Master of Science in Engineering in Computer Science (MSE

(Sales: $137.6 billion; Net income: $4.4 billion) “[Our] information systems extends far beyond the walls of any one store. Starting from the basic in...

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DIPARTIMENTO DI INGEGNERIA INFORMATICA AUTOMATICA E GESTIONALE ANTONIO RUBERTI

Master of Science in Engineering in Computer Science (MSE-CS)

Seminars in Software and Services for the Information Society Umberto Nanni

Introduction to RFId – Radio Frequency Identification

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What is RFID? A “label” or “tag” containing: • a micro-chip • antenna (receiver/transmitter) • a small memory (*), containing: – identification code – additional information (*) read-only, write-once, read/write

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Principles of Operation

1: ENERGY 2: DATA EXCHANGE

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Operational components of a RFID system

4 – INFRASTRUCTURE

2 – READER

1 – RFID TAG 1: ENERGY 2: DATA EXCHANGE

3 – SOFTWARE

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Principles of Operation - coupling Low Frequency

High Frequency

inductive coupling

Back Scattering

TAG

Reader

Reader

N TAG

S

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Frequencies Example

Frequency

Distance

LF

125khz

Few cm

Auto-Immobilizer

HF

13.56Mhz

1m

Building Access

UHF

900Mhz

~7m

Supply Chain

µwave

2.4Ghz

10m

Traffic Toll

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Application

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RFID-Tag types Passive tags • low unit cost • no power supply (energy from the reader) • transmission when reading

Semi-active tag • independent power from the reader, but with limited autonomy (or for additional sensors) • data transmission only when interrogated by the reader (no autonomous transmission)

Active tags • power completely independent from the drive (battery to power • the chip and the transmission system) • generate RF energy to transmit the data independently Umberto Nanni

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Components of a RFID system PRINTER • a suitable printer can write information on the tag (equivalent to printing the bar code) LABELING • the tag must be attached on the interested "thing" OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS tag (chip+antenna+physical support): stores a unique identifier and optionally further data reader: coupling between the tag antenna andthe infrastructure infrastructure: connects the reader and the information system driver and application software: registers the reading event Umberto Nanni

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Some Applications and devices

tape conveyor

telepass

forklift printers vehicles

hand-held reader Umberto Nanni

point of sale

intelligent shelves

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Handheld Readers • Handheld systems with integrated RFID reader and antenna • Sometimes integrated into an existing barcode scanner product

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Fixed RFID Readers • “Pizza box” readers with ~2-8 antennas • Typically used in supply chain applications

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Embedded Readers • “Credit Card-sized” module used to add RFID to a special-purpose device • Examples: RFID printer/encoders, package sorters and POS terminals (cash registers)

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Traditional Applications

Automated Vehicle Id

Auto Immobilizers • Stand-alone systems • Basic Information

Access Control Umberto Nanni

Animal Tracking Seminars of Software and Services for the Information Society

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Integrated Reader/Antenna • Single antenna with integrated reader capability

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BARCODE/RFID

Barcode

RFID

Memory

limited capacity

high capacity

Access to data

read-only

Ability to rewrite

Metering Modes

A single reading at a time

More contemporary readings

Read range

A few cm manually

Up to a few meters in automatic or manual mode

Robustness of the device

easily consumable

Wear-resistant (with proper packaging)

Mode of interaction

Need to aim for the label

Omnidirectional reading

Quality of support

Reading difficulties (dirt, damage)

Immunity to dirt, structural strength

Cost

inexpensive

Still relatively high

Adoption

Worldwide

Still in the process of adoption

Standard

Established for decades (EAN-UCC)

Several have been established (*) – quite young

Inclusion in the product easy

Not always easy

(*) Two main international RFID standardisation bodies: • ISO - International Standards Organisation • EPCglobal - Electronics Product Global Incorporated Umberto Nanni SeminarsCode of Software and Services for the Information Society

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10.000.000.000.000

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RFID – fragments of history 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

First Bar code patents – 1930s First use of RFID device – 2nd world war – Brittan used RFID-like technology for Identify- Friend or Foe Harry Stockman October 1948 Paper – Communication by means of reflected power (The proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers) First RFID Patent – 1973 Auto-ID center founded at MIT – 1999 – Standardization effort taken over by EPC Global (Electronic Product Code)

6.

