MASTER OF SCIENCE master of science

master of science - m.sc. (“laurea ... convergence tests, taylor’s series on real field, fourier series, differentiation and integration of series...

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POLITECNICO DI MILANO faculty of engineering BIOENGINEERING DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE MASTER OF SCIENCE MASTER DOCTORAL OF SCIENCE PROGRAMS DOCTORAL PROGRAMS 1

POLITECNICO DI MILANO faculty of engineering BIOENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

PRO GRAMS I N BI O MEDI CAL ENGI NEERI NG

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE

MASTER OF SCIENCE

MASTER OF SCIENCE

DOCTORAL PROGRAMS

DOCTORAL PROGRAMS

POLITECNICO DI MILANO faculty of engineering Biomedical engineering Programs Studesk 2 via Golgi 42, 20133 Milano tel: +39 02 2399 2562 - fax: +39 02 2399 2564 email: [email protected] Further details are provided in www.biomed.polim.it

educational The Italian Education System The recent project to reform the Italian University System has introduced some important innovations in the organization of the academic study courses, implementing the decisions taken by EU Ministers in Bologna in 1998. Students can apply to Italian Universities only if they have an educational qualification that allows them to enroll. This qualification of secondary education has to be awarded after a study period of at least 12 years. If the educational qualification has been awarded in less than 12 years, it has to be accompanied by the academic certification of the examinations taken or a post-secondary title to compensate for any missing years of secondary education. The Credit System (ECTS) The European Credit Transfer System is used by universities to evaluate and measure the workload teaching hours and the higher education effort of every single course. Credits also measure the student workload which is required to pass the examination and include class attendance, classwork, laboratory work and individual study. It is also possible to obtain credits for other training courses, or project works or theses, internships, foreign languages, basic computing skills, training in communication and public relations and group work. One credit corresponds to a workload of about 25 hours and the yearly workload for an average study course corresponds to about 60 credits. Each subject is assigned a number of credits which the student obtains when he passes the final examination. Exams are graded using a grading scale of 30, where 18 is the minimum passing grade and 30 cum laude the highest grade. Studesks Studesks (Student Desk) are reference units of the International Exchange Office for incoming and outgoing students, in the framework of an exchange programme. Before, during and after their stay at the Politecnico di Milano, incoming students can contact their Studesk (for Biomedical Engineering Program Studesk 2). This office will provide information about accommodation, stay permit, health insurance and anything concerning their life at the Politecnico di Milano. University Education Stages Higher education in Italy is organized in four different stages: Bachelor of Science - B.Sc. (“Laurea”) Master of Science - M.Sc. (“Laurea Magistrale”) Specializing Master - (“Master Universitario”) Doctoral Program - Ph.D. (“Dottorato di Ricerca”)

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Bachelor of Science - B.Sc. (“Laurea”) The Bachelor of Science is an undergraduate degree obtained after a three-year course of study and aims to provide a solid foundation in the core scientific subjects as well as more specialized, professional training. During the third year, the student is expected to acquire work experience by doing an internship at a company. Once student obtains the B.Sc. degree, he can either directly enter the job market or continue his studies by the applying to the Master of Science. Master of Science - M.Sc. (“Laurea Magistrale”) The Master of Science is awarded after two more years of study and aims to provide rigorous, advanced training in more highly specialized areas. Those who already have a B.Sc. in a different field or have attended a vocational school and want to obtain a M.Sc. certificate must first obtain the necessary credits. It is important to note that some specific study courses in Italy continue to be five-year courses in order to comply with EU regulations and to obtain official recognition. Specializing Master - (“Master Universitario”) The Specializing Masters programs can be enrolled in either after the B.Sc. or after the M.Sc. (for more advanced courses) and usually last for one year. They are focused on specific topics and they are aimed at providing practical professional skills to working people willing to upgrade their competence. The programs could be both on a full-time basis and on a part-time basis for those who plan to keep working for their companies. Doctoral Program - Ph.D. (“Dottorato di Ricerca”) The PhD is awarded after three additional years of study and aims to develop the professional competence to carry out high level research in manufacturing and service companies, public bodies and universities. In order to enter a Doctoral Program a candidate must have achieved the Master of Science degree or an equivalent graduate degree.

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Undergraduate Courses

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7

3rd year

COURSE

ECTS

SEM

COURSE

ECTS

SEM

Mathematical analysis i and geometry

10

1

Chemical bioengineering [CI]

10

1

Experimental physics a, thermodynamics, and heat transfer

10

1

Biomechanics

10

1

Fundamentals of chemistry and organic chemistry

10

1

Bioelettromagnetism and biomedical instrumentation [CI]

10

1

Mathematical analysis ii (for biomedical engineering)

7

2

Business administration

5

2

Fundamentals of electromagnetism

10

2

Course from Master Degree Basic Courses

10

-

Biology and physiology

10

2

Internship

10

2

Rational mechanics a

5

2

Introduction to numerical methods + 1 Project among: • Project in chemical bio-engineering • Project in bio-mechanics and bio-machines • Project in signals, imaging, informatics • Project in instrumentation and functional assessment

10

2

3

1-2

2nd year COURSE

ECTS

SEM

Mechanics of continua and structures

8

1

Fundamentals of automatic control

7

1

Principles of electrical circuits and application

8

1

Applied mechanics and design

7

1

Computer science and elements of medical informatics [CI]

10

2

Electronics

10

2

Basics of statistics and biomedical signals [CI]

10

2

8

FINAL EXAMINATION (BIO LP)

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FIRST LEVEL DEGREE (BACHELOR)

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Bachelor of Science - Biomedical Engineering The biomedical engineering graduate integrates an engineering preparation to a knowledge of medical and biological applications and can operate in the following fields: management of devices and systems in the hospital; development and production of medical devices and systems; technical and commercial assistance to biomedical products; technical consulting in the biomedical field. This Course requires a full time attendance and involves classroom and laboratory activities 180 credits are required to obtain the bachelor degree (first level). A typical program includes: basic courses (math, statistics, informatics, physics, chemistry), 60 ECTS; biology and physiology, 10 ECTS; engineering (materials, mechanics, electrical and electronic eng., automation, management eng.), 47 ECTS; bioengineering (biomaterials, biomechanics, bioelectronics), 35 ECTS; electives (either engineering or bioengineering) 10 ECTS; foreign languages, stage and thesis, 18 ECTS. (The minimum requirements of both Information (Class 09) and Industrial (Class 10) Engineering are fulfilled; nonetheless, a moderate specialization is allowed in the third year).

Course programs: 1st Year Mathematical analysis i and geometry [Credits:10] Basics of logic and set theory. Integer, rational, real, complex numbers. Planar and spatial vectors; straight lines and planes. Matrices and determinants; methods for solving linear systems; eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Sequences. Real functions of one real variable: limits, continuity, derivative and differential, monotone and convex functions, maxima and minima, Taylor’s formula. The Riemann integral and integration methods.

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Undergraduate Courses

Experimental physics A, thermodynamics, and heat transfer. [Credits:10] Experimental Physics A - Physical quantities. Dimensions, unit of measurement. Vector operations. Kinematics. Reference frames, one dimensional motion; free fall motion; periodic motions. Dynamics. Dynamics principles. Fundamental interactions. Examples. Work and Energy. Kinetic energy theorem; conservative forces and potential energy. Free, damped and forced harmonic oscillator. Many particle systems. Impulsive forces and collisions. Theorems of the centre of mass. Gravitation. Planets motion and Keplero’s laws; Netwon’s gravitation law. Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer - Thermodynamics principles. Thermodynamic systems and properties. Internal energy and entropy. Homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. Applied thermodynamics. Control volume. Mass, energy and en-

tropy balances. Main plant components. Psychrometry and air-conditioning processes. Conduction. Fourier’s law. Thermal resistance. Transient conduction (elements). Convection. Forced and free convection. Dimensionless groups and experimental correlations. Radiation. Thermal radiation. Fundamentals radiation laws. Surface radiative properties. Fundamentals of chemistry and organic chemistry [Credits:10] Basic concepts: elements and compounds, chemical formulae, mole, stoichiometry. The atom, the electronic structure and the periodic system. The chemical bond and the intermolecular forces. States of matter. Colligative properties of solutions. Chemical thermodynamics. Enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy state functions. Chemical kinetics. Acids, bases, and pH. Red-ox reactions. Electrochemical cells.

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Biology and physiology [Credits:10] Functional cell organization and homeostasis, protein synthesis, mithosis, cell energetics, carbohydrate, lipid and protein methabolism. Fundamentals of tissue and organ structure. Neurophysiology of excitable cells, resting membrane potential, passive and active properties, conduction in nerve fibers, sensory receptors and neural encoding, synaptic transmission, contractility, skeletal muscle mechanics, motor units, EMG, spinal cord, motor and sensory pathways, vestibular system and postural control, cortico-spinal systems, cerebellum and basal ganglia, cortical sensory areas, visual and auditory systems, EEG, evoked potentials, wake-sleep cycle, associative cortices, language and dominance, autonomic nervous system, body

Fundamentals of electromagnetism [Credits:10] The Coulomb’s law and the electrostatic field. The electrostatic potential. The

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dom and free coordinates. Infinitesimal displacements. Motion of points and systems. Velocity field field for a rigid body and for a constrained system. Relative kinematics. 3. Statics. Equilibrium of points and systems; reaction forces; friction. Equivalent systems of forces. Center of gravity. Statics of free and constrained rigid bodies. Cardinal equations. Articulated systems. Equilibrium of linear continuous systems: strings, rods. 4. Dynamics. Reference frames. Fundamental laws of dynamics. Work and energy. Mechanical quantities. Cardinal equations of dynamics. Theorem of kinetic energy. Dynamical friction. Dynamics of free and constrained points and rigid bodies; dynamics of a rigid body with a fixed axis. Dynamics of systems.

