LEDs, organic semiconductors. * e.m.: [email protected] , [email protected] and [email protected]

I. Introduction ZnO with its large band gap of 3.4 eV at room temperature and high exciton binding energy of 60 meV is attracting large interest for the potential in optoelectronic devices [1]. In addition, nano-structures of this material have intensified the interest due to the relatively easy procedures to grow them and due to the many different nano-structures which are possible to obtain. Adding to that the possibility to obtain crystalline ZnO nano-structures on almost all usual substrates, from being crystalline semiconductor to glass and even flexible substrates like plastic, has increased the interest and expectations. ZnO is characterized by two main emission bands in its spectrum. These are a sharp ultra violet band centered at around 380nm, and another broad band called the green emission band. The green luminescence band or deep band emission (DBE), literally the emission band between 420 and 700 nm, in ZnO have been well studied [2-28]. The white light emission origin is associated with this peak and hence it is of interest. Many different models were proposed to explain the nature of the DBE. For example, Dingle [2] and also Garces et al [3] correlated the DBE with extrinsic impurities such as Cu. Among other candidates assigned to explain the DBE are oxygen vacancy (VO) [4-18], interstitial Zn and O (Zni & Oi) [12, 18-20], Znvacancy (VZn) [21-27] and the O-antisite (OZn) [28]. Özgür et al suggested in their review paper that the DBE could consist of several PL bands having different origin placed at rather similar positions [29]. Nevertheless,

I

the origin of this important band is under discussion also today. Hence it is of interest to shed more light on the origin by carefully designed experiments. One main problem of utilizing ZnO in photonic devices is the lack of stable and reliable p-type dopants for this material. Despite intensive research to develop a reliable stable p-type impurity scenario, no real success is reported till today. On the other hand organic semiconducting polymers have, since the first electroluminescence was reported, been investigated as a candidate for light emitting devices [30]. The electroluminescence efficiency of organic light emitting devices depends on the carrier injection and recombination efficiencies and the balance between the electron and hole current densities. In general the mobility of holes is much larger than electron mobility in most of the semiconducting polymer and this causes misbalance in the current densities and hence the electroluminescence efficiency. On other hand, in-organic semiconductors have high carrier concentration with high mobility. This implies that a hybrid of organicinorganic heterojunction can in principle, if well engineered provide an efficient electroluminescence device. In this connection, ZnO nano-wires with n-type conductivity might be a good candidate to combine with ptype organic polymer semiconductor to build a luminescent heterojunction diode. Such a device would remove the constrain imposed by the lack of stable p-type doping impurity for ZnO and speed up the emergence of commercial ZnO light emitting devices. Nevertheless, such a structure needs a careful engineering of the band-alignment in order to obtain efficient device. In this paper we will first discuss our new findings regarding the origin of white light emission band from intensive optical characterization. In addition and in order to get some idea why the optical efficiency is not identical from different samples grown by different growth approaches, we have also performed low temperature time resolved measurements. Finally the growth of high quality ZnO nanowires on underling multi-layer polymer structure is demonstrated. Heterojunction light emitting diodes fabricated from these n-ZnO/p-polymer inorganic-organic hybrid structures were demonstrated. The used hybrid structures contain different p-type polymers with or without a sandwiched electron blocking layers.

II. Growth procedure The samples presented in this paper were grown by two different techniques. In addition to this, bulk ZnO samples were used for the optical characterization post growth experiments for the investigation of the origin of the white light emission. The first was vapour liquid solid catalytic growth procedure developed during the 60s [31]. The other is the aqueous chemical growth (ACG). The first technique is a high temperature (~ 900 oC) while the second is a low temperature (~ 90 oC) approach. Here we briefly describe the ACG. In this ZnO nanowire synthesis process, zinc acetate dehydrate solution has been used as seeding layer for subsequent growth of the nanowires. First we spin coated this seeding layer on to the top of polymer layer or Si (substrates for the present study) at a spin speed of 1800 rpm. The polymer multi layer structures were prepared on glass or plastic substrates to be used for the fabrication of the light emitting diodes (LEDs).

Figure 1: (a) typical SEM of ZnO nanowires grown on multi layered polymer structures prepared on (a) glass and (b) on plastic substrates.