Current thrust primarily driven by Wal-Mart and DoD – Automate Distribution: − Reduce cost (man power, shipping mistakes) − Increase sales (keep shelves full) − DoD Total Asset Visibility Initiative

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What are the advantages of RFID? • No contact requirement • Invisible • Read capability and sometimes a write capability • Real-time response • More durable than bar code • No need for multiple bar codes

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What are the disadvantages (so far)?

• Average selling price (ASP) of $0.25 • Relatively few industry standards • Occasional no-reads and mis-reads • Software integration hurdles • Requisite physical infrastructure Umberto Nanni

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Top Users Wal-Mart • June ’03 announcement • Pallet/Case tagging

+

−Top 100 suppliers Jan ’05 −Other 30K by end of ’06

• 4 Billion tags/year • 300k direct readers • 18 Million indirect readers

• Inter-connected systems • Complex information Umberto Nanni

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The top investor

billions of individual items per year from the pallet and packing slip Umberto Nanni

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How large?

1999 (press release) (Sales: $137.6 billion; Net income: $4.4 billion)

GPD 2006

1 United States 2 Rep. of China “[Our] information systems extends far beyond the 3 Japan walls of any one store. Starting from the basic 4 India information compiled at the checkout stand, at the ... shelves, and gathered by associates equipped with 9 Italy hand-held computer monitors, [we] works to manage ... its supplies and inventories not only in the stores, but 26 Egypt all the way back to the original store. ... In today's 27 Belgium retailing world, speed is a crucial competitive 28 Greece advantage. And when it comes to turning information 29 Malaysia into improved merchandising and service to the 30 Sweden customer, [we are] out in front and gaining speed. 31 Venezuela In the word of Randy Mott, senior vice president and 32 Austria chief information officer, ‘The surest way to predict ... the future is to invent it.’” Umberto Nanni

13,163,870 6,091,977 4,081,442 2,740,066

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1,709,548 367,366 353,570 349,817 327,364 310,602 298,862 298,521

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Figures 2012

# Country 1 United States 2 China 3 Japan 4 Germany 5 France 6 United Kingdom 7 Brazil 8 Russia 9 Italy 10 India 11 Canada 12 Australia 13 Spain 14 Mexico

2012 GDP (million) 15.650.000 8.250.000 5.984.000 3.367.000 2.580.000 2.434.000 2.425.000 2.053.000 1.980.000 1.947.000 1.770.000 1.542.000 1.340.000 1.163.000

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# 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Country South Korea Indonesia Turkey Netherlands Saudi Arabia Switzerland Sweden Norway Iran Belgium Argentina Poland Taiwan Austria

2012 GDP (million) 1.151.000 894.900 783.100 770.200 657.000 622.900 520.600 499.800 488.300 476.800 474.800 470.400 466.100 391.500

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Wal*Mart Wal*Mart is the largest supermarket chain in the world. Its revenue is about $ 450 billion Wal*Mart has asked its suppliers to adopt more percent, starting in January 2005, containers and pallets equipped with RFID tags. After all the suppliers have adapted, main benefits obtained: • Out of stock: - 16% • Replenishment of the missing products: 3 times faster • Excess inventory: - 10% Main problems to be solved: • Reading in the presence of water and metal (shampoo, canned foods, etc ...) • Standard non-aligned globally • Infrastructure costs for providers (SW, service, wireless networks, etc ...) Umberto Nanni

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Another application of RFID technology

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RFID can be small

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but, is it sufficient?

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