Rational mechanics A [Credits:5] 1.Vectors. 2. Kinematics. Degrees of free-

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Mathematical analysis ii (for biomedical engineering) [Credits:7] Linear differential equations: 1st order linear equations, 2nd order linear equations with constant coefficients, superposition principle, general solution, Cauchy problem. Series: convergent and divergent series, series of positive terms, convergence tests, Taylor’s series on real field, Fourier series, differentiation and integration of series. Functions of several variables: continuity, gradient, differentiability and linear approximation, higher order derivatives, Taylor’s formula; free maxima and minima. Multiple integrals: properties and applications, iterated integrals, change of variables. Curves in the space: regularity, tangent straight line, normal plane. Line integrals : length of a curve, work of a vector field, conservative vector fields, potential function.

temperature regulation. The heart as a pump, intrinsic control mechanisms, ECG, principles of hemodynamics, arterial, capillary, lymphatic and venous circulation, neural and chemical control of circulation. Mechanics of respiration, gas exchanges of the atmosphere with the lung and blood, transport of oxigen, carbon dioxide and inert gases by the blood, neural and chemical control of respiration. Volume and composition of body fluids, glomerular and tubular mechanisms of urine formation, kidney circulation, clearance, control of osmolarity, volume and pH of body fluids. Digestive system. Hormones.

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Gauss’s law. Properties of electrical conductors and the electrostatic screen. Energy of the electrostatic field. Dielectric materials. P and D vectors. Electric current and Ohm’s law. The magnetic field and its properties. Laplace’s and Ampe’re’s laws. Magnetic materials. Faraday’s law for the electromagnetic induction. Self and mutual inductance. Energy of the magnetic field. Displacement current and MaxwellFaraday’s law. Maxwell’s equations. Electromagnetic waves. The energy balance and the Poynting’s law. The electrodynamic potentials and the gauge invariance. Optical phenomena: dispersion, absorption, diffraction and interference. Elements of geometrical optics.

Carbon and its compounds. Nomenclature, properties, synthesis and reactivity of the following groups of organic compounds: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alkyl halides, aromatic compounds, alcohols, thiols, ethers, epoxides, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and derivatives, amines. Stereoisomerism and chirality. Biological activity of chiral compounds. Polymers. Lipids. Carbohydrates. Aminoacids and proteins.

ters. Another aim is to teach the student to estimate the actions applied to the mechanical systems and to evaluate resulting motion. Fundamentals to understand machines working principles and models for studying the dynamics of the machines will be introduced. Basic notion to read and produce technicald drawings of mechanical components of the machines will also be given.

Year

Mechanics of continua and structures [Credits:8] Kinematics and kinetics of statically determined beam planar structures. Mechanics of contiuna. State of stress, state of strain in the continuum. General principles, principle of mass balance, energy balance, principle of virtual work. Constitutive equations. Isotropic linear elastic materials, Newtonian ideal fluids. Potential elastic end complementary energy. Linear anisotropic materials. Governing equations of the mechanics of elastic solids. Minimum of potential energy. Beams subject to axial load, bending moment, torsion and shear. Elastic deformation of beams, differential equations and boundary conditions. Non elastic effects (thermal strain and prescribed displacements). Strength criteria for brittle materials (Galileo, De Saint Venant). Strength criteria for ductile materials (Tresca, Von Mises). Strength criteria for anisotropic materials. Strength criteria for pressure dependent materials. Stability of elastic structures under compression (Eulerian stability).

the concept of state, linear systems, Lagrange formula, stability, transfer function, frequency response and its graphical representations. Discrete time systems: sampling, Z transform, difference equation description and transfer function description, first order systems. Elements of control theory: Nyquist criterion, Bode criterion, basics on the design of the controller, PID controllers. Principles of electrical circuits and application [Credits:8] The aim of this course is teaching the basic notions and tools of electr(on)ic circuit theory and of the energetical behaviour of electrical and magnetic devices. The topics that are considered are those of classic circuit theory (elementary linear circuit analysis in continuous or sinusoidal ste-

Fundamentals of automatic control [Credits:7] Signals and systems. Continuous time signals in the time domain and in the transforms domain. Continuous time systems:

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Computer science and elements of medical informatics [CI] [Credits:10] The course aims to introduce the fundamentals of Computer Science and to present some specific applications in the field of Medical Informatics that are highly relevant for the education of a BioEngineer. The elements of Computer Science offered are related to the general basic concepts about computer and programming: (1) Functional description of a computer, algorithms, programming languages, compiler, operating systems and networks; (2) Information encoding, logical operators, binary encoding of digits and characters. (3) Basics of programming, with reference to the C language: data abstraction, types (array, struct and pointer), execution control (conditional, selection-based, cyclebased); (4) Functions as decomposition units of programs; (5) Top-Down approach to the development; (6) Use of parameters, local and global variables, recursion; (7) File management. The Elements of Medical Informatics, as the first step in the educative path in Biomedical Informatics

ady state, time domain analysis of linear circuits), but considered also from an application point of view and using modern circuit analysis tools.Topics :1.Introduction; 2. Resistive one ports and elementary circuits; 3. Resistive two ports; 4. General resistive circuits; 5. Conservative devices and simple circuits in the time domain; 6. Sinusoidal steady state ;7. Three-phase circuits; 8. Magnetic Circuits 9. Principles of electromecanichal conversion Applied mechanics and design [Credits:7] The aim is to give to the students a tool to schematize and solve problems of mechanics applied to the bioengineering systems. By means of simple mathematical models the students will learn to translate some mechanical problems into equations and to critically analyze the quality of the results in function of the models parame-

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Course programs:

Basics of statistics and biomedical signals [CI] [Credits:10] The aim of this course is to provide the background and the basic methodologies for biomedical data and signal processing.

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Course programs:

Biomechanics [Credits:10] The course is aimed at providing students with an understanding of biomechanical principles, developing their skills in solving simple biomechanical problems related to biological systems and medical devices. The course develops and applies the methods of continuum (solid and fluid) mechanics and material science to investigate biomechanical phenomena over a range of length that varies from the subcellular level to the organ according to a hierarchical approach which relates the performances of tissue nanostructure to the performances of tissues and organs.

3rd Year

Chemical bioengineering [CI] [Credits:10] The course introduces the main classes of materials used in medicine, their properties and application, and the interaction mechanisms with biological tissues. Biomaterials. Main classes of materials used in Medicine: metals, polymers, ceramics and composites. Structure-property relationships, processing, mechanical behaviour. Natural materials: structure-property relationships, processing. Surface properties of materials. Sterilization and related problems. Most important biomaterials and examples of their use. Biomaterials and biotechnologies. Major analytical techniques applied to biomaterials cha-

Bioelettromagnetism and biomedical instrumentation [CI] [Credits:10] Models and methods for the analysis of membrane potentials. Hodgkin-Huxley Model (H-H). Impulse propagation and

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Electronics [Credits:10] Signals - Description in both time and frequency-domains, electronic circuits and systems. Electronic devices - Passive (resistance, capacitor, inductor, diode, LED, photodiode, zener) and active (MOSFET transistor), characteristics and applications. Transistor-based linear stages. Analog electronics - Operational amplifier, non idealities, negative feedback. Linear and non linear circuits employing OpAmps. Examples of circuital design. Mixedsignal electronics - Sample&Hold and analog multiplexer. Digital-to-Analog DAC and Analog-to-Digital ADC converters: architectures, errors and spectral analysis, timings. Digital electronics - CMOS logic gates, static and dynamic characteristics, power dissipation. Combinatorial and sequential components. Design methodologies for combinatorial and sequential logic circuits. Examples of circuital design.

racterization and diagnostics. Biocompatibility. Interaction mechanisms with physiological systems. Defence mechanisms and restoring phenomena in the human body: healing and remodelling of biological tissues: haemostasis, inflammation, immune response. Biocompatibility, interactions of biomaterials with the human body and phenomena at the interface. Strategies for healing and regeneration of tissues and organs. Tissue engineering. structure and properties of the scaffolds. Biotechnological approach and gene therapy.

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Examples and applications will provide descriptions according to their principal characteristics, their generation models and the basis of processing procedures. Biomedical statistics – Aim: acquainting the student with basic knowledge about Statistics, necessary for biomedical engineering applications. Subjects of the course: data analysis (exploratory methods; data summaries; histograms and boxplots); probability (Bayes’ Theorem; random variables; moments; correlation and independence; more common probability distributions; Law of Large Numbers and Central Limit Theorem); statistical inference (parameter estimation; confidence intervals; hypothesis testing); evaluation of classifiers (sensitivity, specificity, ROC graphs); linear regression models. Use of a statistical sw package for data analysis. Biomedical signals – Introduction to biomedical signals. Biomedical signals in time domain. Periodicity, stationarity. Ergodic processes. Signal to noise ratio SNR. Acquisition, sampling, A/D conversion. Autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions. Frequency analysis: Fourier series and transform, discrete Fourier transform, Fast Fourier transfrom. z-transform. Digital filters FIR and IIR: design methods and applications. Wavelet detection and classification. SNR improvement: averaging. Spectral analysis: energy and power spectra. Periodogram. Time/frequency resolution. Parametric models. AR, ARX. Parametric spectral estimation. Optimal least variance filtering: Wiener and Widrow filters. Introduction to biomedical images.

and Digital Healthcare, will provide the student with aspects of algorithms, data structures and programming, with a particular attention to their application to simple cases of (a) medical taxonomies, (b) standard terminologies for health and (c) digital medical records.