II

This was followed by baking at 110o C for 3 min. Equimolar concentration of zinc nitrate and hexamethane tetramine were dissolved in de-ionized water (0.05 M for glass substrate and 0.07 M for plastic substrate) prepared for growth solution. Then the substrates have been placed inside a beaker standing horizontally using a sample holder and then the beaker is tightly covered and was kept in an oven at 96o C for 5 hours. Using this ACG technique, very high density, high quality ZnO nanowires were possible to grow on top of all substrates employed, e.g. polymers on glass, Si etc.. Figure 1a and b shows typical scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures indicating a high quality growth of ZnO nano-wires. Due to the central dominating role of Si in microelectronics we have devoted a considerable effort to grow high quality well aligned ZnO nanowires on Si substrates to later integrate with the ZnO polymer hybrid structures. The main problem when using Si as a substrate for the growth of ZnO nanowires is that bad vertical alignment and the control of the diameter of the wires. We have varied different parameters when using the ACG approach to achieve well aligned ZnO nanowires with controllable diameter. Indeed by applying repeated seed coating of the Si substrates we could achieve a better control of these parameters. Figure 2 below shows a typical SEM of vertically aligned ZnO nano-wires grown on Si substrate.

(a)

(b)

Figure 2: ZnO nanowires grown on Si substrates with pre-coating (a) two layers coating, (b) four layers coating.

III. Optical properties To further shed more light on the origin of the DBE, this is responsible for the white light emission, a systematic annealing study of hydrothermally grown single crystal ZnO wafers was performed. A systematic application of different annealing atmospheres may indicate if an increase/decrease in the concentration of a certain kind of intrinsic defect correlates with the DBE position. The samples were characterized with photoluminescence (PL) in their as-grown state on the polished O face. The PL measurements were performed between 27 K and RT using a 350 nm laser line from an Ar+ laser as an excitation source. In order to disperse and detect the ZnO emission a double grating monochromator and photomultiplier detector were used. The laser was operating at 150 mW. It is also assumed that the concentration of optically active defects is homogenous through out the layer of optical interaction. Figure 3(a) below shows a comparison of the DBE peaks positions at RT after annealing in different atmospheres. Firstly, anneals in the range of 500-700 oC, result in a DBE peak position around 2.17 eV independently on the annealing atmosphere. For temperatures above 800 oC the results strongly depend on the annealing ambient. For clarity, further in the present paper we focus our discussion only on anneals at T≥800 oC. There are three distinct levels appearing for the DBE maxima, for O-rich atmosphere around 2.35 eV, for Zn-rich atmosphere around 2.53 eV and for ZnO powder around 2.17 eV. The samples annealed in air (not shown) exhibit similar DBE behavior as the samples annealed in O2. Annealing in Zn-clean conditions, e.g. in O2, should increase the concentration of VZn, Oi and OZn, decreasing the concentration of VO, Zni and ZnO accordingly. However some of these defects give rise to shallow levels, such as Zni [32] and Oi [33],

III

whereas others have high formation energy, such as ZnO and OZn [24]. Hence, it is unlikely that these defects make a significant contribution to the DBE signal, leaving VZn-related defects to be responsible for the DBE peak at 2.35 eV in Fig. 3(a). In a similar manner the 2.53 eV DBE peak is attributed to emission from VOrelated defects. The defect level at 2.17 eV, giving rise to the yellow emission is attributed to Li [34].

Figure 3: Peak positions for the DBE signals in samples annealed in different atmospheres, as measured at (a) room temperature and (b) 27 K. Symbols label corresponding annealing ambient: (triangulates) metallic Zn, (dots) ZnO powder and (squares) O2.

Further, a characteristic trend is observed when measuring VO- and VZn-related DBE signatures at 27 K from the samples annealed in Zn- and O-rich conditions, Fig. 3(b). As it is seen from Fig. 3(b) the VOrelated band is shifted from 2.53 eV to around 2.47 eV and the VZn-related band is shifted from 2.35 eV to around 2.44 eV when switching measurement temperature from RT to 27 K. Thus, the different nature of the dominating contributions to the DBE signals after annealing in Zn- or O-rich ambient is confirmed not only by the difference in the peak energy but also by the different direction of the energy shift when changing measurement temperature.

