LONGMAN

A Professor's Retirement 205 Part of a Class Syllabus 206 SKILL 6 NOTE THE MAIN POINTS AS YOU LISTEN 206 Speaking Exercise 6 208 Bicycle Parking on Ca...

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LONGMAN

Second Edition

Preparation Course for the TOEFC Test

DEBORAH PHILLIPS •5» PEARSON

Longman TOEFL® is the registered trademark of Educational Testing Service (ETS). This publication is not endorsed or approved by ETS. No endorsement of this publication by Educational Testing Service should be inferred.

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION

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SECTION ONE: READING

i

READING DIAGNOSTIC PRE-TEST: Aggression R E A D I N G OVERVIEW R E A D I N G SKILLS

2

3

8 10

VOCABULARY AND REFERENCE 10 SKILL 1 UNDERSTAND VOCABULARY FROM CONTEXT Reading Exercise 1 13 Smog 13 Autism 14 Parasitic Plants 15 Edna Ferber 16 SKILL 2

RECOGNIZE REFERENTS 17 Reading Exercise 2 19 Animal Congregation 19 Chromium Compounds 20 New World Epidemics 21 Horatio Alger, Jr. 22 Reading Review Exercise (Skills 1-2) Coral Colonies 23

SENTENCES SKILL 3

SKILL 4

10

23

26

SIMPLIFY MEANINGS OF SENTENCES Reading Exercise 3 28 Camouflage 28 Post-it® Notes 29 The Pulitzer Prize 31 Competition and Cooperation INSERT SENTENCES INTO THE PASSAGE Reading Exercise 4 37 Popcorn 37 Lions 38 Accidental Inventions 39 Uranium 40 Reading Exercise (Skills 3-4) 41 Theodore Dreiser 41 Reading Review Exercise (Skills 1-4) Pulsars 45

26

33 35

45

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DETAILS

49

SKILL 5

FIND FACTUAL INFORMATION 49 Reading Exercise 5 51 Lake Baikal 51 The Postage Stamp 52 The Clovis Culture 53 Brown Dwarfs 54

SKILL 6

UNDERSTAND NEGATIVE FACTS 56 Reading Exercise 6 59 Flatfish 59 Limestone Caves 60 Wrigley's Chewing Gum 61 Dissociative Identity Disorder Reading Exercise (Skills 5-6) 63 John Muir 63 Reading Review Exercise (Skills 1-6) Caretaker Speech 66

INFERENCES

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70

SKILL 7

MAKE INFERENCES FROM STATED FACTS Reading Exercise 7 72 Tiger Moths 72 The Cambrian Explosion 73 The Golden Age of Comics 74 The Filibuster 75

SKILL 8

INFER RHETORICAL PURPOSE 76 Reading Exercise 8 78 Xerography 78 Demographic Change 79 The Hubble Telescope 80 Territoriality 82 Reading Exercise (Skills 7-8) 83 Ella Deloria 83 Reading Review Exercise (Skills 1-8) Early Autos 87

READING TO LEARN SKILL 9

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SELECT SUMMARY INFORMATION Reading Exercise 9 94 Island Plant Life 94 Ben and Jerry 95 The Bald Eagle 96 Modernism in Art 97

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SKILL 10 COMPLETE SCHEMATIC TABLES 98 Reading Exercise 10 101 Sand Dunes 101 A Surprising Connection 102 Carnivorous Plants 103 William Faulkner 104 CONTENTS

66

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Reading Exercise (Skills 9-10) 105 Species 105 Reading Review Exercise (Skills 1-10) Decisions 107 R E A D I N G POST-TEST

111 Aquatic Schools

SECTION TWO: LISTENING

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112

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L I S T E N I N G DIAGNOSTIC P R E T E S T 118 A Problem with a Class 119 Sleep 121 L I S T E N I N G OVERVIEW LISTENING SKILLS

123 125

BASIC COMPREHENSION

125

SKILL 1

UNDERSTAND THE GIST 125 Listening Exercise 1 128 An Engineering Course 128 The Grade Report 128 Lakes 129 Meteorology 129