Internship The internship is an autonomous activity to be developed under the guidance of the host institution supervisor (tutor) and academic supervisor (tutor) intended to verify the education and the design skills developed in the three year bachelor course (laurea) also addressing to work. Biomedical engineering topics at the bachelor level are considered to be developed inside an external company, institution or laboratory. Internship is strongly suggested as final bachelor activity to students not scheduling to prosecute to the post-graduate level. It is linked with the final presentation (3 cfu or ECTS) for a total of 13 cfu, equivalent to 325 hours, 300 of which to be spent by the host institution and the rest for the writing of a report and the preparation of the bachelor final presentation.

Business administration [Credits:5] Course introduces to fundamental knowledge of management and to organisational aspects present in the various types of companies that operate in different economic contexts. The principal arguments are: fundamentals of management, accounting and financial statements, managerial accounting, organization theory, strategic management.Company and his objiectives, company and environment,



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Project in bio-mechanics and bio-machines [Credits:5 ] Aim of the project is to assess skills in applying the three year education to an autonomously developed task. Importance is also given to interaction capabilities, team work, and result presentation skills. The teacher assigns a theme and (if necessary) a tutor supervising the work. Periodical briefings are held where results are presented to the teacher and to the other students. Generally, the project material should permit the writing of the final report and the relevant presentation. Namely, projects in bio-mechanics and bio-machines deal

Introduction to numerical methods [Credits:5] The aim of the course is to illustrate the main numerical methods used in the engineering practice. The couse subject include: Numerical approximation methods for nonlinear systems; Polynomial interpolation; Numerical linear algebra: direct and iterative methods for linear systems; Numerical integration; Numerical methods for ordinary differential equations. Algorithms and methods will be applied using the MATLAB software.

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Course from Master Degree Basic Courses [Credits:10]

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Project in chemical bio-engineering [Credits:5] Aim of the project is to assess skills in applying the three year education to an autonomously developed task. Importance is also given to interaction capabilities, team work, and result presentation skills. The teacher assigns a theme and (if necessary) a tutor supervising the work. Periodical briefings are held where results are presented to the teacher and to the other students. Generally, the project material should permit the writing of the final report and the relevant presentation. Namely, projects in chemical bioengineering deal with biomaterials used for the construction of devices for repair or regeneration medicine, the relevant bio-compatibility and body/ device interface problems at nano, micro, and macro-scale.

“forme giuridiche d’impresa”. Financial statements ( balance sheet and profit and loss statement). Balance sheet ratios. Types of costs and costing tecniques. (job order costing, operation costing, process costing, activity based costing)Strategy: definition and strategic choices. Abell and Porter model. Boston Matrix (BCG):Design of organizational structures: functional, project, matrix. Decisions about investements.

conduction in fibres. Neuron models and networks. Extra-cellular potentials. Introduction to forward and inverse problem. Lead vector. Methods for the evaluation of electric and magnetic fields from/in biological tissues at low and high frequency. Electrical stimulation of biological system. Magnetic stimulation of the nervous system. Study of the biological effects of electromagnetic fields and dosimetry. Clinical meaning, characteristics and dimensionality of biomedical signals. Biomedical instrumentation: definition, characteristics and classification. Biological-technological interfaces and related problems: reliability, safety, signal to noise ratio, interferences. Transduction and signal conditioning : amplification, filtering and A/D conversion. Biomedical sensors: classification and principles of transduction. Force and displacement sensors, pressure and flow transduction. Piezoelectric devices and ultrasounds. Temperature sensors and radiation thermometry. Optical measurements and related instrumentation.

relevant presentation. Namely, projects in instrumentation and functional evaluation deal with theoretical and practical aspects of biomedical sensors and instrumentation for the measurements and monitoring of vital parameters, for functional assessment of physiological systems, for therapy and functional support applications.

signals, imaging, informatics deal with: diagnostic and physiological data, processing development and implementation of processing methods, parameter extraction, classification, monitoring, biological and medical information processing, and relevant management aspects.

Project in instrumentation and functional assessment [Credits:5] Aim of the project is to assess skills in applying the three year education to an autonomously developed task. Importance is also given to interaction capabilities, team work, and result presentation skills. The teacher assigns a theme and (if necessary) a tutor supervising the work. Periodical briefings are held where results are presented to the teacher and to the other students. Generally, the project material should permit the writing of the final report and the

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Project in signals, imaging, informatics [Credits:5] Aim of the project is to assess skills in applying the three year education to an au-

tonomously developed task. Importance is also given to interaction capabilities, team work, and result presentation skills. The teacher assigns a theme and (if necessary) a tutor supervising the work. Periodical briefings are held where results are presented to the teacher and to the other students. Generally, the project material should permit the writing of the final report and the relevant presentation. Namely, projects in

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with endoprostheses and life-support systems, considering their design aspects, study of structural materials, modelling, functionality.

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POSTGRADUATE COURSES

2°Year - Clinical Engineering Track

COURSE Model identification and data mining [c.I.]

ECTS

SEM

12

1

E-health methods and applications

1

1

Technologies for motion analysis and virtualization

1

-

Advanced data analysis in medicine and bioinformatics

Bioengineering in neuro-sensory systems [c.I.] Bioengineering of autonomic control and respiratory systems [c.I.]

5+5

Bioengineering of the motor system

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Health technology assessment (hta) methodologies

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Hospital plants and safety (higly recommended)

1

Biomedical sensors and clinical instrumentation

2

Analysis and organization of health systems Biomachines (with laboratory) Biomedical signal processing and medical images

10+ 10+ 10

2 2

COURSE

ECTS

10+ 10

SEM

2

Biomedical images and computer aided surgery methods

2

Design of life support systems

2

Laboratory of medical informatics and distributed systems

1

Medical robotics and technologies for computer assisted surgery

1 5

Biosignal processing lab

1

2

Biomedical image processing laboratory

2

Medical informatics

2

Laboratory of functional evaluation

2

Functional assessment and motor rehabilitation

2

Free choice among LAB, MOD, INGLM courses

5

1-2

Free choice among BASE, MOD, MED, GES, INGLM courses

10

1-2

FINAL EXAMINATION (BIO LM)

18

1-2

Free choice among BASE, MOD, MED, GES, INGLM courses

24

10

1-2

25

master

1°Year - Clinical Engineering Track

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Second level degree (Master)

1°Year - Electronic Technologies Track

2°Year - Electronic Technologies Track ECTS

Model identification and data mining [c.I.]

12

SEM 1

Mathematical and numerical methods in engineering [c.I.]

1

Bioengineering in neuro-sensory systems [c.I.]

1

Bioengineering of autonomic control and respiratory systems [c.I.]

5+ 5

1 1

Biomedical electronics (higly recommended)

1

Biomedical signal processing and medical images Biomedical sensors and clinical instrumentation Functional assessment and motor rehabilitation Free choice among BASE, MOD, MED, GES, INGLM courses

26

2 2 2

10

ECTS

Neuroengineering [CI]

1-2

SEM 1

Technologies for motion analysis and virtualization

10+ 10

Biomedical images and computer aided surgery methods Laboratory of electronic technologies and biosensors

1-2 1 5

Biosignal processing lab

1 2

Medical robotics and technologies for computer assisted surgery

Bioengineering of the motor system

10+ 10+ 10

COURSE

1

Biomedical image processing laboratory

2

Laboratory of functional evaluation

2

Free choice among LAB, MOD, INGLM courses

5

1-2

Free choice among BASE, MOD, MED, GES, INGLM courses

10

1-2

FINAL EXAMINATION (BIO LM)

18

1-2

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Second level degree (Master)

COURSE Mathematical and numerical methods in engineering [c.I.]

2°Year - Biomechanics and Biomaterial Track ECTS

SEM

12

1 1

5+ 5

Mechanics of biological structures

ECTS

Biomimetics and tissue engineering [C.I.]

SEM 1

Biotechnological applications and bioreactors [C.I.]

Bioengineering of autonomic control and respiratory systems [c.I.] Bioengineering of the motor system

COURSE

10+ 10

2

Design of life support systems

2

Laboratory of biomaterials + lab. Of instrumental analysis [C.I.]

1 1

1 1

Biofluid dynamics

2

Laboratory of tissue characterisation

Biomechanical design (higly recommended)

1

Laboratory of biofluid dynamics

2

Computational biomechanics laboratory [C.I.]

2

2

Laboratory of biomechanical design

2

2

Free choice among LAB, MOD, INGLM courses

5

1-2

Free choice among BASE, MOD, MED, GES, INGLM courses

10

1-2

FINAL EXAMINATION (BIO LM)

18

1-2

10+ 10+ 10

Biomachines (with laboratory) Biomaterials [c.I.] Endoprostheses Free choice among BASE, MOD, MED, GES, INGLM courses

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10

1-2

5

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1°Year - Biomechanics and Biomaterial Track

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Second level degree (Master)



2°Year - Cell and Tissue Engineering and Biotechnologies Track

COURSE

COURSE

ECTS

SEM

10+ 10

1

ECTS

SEM

Molecular biology and biotechnology

12

1

Neuroengineering

Bioengineering of autonomic control and respiratory systems [C.I.]