Figure 4: Typical examples of the PL spectra as measured at 27 K on the sample annealed at 870 oC in O2 (a and b) and the sample annealed at 900 oC in the presence of metallic Zn (c and d). UV and DBE parts of the spectra are shown in a/c and b/d panels, respectively.

IV

Figures 4(a) and 4(c) shows typical examples of UV parts of the PL spectra as measured at 27 K for samples annealed at around 900 oC. Both the VZn (Fig. 4 (a and b)) and VO (Fig. 4 (c & d)) enriched samples exhibit an exciton emission peak located at 370 nm, together with some phonon replicas. However, in the VZn-enriched sample, Fig. 4(a), there is an additional peak centered at 3.26 eV. The corresponding DBE emission spectra for the same samples are shown in Figs. 4(b) and 4(d). The VZn-enriched sample shows welldeveloped phonon replicas in the DBE part of the spectrum in contrast to the VO-enriched sample. The phonon replicas in the spectra emerge into one broad at sample temperatures above 110 K.

Figure 5: The position of the DBE maxima as a function of sample temperature during the PL measurement. The data are for the samples annealed at around 900o C.

Figure 5 displays the position of the DBE maxima as a function of sample temperature during the PL measurements. As indicated in Fig. 3, the VO-related maxima decreases when sample temperature is decreased whereas the VZn-related signal increases with decreased sample temperature. The different energy shift are -0.018 eV for the VO-related emission and +0.078 eV for the VZn-related band. An increase in the DBE maxima position with decreased temperature is consistent with the temperature modification of the band gap, while a energy decrease of the DBE position with decreased measurement temperature is opposite of the natural band gap evolution. This indicates that the VZn-related emission probably is related to a donoracceptor transition or to a free to bound type transition, whereas the VO-related emission band is similar to the internal energy transition. The room temperature PL spectra of different ZnO nanowire samples grown by the VLS and ACG are showing slightly different characteristics. The samples grown by the ACG show relatively lower emission efficiency. Otherwise the PL spectrum at room temperature is very similar for all structures. In order to get some idea why the optical efficiency is different for the VLS and ACG grown samples, we have also performed low temperature time resolved measurements. Time resolved photoluminescence (PL) was obtained using an excitation laser line from a frequency tripled sapphire:Ti laser emitting at 266 nm with a about 200 fs pulse width and a 80 MHz repetition rate. The luminescence signal is dispersed by a monochromator and time resolved by a streak camera. The spectral resolution is about 1 meV and the time resolution is 7 ps. The measurements were done under a weak excitation condition (0.5 W/cm2). Two samples were selected for this purpose. One was grown by the VLS, and other was grown by the ACG. Figure 6 shows the time integrated PL spectra from those two samples. As shown in Fig. 6, the optical efficiency and sample quality are much better in sample grown by the VLS than by the ACG. The donor bound excitons (DoX) are narrower in the VLS grown sample. The decay time of this donor bound exciton was displayed in

V

Figure 6: Time integrated PL, measured at 1.8 K with excitation wavelength of 266 nm. The solid curve was from ZnO nanowires grown by the VLS approach and the dotted line was from the sample grown by the ACG approach.

Fig. 7. The life time in the ACG grown sample is shorter and shows a non-exponential decay. While the life time in the VLS grown sample is relatively long and shows a fair exponential decay characteristic. The nonexponential decay in the ACG grown samples are due to the surface recombination effect. The strong surface recombination effect is not surprised, since the ACG grown ZnO nanorods are expected to have various chemicals attached on the surface due to the relative low growth temperature (93oC) and the nature of the ACG method. The VLS grown samples show less surface recombination effect due to the high growth temperature and annealing effects during the growth.

Figure 7: Decay time, measured at 1.8K. The solid curve was from ZnO nanowires grown by the VLS approach and the dotted line was from the sample grown by the ACG approach.

VI

(a) LUMO 2.6 eV

LUMO 2.2 Ec 3.4 eV

NPD

PTCDA

Al 4.2 eV ZnO

PEDOT:PSS 5.2

HOMO 5.9 HOMO 6.7 eV

Ev 6.6 eV

(b) LUMO 2.2 eV

LUMO 2.6 eV LUMO 3.2 eV

Ec 3.4 eV

NPD PVK\BCP BLEND

PEDOT:PSS 5.2

Al 4.2 eV ZnO

HOMO 5.8 eV

HOMO 5.9 HOMO 6.7 eV

Ev 6.6 eV

Figure 8: Band alignment diagram of two different p-polymer/n-ZnO hybrid structures used for fabricating the light emitting heterojunction diodes, with in (a) a single polymer and (b) blended polymer electron blocking layer.