SKILL 2

UNDERSTAND THE DETAILS 130 Listening Exercise 2 133 A Parking Sticker 133 A Drama Class 134 Early Teachers 135 Iron Pyrite 136 Listening Review Exercise (Skills 1-2) An Anthropology Paper 137

PRAGMATIC UNDERSTANDING

137

139

SKILL 3

UNDERSTAND THE FUNCTION Listening Exercise 3 143 The Library 143 The Transcript 144 The Opossum 145 Venus 146

139

SKILL 4

UNDERSTAND THE SPEAKER'S STANCE Listening Exercise 4 152 Course Load 152 A Questionnaire 153 Iroquois Houses 154 Hail 155 Listening Exercise (Skills 3-4) 156 The Fugio Coin 156 Listening Review Exercise (Skills 1^1) Hibernation 158

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158

CONNECTING INFORMATION

160

SKILL 5

UNDERSTAND THE ORGANIZATION Listening Exercise 5 164 Tropism 164 Fossils 165 Clarence Darrow 166 Fractures 167

SKILL 6

UNDERSTAND RELATIONSHIPS 168 Listening Exercise 6 170 A Placement Test 170 A Term Paper 170 Conifers 171 Presentation 172 Listening Exercise (Skills 5-6) 173 77ze Outer Banks 173 Listening Review Exercise (Skills 1-6) Leaf Arrangements 175

L I S T E N I N G POST-TEST 177 The Music Project The Great Lakes

SECTION THREE: SPEAKING

160

175

178 180

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S P E A K I N G DIAGNOSTIC P R E T E S T 184 A Gooc? Teacher 185 Vacation Preferences 185 Registering for Classes 186 Nonverbal Communication 187 A Problem in French Class 188 Echolocation 188 S P E A K I N G OVERVIEW S P E A K I N G SKILLS

189 192

INDEPENDENT TASKS SKILL 1

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CONTENTS

192

PLAN THE FREE-CHOICE RESPONSE 192 Speaking Exercise 1 193 Characteristics of a Good Neighbor 193 Your Favorite Holiday 193 Which Person Helped the Most 194 Ten Million Dollars 194 Your Dream House 194 Your Favorite Food 194 Characteristics of a Good Parent 195 Where You Want to Live 195 The Person You Want to Meet 195 Where You Will Take the TOEFL Test 195

SKILL 2

MAKE THE FREE-CHOICE RESPONSE 196 Speaking Exercise 2 197 Speaking Review Exercise (Skills 1-2) 197 Your Job 197 Driver Age 197 Student Excuses 197 Your Favorite Day 197 Government Changes 197

SKILL 3

PLAN THE PAIRED-CHOICE RESPONSE 197 Speaking Exercise 3 199 Large or Small Class 199 Dinner at Home or Dinner Out 199 Marriage Before or After Age Thirty 199 Preferred Type of Exams 200 Trip by Plane or Train 200 Big City or Small Town 200 Study Alone or with Friends 200 Play or Watch Sports 201 Opera or a Football Game 201 TOEFL Test or a Math Test 201

SKILL 4

MAKE THE PAIRED-CHOICE RESPONSE Speaking Exercise 4 203 Speaking Review Exercise (Skills 3-4) Teacher Mistakes 203 Taking Chances or Playing It Safe Career Choices 203 Decision Making 203 Obeying Parents 203

INTEGRATED TASKS (READING AND LISTENING)

202 203 203

204

SKILL 5

NOTE THE MAIN POINTS AS YOU READ 204 Speaking Exercise 5 205 Bicycle Parking on Campus 205 A Professor's Retirement 205 Part of a Class Syllabus 206

SKILL 6

NOTE THE MAIN POINTS AS YOU LISTEN 206 Speaking Exercise 6 208 Bicycle Parking on Campus 208 A Professor's Retirement 208 Part of a Class Syllabus 209

SKILL 7

PLAN BEFORE YOU SPEAK 209 Speaking Exercise 7 211

SKILL 8

MAKE THE RESPONSE 212 Speaking Exercise 8 213 Speaking Review Exercise (Skills 5-8) History Syllabus 213