5+ 5

1

Biomimetics and tissue engineering

Bioengineering in neuro-sensory systems [C.I.]

1

Advanced data analysis in medicine and bioinformatics

2

Mechanics of biological structures

1

Biotechnological applications and bioreactors

2

Biofluid dynamics

2

Design of life support systems

2

Cellular bioengineering (higly recommended) Biomachines (with laboratory)

10+ 10+ 10

1 2

Biomaterials [C.I.]

2

Biomedical signal processing and medical images

2

Biomedical electronics

1

Free choice among BASE, MOD, MED, GES, INGLM courses

30

10

1-2

Laboratory of biocompatibility and cell culture + laboratory of micro and nano structures [C.I.]

5

1

1-2

Computational biomechanics laboratory [C.I.]

2

Biomolecular modelling laboratory

1

Laboratory of biofluid dynamics

2

Proteomics

2

Free choice among LAB, MOD, INGLM courses

5

1-2

Free choice among BASE, MOD, MED, GES, INGLM courses

10

1-2

FINAL EXAMINATION (BIO LM)

18

1-2

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1°Year - Cell and Tissue Engineering and Biotechnologies Track

master

B iomedical E ngineering

B iomedical E ngineering

Second level degree (Master)

GENERAL Courses

and feature selection techniques. Classification methods. Clustering. Association rules. Introduction to linear optimization. Mathematical and numerical methods in engineering [c.I.] The aim of the course is twofold: first we introduce and analyse some classical models of the Continuum Mechanics, complemented with the development of suitable finite difference schemes for their numerical approximation. Second, we aim to provide motivations, define and apply the variational formulation of boundary value problems. This part of the course is integrated with the study of the GalerkinFinite Element method for the numerical approximation. In general, all the course will be characterized by a strong interaction between modelling, analysis and numerical approximation.

lationship. Enzymes. Membrane proteins. Spectrophotometric techniques. Thermodynamics of high energy transformations. Metabolism. Molecular basis of genomics and proteomics. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes, cellular architecture, Cell types. Amino acids. Proteins. Enzymes. Acyl glycerides, membranes. DNA and RNA. Nucleosomes. Transcription. Protein synthesis. Mutations. Regulation of gene expression. Genetic engineering.

12 ects

Molecular biology and biotechnology [c.I.] Aim of the course is the understanding of the mechanism of action in biomolecules and their recent applications in clinical analysis, diagnostics, therapy and related technologies. Amino acids, natural proteinogenic, nonnatural. Proteins: structure and composition. Primary structure. Proteins folding and stability. Proteins with structural function. Globular proteins: myoglobin and hemoglobin. Structure-function re-

Model identification and data mining [c.I.] The goal of the course is to provide the

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Master of science Second level degree in Biomedical Engineering is a 2 year course and its fulfilment requires 120 credits (ECTS). The Course requires a full time attendance and involves classroom and laboratory activities. Four tracks are offered: Clinical Engineering, Electronic Technologies, Biomechanics and Biomaterial, Cell and Tissue Engineering and Biotechnologies. Depending on the track the following activities are fulfilled: deepening in math or sciences (math, statistics, informatics, biochemistry), 12 ECTS; bioengineering (basic, 30 ECTS; physiological systems, 10 ECTS; labs, 5 ECTS; advanced, 20 ECTS); engineering, industrial or clinical management, medicine, bioengineering, 25 ECTS; and thesis, 18 ECTS. Subjects offered by the Biomedical Engineering Course and by the other Courses of the Politecnico permit to specialise in the fields proposed by suggested tracks enriched by a wide variety of interdisciplinary subjects. The master of science in biomedical engineering develops an advanced preparation choosing a specific application field in one of the bioengineering areas: biomedical signals and images, biomedical instrumentation and informatics, rehabilitation and ergonomics, biomechanics, artificial organs and biomaterials, tissue and cell engineering, clinical management. He/she can operate in R&D and industrial design, technical and commercial support to biomedical products, clinical engineering, consulting.

background for advanced modelling and data analysis, together with Kalman Filter techniques for parameters and virtual sensors estimation. The course is also intended to illustrate data mining concepts and methods, and to provide an introduction to optimization theory. The course has both a theoretical and a practical flavour, and is focused on the following topics: Stationary stochastic processes generated as output of dynamic systems. ARMA and ARMAX models. Prediction. Non-parametric models based on the spectral characteristics of a process. Estimation methods based on minimum prediction error. Model complexity analysis and parameters identification. Virtual sensors: Kalman Filter; Extended Kalman Filter for gray-box parameters identification. Data mining process. Exploratory data analysis, data preparation

master

B iomedical E ngineering

B iomedical E ngineering

POSTGRADUATE COURSES

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Analysis and organization of health systems Health systems. History. Greatness of health and of health system. Models and determinants of the health. Factors of inequalities in health. Representation and evaluation of health systems. The health systems in the principal industrialized countries: United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Spain, Switzerland and other countries. The health system in Italy: evolution and actual situation. National Health Service and role of the Regions. Financing and expenditure. Health and hospital firms. Accreditation and tools of government. The citizen. Health Technology Assessment. Errors in medicine and the risk management. The pharmaceutical sector. Hospital models. Rights and information. Conflicts of interest.

cal characterization of cytoskeleton filaments and biomolecules: experimental and analytical methods. Biopolymers: deformation energy, flexural rigidity, persistent length, thermal fluctuations’ effects. Cellular models. Adhesion and migration mechanisms: analytical models and experimental techniques for adhesive force measurements. Experimental techniques for the analysis, manipulation and imaging of biomolecules: atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers, electron microscopy. Force transducers, biomolecule adhesion mechanisms, data analysis. Biological and synthetic molecular machines. Molecular actuators.

Cellular bioengineering Molecular recognition mechanisms. Protein Folding and misfolding, and related diseases. Cellular membrane: membrane models, mechanical properties, fluidic feature, functions, lipidic rafts, junctions. Cytoskeleton filaments: structure, polymerization and functions of microtubules, actin filaments and intermediate filaments, Structures of cilia, flagella, and villi. Transport mechanism along filaments: role of motor proteins, generation of movement and conformational changes. Mechani-

Biomachines (with laboratory) Hints about anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system. Energetics of the natural heart. Interactions between

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Biomechanical design Mechanical design and application to biomechanical devices. Dimensioned drawing. Technological and functional dimensions. Failure theories. Static and fatigue strength. Friction, lubrication and wear. Numerical methods for the mechanical analysis. Mechanical elements in biomechanical devices. Wringing and drive fits. Morse tapers. Screws. Fluid containers and deformable pipes. Biomechanical design and evaluation of some biomedical devices. Joint prostheses and trauma fixation devices. Dental implants and bridges. Pipes, flow junctions and divisions. Technical Standards. Experimental setups and simulators.

Biomaterials Aim of the course is to illustrate state of the art, open problems and advanced solutions related to the use of biomaterials (metals, polymers, ceramics and composites) for the manufacturing of biomedical implantable devices. The course considers the present biomaterials study and characterization techniques, and focuses on the role of biomaterials surface and interface with biological tissues, also considering the surface modification techniques. For any specific field of applications, reasons for success or failure of the device will be considered through case studies discussion, mainly analyzing the reasons connected with biomaterials. The today and the future biomaterials improvement trends will be presented. The first part of the course (5 cfu) concerns the orthopaedic, dental and maxillofacial fields, while the second part (5 cfu) points up the applications in the cardiovascular, ophthalmologic and reconstructive surgery fields.

Biomedical signal processing and medical images Essential aspects of signal and image processing, methods of signal treatment, main imaging diagnostic systems and exam of various clinical and research application fields. From deterministic filtering to stochastic parametric identification: monovariate AR/MA/ARMA models and parametric spectral analysis. Principal component method (PCA). Entropy for signal and image treatment. Automatic analysis and classification of ECG signal. Autonomic Nervous System: cardiovascular variability signals and interaction with respiration. Fetal ECG, High resolution ECG. Ventricular late potentials. Central Nervous System: EEG signal processing and sensorial evoked potentials.