VII

VI. Light emitting heterojunction diodes As mentioned above different samples of ZnO nano-wires were grown on Si as well as on polymer multi-layered structures which were prepared on either glass or plastic substrates. The samples which were grown on top of polymer multi-layered structures were grown by the ACG at low temperatures (100 oC at most). Typical ZnO nanowires grown on top of the multi-layered polymer structures is shown in Fig. 1, as clearly seen dense rather vertical, ZnO nanowires were possible to grown on these substrates. After optical characterization, these samples were further processed as described in [35] to fabricate heterojunction light emitting diodes. The hybrid organic-inorganic structures have to be engineered very carefully in order to obtain the desired light emission. The layered structure is composed of p-polymer/n-ZnO the recombination is desired to occur at the ZnO layer in order to obtain white light emission. This implies that much more holes are needed to cross the junction from the polymer to the ZnO compared to electrons crossing the junction from the ZnO to the p-polymer. For this to occur, the design of the band alignment has to be carefully engineered. We have used many different polymers in an attempt to reach the most optimum structures. This task is not easy as other factors, like e.g. mobility value, easiness of polymer processing, compatibility, cost etc.. also influence and limit the choice of the polymer. In our first set of experiments we have used many different polymers, among which, N, N-Di-(1-Naphthalenyl)-N, N-Diphenyl-1-Diamine denoted as (NPD), 2,9Dimethyl-4,7—Dimethyl-1,10-Phenanthroline denoted as (BCP), Poly9-Vinylcarbozole (PVK, 3, 4,9,10-Perylene Tetra Carboxylic Dianhydride, denoted as (PTCDA), and Poly (9, 9-Di-n-octyl-9H-fluorene) denoted as (PFO). All of these different polymers were used on glass or plastic substrates first coated with Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly (styrenesulfonate) denoted as PEDOT:PSS. The PEDOT:PSS is used as anode to inject holes to the p-type and then another p-type is spun coated on top and used as hole transport layer. Then in some structures, ZnO was directly grown on top or another electron blocking layer was first sandwiched between the hole transport polymer layer and the n-ZnO nanowires. The polymer compromising the electron blocking layer was not easy to choose. This was due to the fact that a large offset at the ZnO conduction band and at the same time low offset at the valence band should both be satisfied to only block electrons and allow holes to diffuse to the ZnO. We have in most of the structures used a blended polymer compound to adjust the offset requirement at both the conduction and valence bands. Figure 8a and 8b displays the band diagram alignment of two of the different hybrid p-polymer/n-ZnO heterojunctions. NPD+BCP+ZnO NPD\PTCDA\ZnO

0.0016 0.0014

0.0004

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Figure 9: A typical I-V characteristics observed from p-polymer/n-ZnO nanowire hybrid heterojunction diodes, in (a) for the structure shown in Fig. 8a and in (b) for the structure shown in Fig. 8b.

We have performed preliminary electrical characterizing to test the rectifying properties of the heterojunction diodes. Figure 9a and 9b below show a typical electrical behavior. As seen the hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunction diodes shows rectifying electrical behavior with good breakdown characteristics. Electroluminescence

VIII

investigation to measure the emission intensity and the LED of the first attempt is ongoing research and is not concluded yet to be included in the present paper.

V. Conclusion We have presented our new findings on the origin of white light emission from ZnO nano-wires grown. Intensive optical characterization has revealed that the band responsible for the emission of the white light is in fact composed of two closely separated bands as discussed above. In addition, time decay photoluminescence was used to investigate the different optical efficiency of ZnO nano-wires grown by different growth techniques. Finally hybrid multi-layered p-type polymer structures combined with top n-ZnO nano-wires of high quality grown by the low temperature aqueous chemical growth were achieved. Heterojunction diodes of p-polymer/n-ZnO nanowires were fabricated and preliminary rectifying electrical characteristics were presented.

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