213

SKILL 9

NOTE THE MAIN POINTS AS YOU READ Speaking Exercise 9 215 The Dead Sea 215 Polling 215 The Polynesian Migration

216

SKILL 10 NOTE THE MAIN POINTS AS YOU LISTEN Speaking Exercise 10 217 The Dead Sea 217 Polling 218 The Polynesian Migration 218 SKILL 11 PLAN BEFORE YOU SPEAK Speaking Exercise 11

216

219 220

221 SKILL 12 MAKE THE RESPONSE Speaking Exercise 12 222 Speaking Review Exercise (Skills 9-12) The Equity Theory 222 INTEGRATED TASKS (LISTENING)

214

222

223

SKILL 13 NOTE THE MAIN POINTS AS YOU LISTEN 223 Speaking Exercise 13 225 Choosing a Professor 225 Study Habits 225 An Independent Study Project 226 SKILL 14 PLAN BEFORE YOU SPEAK Speaking Exercise 14

227 228

229 SKILL 15 MAKE THE RESPONSE Speaking Exercise 15 230 Speaking Review Exercise (Skills 13-15) Bored in Class 230 SKILL 16 NOTE THE MAIN POINTS AS YOU LISTEN Speaking Exercise 16 232 The Bank Holiday of 1933 232 Creativity 233 The Amazon River 233 SKILL 17 PLAN BEFORE YOU SPEAK Speaking Exercise 17

S P E A K I N G POST-TEST 238 An Admirable Person 239 Getting News 239 A Cafeteria Problem 240 Social Environments 241 A Class Schedule Problem 242 Life on Mars 242 CONTENTS

231

234 235

236 SKILL 18 MAKE THE RESPONSE Speaking Exercise 18 237 Speaking Review Exercise (Skills 16-18) SAD 237

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230

237

SECTION FOUR: WRITING

243

WRITING DIAGNOSTIC P R E T E S T 244 Human Memory 245 A News Story 246 W R I T I N G OVERVIEW WRITING SKILLS INTEGRATED TASK

247 249 249

SKILL 1

NOTE THE MAIN POINTS AS YOU READ 249 Writing Exercise 1 251 Homeschooling 251 Polysemy 251 Margaret Mead's Research 252

SKILL 2

NOTE THE MAIN POINTS AS YOU LISTEN Writing Exercise 2 255 Homeschooling 255 Polysemy 256 Margaret Mead's Research 256

SKILL 3

PLAN BEFORE YOU WRITE 257 Writing Exercise 3 259

SKILL 4

WRITE A TOPIC STATEMENT Writing Exercise 4 262

SKILL 5

WRITE SUPPORTING PARAGRAPHS ON READING PASSAGES Writing Exercise 5 264

SKILL 6

WRITE SUPPORTING PARAGRAPHS ON LISTENING PASSAGES Writing Exercise 6 267

SKILL 7

REVIEW SENTENCE STRUCTURE 268 Writing Exercise 7 269 Management Styles 269 Earthquake Waves 269

SKILL 8

REVIEW GRAMMAR 270 Writing Exercise 8 270 American English Spelling 270 Aversive Conditioning 271 Writing Review Exercise (Skills 1-8) 272 Stonehenge 272

253

260 263

CONTENTS

265

ix

INDEPENDENT TASK SKILL 9

273

PLAN BEFORE YOU WRITE 273 Writing Exercise 9 274 Relieving Stress TIA A Famous Place to Visit 274 Actions or Words 275 Yourself Today and Five Years Ago Team or Individual Sports 275 The Best Age to Marry 275 Characteristics of a Good Teacher Haste Makes Waste 276 Learning a New Language 276 The TOEFL Test Tib

275

Tib

SKILL 10 WRITE THE INTRODUCTION 277 Writing Exercise 10 278 SKILL 11 WRITE UNIFIED SUPPORTING PARAGRAPHS Writing Exercise 11 283 SKILL 12 CONNECT THE SUPPORTING PARAGRAPHS Writing Exercise 12 285