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the cardiovascular and artificial systems. Haemolysis and coagulation. Biological and mechanical valvular prostheses. Pumps for intra- and extra-corporeal blood circulation. Artificial devices for blood oxygenation. Haemodialysis systems. Numerical exercises deal with the solution of design and setting of the studied systems. Laboratory activities are devoted to practical learning of systems and devices managing.

master

B iomedical E ngineering

B iomedical E ngineering

MASTER DEGREE - Basic Courses 10 ects

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cation networks, medical gases supply, sterilization units, electric supply plants, HVAC, water supply and treatment, lifts,

stems in the hospital buildings to supply energy, fluids and information to medical equipments. Telephone and communi-

elevators and automatic transportation, pneumatic tube systems, automatic guide vehicles, fire alert and protection, building

automation. Problems about interaction and dependence between networks and plants are emphazided. Safety, technical filing (requirements & procedures) and standards for medical equipment - Electrophysiology and hazards. Electric, rays and magnetic field effects. Electromagnetic requirements for medical equipment. Standardization by law for medical devices, prostheses and instruments. Rules for acceptance and release of equipments for hospital use. European directives and national laws. Quality management systems based on requirements of ISO 9000 applied to medical devices. Risk analysis and requirements for medical equipment; drafting of technical files for conformity assessment procedure, CE marking and placing on the market. Medical informatics The basic topics of health-care information and communication technologies are described for both the clinical and the bio-medical research settings. Part one: Instruments - Querying of databases; digital clinical records for the institutions and for the patient; healthcare smart card; consumer health web sites; medical terminology dictionaries; medical digital libraries; biosignal and bio-image archives; genomic databanks; computerized clinical practice guidelines; telemedicine and telehealth; medical data protection; standards for medical informatics. Part two: Processes - The information system supporting the patient pathway: the scenario of healthcare organization; infor-

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Biomedical electronics Characteristics and architectures of biomedical electronic instrumentation. Devices based on analog and digital signals. Analog active filters, electrical protection and isolation circuits. Analog signal processing. AD-DA converters, FPGA, microprocessors, microcontrollers and DSPs. Development tools and embedded operating systems. Architectures for the real-time processing and the DSP. Power electronics for power supply and for driving actuators. Data transmission systems: encoding, bandwidth requirements and communication channels. Computers networks architectures and protocols and the ISO/OSI model. Presentation of the most widely used data transmission protocols in biomedical instrumentation. Telemetry and wireless data communication. Study and design of few biomedical devices: vital functions monitors in the intensive care, mechanical ventilators, ultra-sound scanners, electrosurgery and thermo-ablation.

Hospital plants and safety Hospital Plants and Systems - Introduction to the most important Plants and Sy-

master

B iomedical E ngineering

B iomedical E ngineering

Basic principles for image processing and reconstruction: 2D Fourier transform, sampling and quantization, spatial filtering, equalization, geometric operations, tomographic reconstruction. X ray images, transmission tomography (CT). Emission images with radiotracers: scintigraphy, gamma-camera, SPECT and PET. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): basic acquisition sequences, T1 and T2 contrast, frequency and phase encoding. Functional MRI (brief remark). Ultrasound (US) imaging: echography and Doppler.

Functional assessment and motor rehabilitation Principles and definitions in rehabilitation. Elements of functional anatomy of the musculo-skeletal system. Instruments to measure human body kinematics, dynamics and muscle activity. Protocols for movement and posture analysis: gait analysis, posturography, Equitest. Functional assessment of motor disabilities. Definition of physiopatologic factors. Assessment and treatment of the spasticity. H-reflex analysis. FES (Functional Electrical Stimulation). Elements of functional anatomy of the cardio-circulatory system. Bioelectrical activity of the hearth (ECG) and of the blood’s flow (echocardiography, arterial pressure). Elements of functional anatomy of the respiratory system. Spi-

Biomedical sensors and clinical instrumentation Biomedical sensors: classification. Principles of measurement: photoelectric, termoresistive, termoelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, piezoresistive, magnetic, radiation-induced effects; adsorbance and absorbance of chemical species. Technologies: semiconductors, ceramics, polymeric films, optical fibres. Structures: impedance,

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Endoprostheses The first part of the course give an overview on implantable prostheses with the definition of their specifications in terms of anatomical, functional. biological and surgical compatibilities. The main technological solutions are shown. Heart valve prostheses, vascular prostheses, joint prostheses, fracture management devices, dental implants will be shown. The second part enlightens the design path for endoprostheses which includes: definition of functional requirements, technological solutions, material selection, prototyping, preclinical evaluation, experimental tests, certification.

master

B iomedical E ngineering

B iomedical E ngineering

semiconductor, acoustic waves, calorimetric sensors, electrochemical cells, optical waveguide. Applications in medicine and biology of electromagnetic, thermic, mechanical, chemical sensors. Structure of a measurement system. Interface with the sensor, signal conditioning, A/D conversion. Software for virtual instrumentation. Basic concepts of medical instrumentation: Diagnostic, therapeutic, prognostic equipment and systems. Generalized medical instrumentation system approach in medical imaging systems, therapeutic and prosthetic devices, intensive care. Active support systems to diagnosis and therapy. Clinical engineering-Organization,evaluation and maintenance of medical systems. Application examples.

mation and communication needing; the modeling of processes applying Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Workflow technologies; the Healthcare Information and Communication Technology (HI&CT) building yard with its roles, responsibilities, and co-operating operativenesses; elements for the internationalization of the scenario, the standards, and the market.

of locomotion.. Upper limb prostheses: body powered, externally powered, myoelectrically controlled. Assistive devices for mobility: walking frames, weelchairs, systems to overcome arhitectural barriers, robotic systems.

rometry, air flow and gas concentration. Elements of physiological mechanism of biologic energy production. Direct and indirect measures of ATP, lactate, VO2 consumption and CO2 production. Orthotics for limbs and trunk. Lower limb prosthesis: structural components and biomechanics

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ful to describe and understand the fluid dynamic phenomena occurring in: i) the circulatory system (large arteries, veins, microcirculation), ii) the respiratory system (upper airways only), iii) in the most common biomedical devices. The course deals with: oscillatory and pulsatile flow patterns, flow in collapsible tubes, flow in porous media, turbulence models, flow in curved tubes and branched tubes, wall shear stress, non-Newtonian fluids, blood rheology in the microcirculation, microfluid dynamics, particle transport in two-

BIOENGINEERING OF AUTONOMIC CONTROL AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS[C.I.]

Bioengineering approach to biologic control systems. Synthesis and analysis of control systems (recalls). Closed loop identification problems. General structure of the autonomic sympathetic and parasympathetic system. Methods for the assessment of cardiovascular function. Methods and models for the analysis of: baroreceptive regulation, peripheral circulation, blood volume. Chemoreceptive mechanisms. Regulation of brain circulation. Metabolic regulation systems of temperature, thirst,

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BIOENGINEERING OF THE MOTOR SYSTEM Motor programme generation and control strategies, cortical and spinale organisation, muscular activation. Muscular and joint moments and forces. Equations of motion. Myoelectric motor signals. Electrodes. Noise sources. Signal amplifiers. EMG distortion. Motor external forces. Principles of force sensors. Multi-axial transducing cells. Sensed insoles and force plates. Signal amplifiers. Ground reaction processing. Measures of body surfaces and volumes. Generation of skin key-points. Systems for body surface scanning and key-point grid detection. Key-point grid interpolation and skin surface reconstruction. Kinematic measurement of human movement. Protocols for data capture. Opto-electronic sensors and methods for object oriented recognition. Fast signal processors and parallel structure. Object classification and tracking. System calibration. From 2-D images to 3-D object transformation.

BIOENGINEERING IN NEURO-SENSORY SYSTEMS [C.I.] General structure of neurosensory systems. Short introduction to the functional anatomy of the nervous system. Comparison of functional evaluation methods. Introduction to psychophysics. The auditory system. Sound and speech. The external and medial ear. Cochlea, basilar membrane, and ciliate cells. The spiral ganglion. Brain stem nuclei and auditory cortex. Auditory psychophysics and audiology. External and cochlear prostheses. The visual and oculomotor system. Photoreceptors. Extraction of contrast and movement characteristics in the retina. Lateral geniculate body. Structure of the primary and secondary visual cortex and visual feature extraction. Integration areas. Visual psychophysics. Chromatic theories. Visual illusions. Tridimensional and movement perception. Diagnostic and therapeutic

MECHANICS OF BIOLOGICAL STRUCTURES Mechanics of soft tissues (vascular walls, tendons and ligaments): non linear kinematic and kinetics, models for anisotropic elastic materials, time dependence (viscoelasticity).

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BIOFLUID DYNAMICS The course aims at providing the students with theoretical and numerical tools use-

methods in ophthalmology. Aids, substitutive prostheses and retinal implants. Somatosensory system: brief remarks on general structure and psychophysics. Taste and smell (brief remarks).

nutrition, glucose. Structure and function of the respiratory system and its components. Statics, kinematics, dynamics and energetics of ventilation. Estimate of respiratory muscle action and respiratory system mechanical properties (resistive, elastic and inertial). Modelling of respiratory system: morphometric and functional models, lumped and distributed element models. Measurement methods for primary variables (volume, flow, pressure and gas concentration). Methods for clinical investigation. Mechanical ventilation. Interaction with the cardiovascular system. Control of ventilation.

master

B iomedical E ngineering

B iomedical E ngineering

phase flows. The multiscale approach to Physiological Systems complex biofluid dynamic problems will (MOD) Courses 5 ects be treated, too.

HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT (HTA) METHODOLOGIES Selected topics and evaluation methodologies for value chain structured assessment of Diagnosis-Therapy Process cycle (DTP) and Health Technologies in private and public Healthcare Organizations. Macroscale and microscale fundamental recaps: Health and Wellness. Evans-Stoddard Model for Health Determinants. Successful Aging Strategies. Cellular Processes. Biological Modelling relationship. Diagnosis-therapy process cycle: DTP Cycle Reference Model. Decision under Incomplete Knowledge. DTP Cycle Strategic Role. Patient-Client Typing. System Critical Path. Value Creation and Multiplication. Health technologies: from Clinical to Molecular Medicine. Technology Evolution. Organizational Evolution. Structure Evolution. Technology Standards. Organizational Standards. Structure Standards.

CLINICAL OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Course of the Medical School of the “Università degli Studi di Milano” open to a limited number of graduate students in Biomedical Engineering. The main topics of clinical obstetrics and gynecology are introduced by class lectures and are in-

DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING AND RADIOTHERAPY Course of the Medical School of the “Università degli Studi di Milano” open to a limited number of graduate students in Biomedical Engineering. The main topics of radiology and nuclear medicine and their diagnostic and therapeutic applications are introduced by class lectures. Specific widening is devoted to instrumentation.

Advanced (SPEC) Courses 10 ETCS

NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES Course of the Medical School of the “”Università degli Studi di Milano”” open to a limited number of graduate students in Biomedical Engineering. The main topics of clinical neurology are introduced by class lectures and are integrated by an autonomous study of the relevant basic elements in anatomy and physiology, lab visits, and widening over specific instrumental tests.

ADVANCED DATA ANALYSIS IN MEDICINE AND BIOINFORMATICS The course introduces some advanced data and signal processing methods, by integrating the modelling approach with the information processing methods in order to obtain relevant physiological and clinical fallouts. Further, specific mathematical, statistical and computational methods will be developed for the processing of experimental data in post-genomic era in Biology and Medicine, for the molecular characterization of physiological and pathological mechanisms. Methods. Time/ frequency, time/scale and wavelet analyses. Time invariant stochastic parametric approach: Wiener filter and time variant parametric approach : adaptive filters and Kalman filters. Complexity in biomedical systems and signals: basic definitions in non-linear dynamic systems. Higher order

SEMIOTICS AND SYSTEMATICS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Course of the Medical School of the “Università degli Studi di Milano” open to a limited number of graduate students in Biomedical Engineering. The main topics of clinical cardiology are introduced by class lectures and are integrated by an autonomous study of the relevant basic elements in anatomy and physiology, lab visits, and widening over specific instrumental tests.

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CLINICAL ORTHOPEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY Course of the Medical School of the “Università degli Studi di Milano” open to a limited number of graduate students in Biomedical Engineering. The main topics of clinical orthopedics and traumatology are introduced by class and are integrated by an autonomous study of the relevant basic elements in anatomy and physiology, lab visits, and widening over specific instrumental tests.

tegrated by an autonomous study of the relevant basic elements in anatomy and physiology, lab visits, and widening over specific instrumental tests.

master

B iomedical E ngineering

B iomedical E ngineering

Medical and Biological (MED) Courses 10 ects

Mechanics of cartilage, spatially graded properties (graded composition/function), poroviscoelasticity. Mechanics of bone tissue: anisotropic elasticity for bones, relationships between structure and properties, homogeneization of composite materials. Laboratory tests for mechanical characterization of tissues and relevant models. Self adaptive mechanical properties of tissues, growth and remodelling. Mechanics of selected biomaterials: metal alloys and ceramic materials. Solution methods for the mechanics of tissues and biomaterials.

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS AND BIOREACTORS The course will provide the basis for studying experimental systems used in biotechnology research. The course will introduce the fundamentals of RNA, DNA (chromosomes and genes), proteins (intracellular, transmembrane, extracellular). Embryonic development: growth differentiation and morphoge-

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BIOMEDICAL IMAGES AND COMPUTER AIDED SURGERY METHODS Biomedical Images – Introduction: importance of 3D, multimodal, and functional imaging. Reconstruction from projection methods: 3D, numerical, statistical. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles and instrumentation. Non ideal factors and artefacts in MRI. In vivo MRI spectroscopy. MRI angiography. Diffusion weighted MRI and tractography. Functional MRI and statistical parametric mapping. Non linear and 3D echography. Cardiac imaging. Computer Assisted Surgery – Design of Computer Asisted Surgery (CAS) systems. Pre-operative phase: 4-D imaging; methods for 2-D and 3-D segmentation; modelling and rendering of surfaces and volumes; Surgical simulation and planning: conventions for position and orientation representation; mapping and spatial transformations. Surgical robotics: kinematic chains; direct and inverse kinematic problem. Intra-operative phase: stereotactic surgery and image guided surgery. The registration problem: point-based registration; surface registration; acquisition and registration of intra-operative images; Target Registration Error. Surgical navigation. Management of organ motion events; methods of deformable registration. Example of applications in neurosurgery, orthopaedic surgery, radiosurgery.

E-HEALTH METHODS AND APPLICATIONS The course is the final one of the BioMedical Informatics and e-Health track in the Biomedical Engineering curriculum. So, the course is widely grounded on the other previous courses on the same track. Nevertheless, the absence of such grounding does not deny to attend the course. The methods part deals with some insights significantly relevant in developing wide impact applications. Such are biolanguages and bioarchives. Biolanguages target medical ontology, focusing the healthcare clinical and family environments. Bioarchives are for the large healthcare information systems, both institutional and geographical. As for the applications part, sustainably exhaustive case studies are presented as examples of services, widespread and relevant for their user. These can be the patient, his physicians and other clinical

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BIOMIMETICS AND TISSUE ENGINEERING The biomimetics module concerns the application of advanced structures, purposely designed, to substitute or recreate tissues or parts of the human body. “Biomimetic” structures are intended those that imitate aspects and functions of living structures. Topics: types and preparation of bioartificial and biomimetic structures. Biointegrable and biodegradable materials: types and strategies for application. 2D and 3D matrices: main preparation methods. Synthetic and hybrid scaffolds for tissue engineering. Methods of characterization and in vitro evaluation. Response of the human body to the implantation of bioartificial and

assistants, the institutional or governmental administrators.

biomimetic structures. Systems for controlled release of drugs and biomolecules. The tissue engineering module provides design criteria for the generation of bioartificial tissue, within the context of regenerative medicine. Specific quantitative aspects related to the in vitro generation of tissue will be deepened, as regards to cell origin and as regards to fluid dynamics and mass transport. The clinical context (pathology, limits of the conventional therapy, clinical application, ethical and regulatory aspects) in which engineered tissue is developed, used and evaluated will also be deepened.”

master

B iomedical E ngineering

B iomedical E ngineering

nesis. The three paradigms of biological development. Genetic control of the shape of the body. This course will provide basics in current molecular techniques and eukaryotic cell culture, highlighting their most important characteristics, requirements, and usefulness in bioreactor sciences. Therapeutic cloning and tissue engineering. Control and design of bioreactors for vessels, bone cartilage, muscle engineering. Examples to illustrate this course will be drawn from stateof-the-art scientific literature.”

analysis: bispectrum and bicoherence. Integration of information in multivariate, multisystem, multiscale, multimodal frames. Applications. Relevant to the Central Nervous System, the Autonomic Nervous Systems, the Cardiovascular System, the Respiratory System and their interactions. Computational Genomics and Proteomics. DNA: structure-to-function paradigm. Access to biological databases and integrated tools. Sequence analysis: alignment, similarity and homology, consensus sequences and motifs. Models of evolution. Information theory in molecular biology. Phylogenetics and comparative genomics. Information treatment in proteomics. Assessment of gene expression through microarray technologies. Basics of genetics

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HEALTH CARE MANAGEMENT The course focuses on Health Care. Students learn about health care sector and factors that significantly influence decision making both at the policy level and at the level of the firm or organization. This course examines the structure of health care system in Italy, focusing on financing, reimbursement, delivery systems and adoption of new technologies; it introduces management of health care organizations: accounting, planning, assessing quality using outcomes data; risk management. The course is organized around a number of readings, cases, presentations, and a required project.

Laboratory (LAB) Courses

5 ETCS

(Laboratory teachings are reserved to a finite number of students; pre-iscription to these courses ends 15 days before the last date for study-plan submission. The admission classification is based on a valuation modality that will be published at the Department didactics secretary not beyond the pre-iscription date.)

Economics and Management (GES)Courses 10 ETCS MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN Firm: definition and objectives, organization, elements of corporate governan-

LABORATORY OF BIOCOMPATIBILITY AND CELL CULTURE

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master

DESIGN OF LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS Insight in the technology and design of life support systems partially or totally sustaining vital internal organs functions together with the evaluation of patient to machine interaction. Based on the transport phenomena involved, design criteria will be defined and optimised with reference to the following temporary or permanent support systems: respiratory and ventilation support, blood circulation support, ventricular assist devices, artificial heart, renal support, pancreatic function support. Differences among intra-, extra-, para-corporeal systems and indication to use in relation to the kind of application and implant duration will also be discussed.. Each topic will be addressed focusing design specification criteria, materials, regulation strategies, energy sources and

ceDecisions and decision criteria : steps and resposibility in decision makingProject management Strategy: strategy definition and value creation, main classification of strategic decisions, competition and vertical integration, differentiation and portfolio analysis methodologies.

master

B iomedical E ngineering

B iomedical E ngineering

NEUROENGINEERING The goal of the class is to introduce to the basics of neuroengineering, presenting both the methods and the applications. The approach is doublefold. From neuroscience, the models and the computational methods are derived from the human cognition and sensorimotor control, such as reasoning methods, neural networks, genetic algorithms and kalman filters. From engineering, the models and the technologies are derived aiming at understanding and supporting neuromotor and neurosensory system functions, with special focus on neuroprostheses in rehabilitation, models of the visual system and perception and optoelectronic interfaces for the communication to neurons in vitro and in vivo.

transfer, control features, in relation to application duration of the support. Hints will be given about international regulatory standards. TECHNOLOGIES FOR MOTION ANALYSIS AND VIRTUALIZATION The course describes in detail the core technologies for detection and interactive virtualization of human motor acts. The topics include: Technologies for measures of myoelectric activity: signal generation; electrodes; biological and environmental noise; amplifiers; sources of signal distortion. Technologies for measures of subject-environment forces: sensors and signal conditioning units; amplifiers; pressure maps; sources of signal distortions. Technologies for measures of motion kinematics: interfacing features; sensors; information recognition and extraction; signal processors; noise identification and suppression; off-line and real time tracking; calibration and 3D reconstruction. Technologies for 3D virtual interaction subjectsenvironment: maps and surface key points; 3D surface reconstruction; multiple object worlds and integration; real time interaction; animation; virtual prototyping and simulation.

sign criteria for biofluid-dynamic experiments; measurement of hydrodynamic and rheologic quantities; -lab pumping systems; -methods for the development of hydraulic mock loops. Laboratory activities consist in tackling practical cases, chosen among different fields of interest for biofluid dynamics: -analysis and discussion of the proposed case; -experimental design (literature analysis, setting-up of the experimental equipment, protocol drafting); -carrying out of the experimental campaign; discussion and reporting.