281 284

SKILL 13 WRITE THE CONCLUSION 287 Writing Exercise 13 288 SKILL 14 REVIEW SENTENCE STRUCTURE Writing Exercise 14 291 Team Sports 291

290

SKILL 15 REVIEW GRAMMAR 292 Writing Exercise 15 293 University and High School Studies 293 Writing Review Exercise (Skills 9-15) 293 Emotions 293 W R I T I N G POST-TEST

MINI-TESTS

Speaking

Writing

CONTENTS

295

297

MINI-TEST 1 297 Reading Listening

x

294 Unintended Consequences Safe or Sorry 296

Migration 298 Science Lab 303 The Little House Books Leader of the Country History Films 308 Formation of Glaciers Garlic 311

305 308 309

MINI-TEST 2 313 Reading Listening Speaking

Writing MINI-TEST 3 329 Reading Listening Speaking

Writing MINI-TEST 4 345 Reading Listening Speaking

Writing MINI-TEST 5 361 Reading Listening

Birth Order 314 Confused Assignment 319 Cross-Dating 321 Getting Up Early 324 Leadership Roles 324 Meeting on Exam Schedule Historical Event 327 Ketchup 330 Biology Class 335 Gem Cuts 337 Hometown 341 Library Rules 341 Split Infinitives 342 Scientific Management

Writing MINI-TEST 6 377 Reading Listening Speaking

Writing

344

Estuaries 346 Cumulative Exam 351 Mountains 353 Kinds of Exams 356 Nullification 356 Psychology Class 357 Working for Others 359 Schizophrenia Scholarship Afo/Zs

Speaking

325

362 367

369

A Good Friend 372 Student Assistant Positions Zero-Sum Economies 373 Catch-22 375

372

Exxon Valdez 378 Schedule Plan 383 Animal Hearing 385 Million Dollars 388 Formation of the Solar System Rescheduled Speaker 389 Visitors to Your Country 391

388

MINI-TEST 7 393 Reading Listening Speaking

Writing MINI-TEST 8

Plate Tectonics 394 Group Project 399 The Trumpet 401 Studying English 404 Discussion Class 404 NIMBY 405 Supernovas 407

409

Reading Listening Speaking

Writing

COMPLETE TESTS

Limners 410 General Studies 415 Carbon 417 ßig Party 420 Somnambulism 420 Questioning the Professor Violence in Movies

421

423

425

COMPLETE TEST 1

425 Reading 1 Prehistoric Astronomers 426 Reading 2 Truman and the Railroads 431 Reading 3 Mathematical Bases 435 Listening Student Newspaper 441 The Great Salt Lake 443 Kleenex 445 Exam Grade 448 Hawaii 450 Three-Mile Island 452 Speaking Dream Job 455 Group Paper 455 Spring Show 456 Great Ape Communication 457 Dreaded Science Class 458 Mercantilism 458 Writing Venus 460 Family Traditions 461

COMPLETE TEST 2

463 Reading 1 Navigational Devices 464 Reading 2 77ze Neanderthals 469 Reading 3 77ze Silent Era 473

xii

CONTENTS

Listening

Speaking

Writing

Grade Report 478 Washington, D.C. 480 The Letter С 482 The Space Shuttle 485 Caves 487 The Compound Eye 489 Favorite Movie 492 Telling a Lie 492 Business Internships 493 Supersonic Speed 494 Project Done Bit by Bit 495 Multiple Personality Disorder Social Promotion 497 Good Leader 498

APPENDIXES 499 APPENDIX A APPENDIX В APPENDIX С

495

Cohesion 499 Sentence Structure 507 Error Correction (Grammar)

DIAGNOSIS, ASSESSMENT, AND SCORING 551 Overall Scores 553 Reading Diagnosis and Scoring 554 Listening Diagnosis and Scoring 558 Speaking Assessment and Scoring 562 Writing Assessment and Scoring 573 RECORDING SCRIPT ANSWER KEY

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580

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