LABORATORY OF BIOFLUID DYNAMICS The course deals with the laboratory techniques for the analysis of biofluiddynamic problems related to cardiovascular physiopathology, surgery and biomedical devices. Chair lessons: -de-

LABORATORY OF BIOMATERIALS + LABORATORY

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COMPUTATIONAL BIOMECHANICS LABORATORY [C.I.] The course introduces to the numerical techniques currently adopted for the design and evaluation of biomedical devices and to the assessment of physio-pathologic states and surgical procedures. Along the course, the student will practice with two standard commercial codes aimed at the strucure and fluid dynamic analysis, respectively. In detail, the course will focus on the following topics: Introduction to computational mechanics: discretisation methods; numerical method for the solution of partial derivative equations. Structural mechanics: the ABAQUS code; modelling of elastic hyperelastic and anisotropic materials; contact mechanics. Fluid mechanics: the Fluent code; laminar and turbulent flows; steady and transient flows. Multiphysic problems: moving boundary, complex boundary conditions; fluid-structure interactions.

OF INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS [C.I.] The laboratory of instrumental analysis describes the most used investigation techniques for chemico-physical, morphological and mechanical characterization of materials, with particular attention to the techniques used in the biomedical field. The students have the possibility to perform the analyses with some of the described techniques in an experimental and guided path aimed to the investigation of commercial or experimental biomedical devices. The main techniques described and used are: optical and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, STM), laser profilometry, static and dynamic contact angle, X-rays diffractometry,

LABORATORY OF TISSUE CHARACTERISATION Lectures. Measuring instruments Measures of length and displacement. Measures of strains. Measures of force, torque and pressure. Measures of viscosity. Measures of flow. Measures of temperature. Testing ma-

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infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR, ATR FT-IR), liquid chromatography analyses (HPLC, GPC), intrinsic viscosity, thermal analyses (DSC, TGA), thermo-dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), mechanical characterization (tensile, compression, creep).

master

B iomedical E ngineering

B iomedical E ngineering

+ LABORATORY OF MICRO AND NANO STRUCTURES [C.I.] “Laboratory of biocompatibility and cell culture Theory: Biomaterial-biological environment interaction; Normative: biological agents and laboratory classification; evaluation of the risks; safety rules; good laboratory practice; Biological validation of the biomaterials: models and assays (in vitro and in vivo); normative. Cell culture techniques; Biochemical assays for cell response assessment. Laboratory: Description of equipments and techniques commonly used in a cell culture laboratory Laboratory of micro and nano structures Theory: optical and electron microscopy. Morphological and chemical characterisation of biological substrata by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and ESEM) and chemical microanalysis (EDS); scanning probe microscopy (AFM, etc.) and its applications in the study of nanostructures. Complementary techniques for surface characterisation . Laboratory: application of the described techniques for the analysis of materials used for biological assays. Procedure for preparation of biological samples and analysis by scanning electron microscope and scanning probe microscope.

BIOMEDICAL IMAGE PROCESSING LABORATORY The course is based on a presentation of basic concepts related to the biomedi-

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BIOMOLECULAR MODELLING LABORATORY The aim of the course is to familiarize students with modern methods of biomolecular modelling. Both theoretical and computational activities will be developed. From the practical side the theoretical aspects will be used to study proteins, lipids, and saccharides and to address practical issues such as diffusion phenomena, determination of nanoscale mechanical properties, drug design, etc.). The main aspects covered in this course are: base concepts of molecular modelling approach; molecular mechanics, definition, features, and force field definition and parametrization; optimization techiniques; molecular dynamics; coarse grain approach for biomolecules.

BIOSIGNAL PROCESSING LAB Introduction to software tools for scientific computing and their use for the design of biosignal processing algorithms. Data Analysis. Data fitting, criteria for model selection and identification, LMS estimation. Interpolation. Signal analysis. FFT and harmonic analysis of biosignals. Design of FIR and IIR filters for biomedical applications, detection of waves and patterns. Spectral estimate: parametric and non-parametric methods, application to EEG and Heart Rate Variability signals. Enhancement of evoked potentials: averaging and single sweep approach. Advanced topics of biosignal processing will be exploited through specific project assignment. Project topics range from multi-variate parametric estimate, optimal filters, time-frequency transform, to non-linear analysis, synchronization and coupling. Biomedical signal

MEDICAL ROBOTICS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPUTER ASSISTED SURGERY

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LABORATORY OF MEDICAL INFORMATICS AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS The course, held in the Informatics Room, is devoted to the experimental development of “Learning by Doing” Educational Projects of Medical Informatics, Bioinformatics, Telemedicine, and Teleteaching. Educational purpose of the projects consists of allowing students to acquire satisfactory professional levels - intended as the set of knowledge, friendliness competence, and ability of critical analysis - about some specific Web applications of distributed systems for Medicine and Biology. Operative purpose of the projects - in support of the educational aim and to practically demonstrate its results - focuses on the design and implementation of dynamic

The aim of the course is to introduce students to the current use of mechatronics and robotics in the medical field. Focus will be on Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS) and technologies for minimally invasive interventions. Students will be provided with mathematical and technological foundations needed for designing and building robotic systems for neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, laparoscopy and rehabilitation devices. Procedures and problems related to navigated and image guided surgery (IGS) will be presented and discussed. Practical software and hardware design will be done with the collaboration of clinical partners.

Web sites, connected to a database, devoted to provide educational contents and implement interactive services via intranet/internet in Clinic, Healthcare, Bioinformatics, TeleMedicine, and Teleteaching fields, time by time oriented to researchers, doctors, patients, citizens. The aim is training students to be a human resource of immediate use value that makes easier to find useful and appreciated job roles, either in business or in research. More information at: http:// www.medinfopoli.polimi.it/corsi/

master

B iomedical E ngineering

B iomedical E ngineering

cal image processing: transforms, image enhancement, spatial filtering, non linear image processing techniques, color image processing, interpolation, morphological filters, image segmentation techniques, 3D reconstruction, surface rendering, image compression. During the laboratory lessons, the application of the basic concepts presented above to different biomedical images (MRI, ultrasounds, RX, TAC, etc.) will be discussed, pointing out the processing techniques available to address the major problems, and the methods applied to extract quantitative parameters utilized in the clinical practice as an aid to the qualitative interpretation.

chines and grips for tissue characterization. Mechanical properties of soft collagenous tissues. Hard tissues. Poroelastic tissues. Viscoelasticity of tissues. Laboratory. Testing machines. Calibration of transducers. Design and manufacture of a strain gage load cell. Viscosimeters. . Storage and preparation of specimens. Force and strain measurements on compliant tissues. Tests on tissues and whole organs. Tensile tests on collagenous tissues (ligaments, biological membranes). Biaxial tests on anisotropic membranes. Tests on hard tissues (bone). Compression tests on biphasic tissues (articular cartilage). Viscosity of biological fluids. LABORATORY OF BIOMECHANICAL DESIGN Lectures. Methods for the biomechanical design. Technical standards for tests on medical devices and prostheses. Experimental approach based on mock-up simulators. Design of mock-up simulators for artificial ventricles and endomedullary nails. Design of measurement systems: viscometer for bone cements, friction heating in prosthetic joints, fatigue tests on multiple samples. Mechanical reliability of endoprostheses. Theoretical evaluation of osteosyntesis devices and modular prostheses. Laboratory. Experimental tests on medical devices and prosthesis. Computational simulation of medical devices and prosthesis.

Equipments. Technical aspects and project criteria. The organization and the management of a Movement Analysis Lab in clinic. The Italian and international Labs. 3. Main protocols for data collection , data elabo-

structures on proteins. Introduction: some definitions; the proteome complexity; the tools of the trade. Strategies in chromatographic protein purification.

projects proposed will include devices for the following applications: diagnostic devices, life-support systems, critical patient monitoring, ultrasonografic imaging and computer aided surgery, functional electrical stimulation, home monitoring and human computer interface.

ration, data analysis and reports. Models4. The Gait Analysis Analysis. Protocols.Normal and pathological walking.5. Functional evaluation in children with Cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, Mielomenigocelis. Functional evaluation in adults with Parkinson disease, obesity, orthopedic pathologies. 6. The use of movement and posture analysis for rehabilitation. Pre /post surgery, orthosis, pharmacological treatments?.

Ion-exchangers. Gel filtration. ReversedPhase, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). Affinity chromatography. Chromatofocusing. Electrophoretic Techniques. Disc Electrophoresis. SDS PAGE (Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Isoelectric focusing (IEF) - Immobilized pH gradients (IPG). Isotachophoresis. Capillary zone electrophoresis. Sample preparations: expected and unexpected artifacts.

LABORATORY OF FUNCTIONAL EVALUATION 1. Introduction to postural and movement evaluation for clinical applications. The aim of quantitative evaluation of functional limitation related to the pathology.2. The laboratory of human movement analysis.

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PROTEOMICS A review of basic concepts: acid-base properties of amino acids; the peptide bond; the alpha helix; primary to quaternary

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master

LABORATORY OF ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGIES AND BIOSENSORS Design and implementation in an electronic laboratory of a biomedical device choosed between a list of projects. During the course several semiconductor-based devices will be introduced: operational amplifiers, filters, A/D-D/A converters and insulation and protection circuits. Sensors conditioning. Amplification of bioelectrical signals. Digital electronics, FPGA, microprocessors, microcontrollers, DSP and their development tools. Design, implementation and testing of electronic

devices. Data transmission in biomedical environment: digital networks. Serial communication protocols for wired and wireless networks. Biosensors. Wearable computing and wearable sensors. The

master

B iomedical E ngineering

B iomedical E ngineering

and data to be analysed: Electrocardiogram (ECG) blood pressure, respiration, Elettroencephalogram (EEG) and evoked potentials, otoacustic emission, voice signals, DNA sequences.

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programs programs

Doctoral Programs

5-10

Yes

2

National School of the GNB - CNR 1

5

Yes*

No

1,2

Analysis and Synthesis of the Human movement

7,5

No

Si

Biomaterials and tissue engineering

5

Cellular and molecular biomechanics

5

Yes

Experimental Biomechanics

5

Yes

Bioreactors and regenerative medicine

5

Yes

Advanced processing of biomedical signal and data

5

Yes

Biomedical databasesi: query and management

5

Yes

Innovation in Digital Public Helthcare Systems

5

Yes

Computational nonlinear mechanic for biological tissues and materials

5

Yes

Methods for biomaterials characterization

5

Yes

Microscopy and molecular imaging

5

Yes

Biological measures

5

Yes

Neuroengineering

5

Yes

Experimental project and statistical analysis

5

Yes

Electronic technologies in biomedical engineering

5

Yes

Tecnologie per la qualità dei processi diagnosticoterapeutici

5

No

National School of the GNB - CNR 2

5

0-10

Overview study and definition of the Ph.D. research theme.

15

Participation to conferences and schools

30

Activity presentation and discussion with Tutor and Board. Report

5

Experimental laboratory activity dedicated to the development of the Ph.D. project.

30

Didactic seminars

Yes*

Scientific publications concerning research themes others than the Ph.D. research

Scientific publications concernig researches directly related to the PhD subject

0-15

No

Scientific publications concernig researches not directly related to the PhD subject

National School of the GNB - CNR 3

TOT CREDITS

0-25

TOT CREDITS

5

40

Yes*

Activity presentation to the Ph.D. Board. Report. Revision of the Reserch project

5

Experimental laboratory activity for thesis

25

Scientific publications concerning the Ph.D. research theme

5-30

Thesis Revisions and presentations to the Ph.D. Board. Final version of the thesis. Public seminar

35

TOT CREDITS

110

No

TOT CREDITS

30

]* Duribg the three years program two National Schools are mandatory

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CREDITS

Courses Organized by the PhD track in Bioengineering or, in case, course chosen by the advisory board among not mandatory courses in Biomedical engineering master program

Yes

1

2

PHD THEYESS ACTIVITIES

CREDITS

ELECTIVE COURSES AND TRAINING ON SPECIFIC THEMES

ENGLISH (Y/N)

MANDATORY (Y/N)

CREDITS

Courses proposed by the Doctoral School (see brochure of the year) Courses organized by the PhD track in Bioengineering

2

3

PH.D COURSESS

MANDATORY (Y/N) No

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programs

5-10

programs

2

Master Courses from the Engineering Master Degree of the Politecnico di Milano

CREDITS

SEMESTER 1,2

MASTER COURSES

YEAR

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1

Some themes of the recent past editions: 2004 • Advanced methodsof biomedical signal processing 2005 • Biomaterials: from protesic implants to regeneretive medicine 2006 • Neuro-Robotics. Neuroscience e robotics for the development of intelligent machines 2007 • Computational Genomics & Proteomics ­2008 • Wearable Intelligent Devices for Human Health and Protection

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FAMILY NAME

FIRST NAME

POSITION

INSTITUTION

DEPARTMENT

Signorini

Maria Gabriella

Coordinator

Politecnico di Milano

Bioengineering

Baselli

Giuseppe

FP

Politecnico di Milano

Bioengineering

Cerutti

Sergio

FP

Politecnico di Milano

Bioengineering

Dubini

Gabriele

FP

Politecnico di Milano

Structural Engineering

Ferrigno

Giancarlo

FP

Politecnico di Milano

Bioengineering

Fumero

Roberto

FP

Politecnico di Milano

Structural Engineering

Pedotti

Antonio

FP

Politecnico di Milano

Bioengineering

Pietrabissa

Riccardo

FP

Politecnico di Milano

Structural Engineering

Pinciroli

Francesco

FP

Politecnico di Milano

Bioengineering

Santambrogio

Giorgio Cesare

FP

Politecnico di Milano

Bioengineering

Tanzi

Maria Cristina

FP

Politecnico di Milano

Bioengineering

Redaelli

Alberto

AP

Politecnico di Milano

Bioengineering

Bianchi

Anna Maria

RE

Politecnico di Milano

Bioengineering Bioengineering

Mantero

Sara

RE

Politecnico di Milano

Biondi

Emanuele

OT

Politecnico di Milano

Ravazzani

Paolo

IRE

National Res. Council

Rizzo

Giovanna

IRE

National Res. Council

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programs

The Doctoral Program in Bioengineering trains graduate students through a strong interdisciplinary education on engineering, mathematics, medical and biological knowledge to develop high level engineering problem-solving abilities in life sciences inside a research group or in private or public industrial contexts. Students are involved in research works in fields currently ongoing at the Bioengineering Department of Politecnico di Milano which organizes the PhD track. PhD students in Bioengineering are about 15 per year, around 50 in the three year course. Research themes include modelling and analysis of physiological data, signals and systems; biomedical imaging processing and technologies; technologies and instrumentation for movement analysis, rehabilitation, ergonomics and sports; therapeutic devices and life support systems in cardiology, cardio/surgery and pneumology; design and assessment of prostheses; computer aided surgery and surgery optimization through modelling; cardiovascular fluid dynamics; molecular, cellular and tissue engineering for biomaterials and prostheses; neuro-engineering and nanobiosystems; genomic and proteomic data analysis; bioinformatics. Stage periods in distinguished research institutes in Italy and abroad are an essential feature of the student training. The educational offer includes ad hoc advanced courses specifically projected for the Ph.D. Among them, the school of the National Bioengineering Group is held every year since 1981 for one week in Bressanone (BZ). The content of the School is focused on themes of the bioengineering research and knowledge and it is organised with the support of national and international qualified teachers in the specific field coming both from academic and industrial research. The school is also a unique opportunity to put together students from different Doctoral Programs coming from the entire country. This allows exchanging ideas and experiences also representing a very useful educational event.

Scientific and research Ph.D activities receive a strong support by Laboratories located inside and outside the Department in cooperation with other research bodies and university hospitals: ­• Laboratory of 2D-3D analysis and modelling of neural and sensory systems and bioelectromagnetism • Biomaterials Laboratory ­• Laboratory of biocompatibility and cell culture -BioCell ­• Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics – LABS ­• Laboratory of Computational Biomechanics ­• The “Luigi Divieti Posture and Movement Analysis Laboratory ­• Laboratory of micro and bio fluid dynamics ­• Biomedical Signal Processing Laboratory ­• Medical Informatics Laboratory ­• Biomedical Technologies Laboratories. The PhD in Bioengineering has an Advisory Board which has in charge all the student activities

programs

B iomedical E ngineering B iomedical E ngineering

DOCTORAL PROGRAMS Coordinator: Prof Maria Gabriella Signorini

­Dott. Gatti Emanuele, Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany ­Dott. Carlo Mambretti, ASSOBIOMEDICA, Milano ­Prof. Paolo Francescon, Direttore U. O. Fisica Sanitaria, Ospedale S. Bortolo, Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Vicenza, Italy ­Prof. Ferdinando Grandori, Head Istituto Ingegneria Biomedica CNR, Milano, Italy ­Dr. Ivan Martin, Head of Laboratory, University Hospital Basel, Institute for Surgical Research and Hospital Management, Basel- Switzerland The interest toward the activities of the Ph.D in Bioengineering is demonstrated also by the external financing of PhD Fellowships. Some recent supporters besides the Bioengineering Department, of our PhD are

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doctoralprograms

Italian Institute of Technology, IIT Foundation Istituto di Ingegneria Biomedica ISIB del CNR Istituto OrtopedicoGaleazzi , Milano Fondazione Giovanni e Annamaria Cottino, Torino. IRCSS Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Roma IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Milano Broncus Corp, Canada Fondazione MEDEA – Bosisio Parini Istituto di Bioimmagini e Fisiologia Molecolare (IBFM) CNR- Segrate

doctoral programs

B iomedical E ngineering B iomedical E ngineering

The External Reference Committee is a fundamental link toward the industrial research, the clinical applications with an european and international perspective.