Life-cycle of Products, Processes and Activities

”From cradle to grave” Impacts on: • Human Safety • Ecosystems • Resources . Attilio Citterio Business Life Cycle START GROWTH PHASES MATURE DECAY ...

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School of Industrial and Information Engineering

Course 096125 (095857) Introduction to Green and Sustainable Chemistry

Life-cycle of Products, Processes and Activities Prof. Attilio Citterio Dipartimento CMIC “Giulio Natta” http://iscamap.chem.polimi.it/citterio/education/course-topics/

Life-cycle Assessment (LCA)

”From cradle to grave”

Impacts on: • Human Safety • Ecosystems • Resources

Attilio Citterio

Business Life Cycle GROWTH

MATURE

Patent end

Develop decision

Power

INVENTION

PHASES

DECAY

Maximize the product value Minimize time to market

Ie Sales

Technology Upgrading Market withdrawal

1 - 10 years

1 - 30 years Time

SCIENCE

TECHNOLOGY & MARKETING

Money flow

START

MARKETING & FINANCAL Attilio Citterio

Life cycle

LEGAL

Business Expertise

Business Dynamics START SCIENCE

Power

Un

R 5%

GROWTH

MATURE

TECHNOLOGY & MARKETING

MARKETING & FINANCAL

SME

Dev. 10 -15 %

Life cycle

Multinationals

DECAY LEGAL

PHASES Business Expertise Entities

Manuf.

M&F

Activity

15 -20 %

60 %

Cost

Time

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Life Cycle Assessment

RAW MATERIAL EXTRACTION

MANUFACTERING

RESOURCE USE

Renewable and Non renewable

PACKING AND TRANSPORT

USE AND RECYCLING AND MAINTTENANCE DISPOSAL

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Global warming

Acidification Eutrophication

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Abiotic Ozone layer Smog creation deterioration depletion

WASTE GENERATION

Waste and recyclables

Life Cycle of Chemicals Recycling (of Chemicals or of Products)

Extraction of Raw Materials

Chemical Manufacture, Processing or Refining

Downstream Chemical Products Manufacture & Use

Products Manufacture

Depletion of nonrenewable resources

Occupational Exposures

Air, Water and/or Soil Pollution from Releases and/or Disposal

Environmental Exposures

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Products Use and Reuse

Chemical Industry Output: Developed* and Less Developed** Regions

*

**

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Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) LCA is defined by “Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry” (SETAC)* “Life-cycle assessment is an objective process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment and to evaluate and implement opportunities to effect environmental improvements”. and according to (International Organisation for Standardization) ISO 14040 : LCA is a technique […] compiling an inventory of relevant inputs and outputs of a product system; evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with those inputs and outputs; and interpreting the results of the inventory and impact phases in relation to the objectives of the study. *Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Guidelines for Life Cycle Assessment ‘A Code of Practice’ August 1993 Attilio Citterio

The Starting Years • The first studies on life cycle aspects of products and materials come back to 1968-1972, and were focused on themes as energy efficiency, feedstock consumption and waste disposal. • In 1969 was published, for instance, a study on soft drink containers and, in Europe, was developed an approach to LCA, known as ‘Ecobalance’. • In 1972, in UK, Boustead calculated the total energy used in the production of some consumer goods and consolidate the methodology to make it applicable to various materials (Handbook of Industrial Energy Analysis, 1979). • Initially, the energy was considered to high priority respect to waste and to by-products. Therefore, no difference was made between development of inventory (resources which end to product) and analysis of associated total impacts. However, after the oil crisis, the energy issue becomes less demanding and, even if attention for LCA was maintained, relevant novelties were lacking. • Only in the middle of 80 - start 90 years the interest for LCA growth in general form both from industries and design or commercial firms. Numerous studies without common methodology result in contradicting results. Attilio Citterio

Rapid Grown and Youth •



• •

• • • •

"LCA is again a young tool“. Only in 1992 UN established that methodologies of life cycle assessment were between the more promising supports to face a wide spectrum of environmental management tasks. The good collection on LCA is the textbook The LCA Sourcebook (1993). These studies flowing into a close scientific community in Europe and North America, finally go from laboratory to real world. 1993, SETAC publishes Guidelines for Life-Cycle Assessment: A ‘Code of Practice’ (Consoli et al.) Even now competences in LCA are limited at world level, but more developed nations have organized with academics, consultants and societies to address the more complex environmental problems. 1997-2000, ISO publishes Standards 14040-43, defining the different LCA stages 1998-2001, ISO publishes Standards and Technical Reports 14047-49 2000, UNEP and SETAC create the Life Cycle Initiative 2006 ISO publishes Standards 14040 & 14044, which update and replace 14040-43.

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Towards Maturity • In the present time the methodology is developing and consolidating. The acquired confidence degree suggests a real future both for the realization of inventories and for acquiring a life cycle mentality. • Some researchers however think that LCA is again far to offer key analyses and solutions open to all. The main difficulties are connected to:     

complexity of majority of methodologies and processes; High costs and the long temporal scale, despite the progress made; the need to express opinions in the course of the analysis The lack of internationally accepted standard (attempts were the SPOLD LCA and the ISO standard); the persistent invisibility of major work on LCA to community

• The difficulties in parte arise from the accessibility of conclusions also to non experts and in the transparency of related decisions from authority. • Some simplifications were introduced, in particular a series of software, but the difficulty to acquire affordable initial data remains.

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LCA Application • LCA approach was developed originally to create support tools to decisions for differentiate products, products systems, or services on environmental basis (The term "product" is used frequently as synonym both of products, product systems, and services). • During the LCA evolution, several correlated applications emerged; the more relevant are: 

LCA can be used by: industry and other types of commercial enterprises, governments at all levels, non-governmental organizations such as consumers organizations and environmental groups, and consumers. The motivations for use vary among the user groups.



An LCA study may be carried out for operational reasons, as in the assessment of individual products, or for strategic reasons, as in the assessment of different policy scenarios, waste management strategies or design concepts.



LCA may be used for internal or external applications and for commercial scope.

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LCA: International Organizations LCA play an important role in the environmental policy of products. The following international organizations have a relevant role in the development and application of LCA: • SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry), is the international scientific forum of LCA; • ISO (International Organization of Standardization). ISO has introduced the standard for LCA (series ISO 14040-14044) and has contribute to uniform different schools of this methodology. As a result, the credibility of LCA is strongly increased; • UNEP (United Nations Environmental Program). The focus of UNEP is the LCA applications. Collaborate with SETAC for the “life cycle initiative”, with the target to promote in industry the “life cycle management”, to find the best methods in the impact assessment and to improve the LCA data quality. • ELCD 3.2, the European life cycle database, release in 2006, comprises Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data from front-running EUlevel business associations and other sources for key materials, energy carriers, transport, and waste management. Attilio Citterio

European Reference Life Cycle Database (ELCD)* & International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD)* ILCD Handbook provide a guidance on all the steps required to conduct a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The ELCD3.2 (European reference Life Cycle Database)** is a database that provide detailed data for LCI analysis. In the Communication on Integrated Product Policy, the European Commission committed to produce a handbook on best practice in LCA. The Sustainable Consumption and Production Action Plan confirmed that “(…) consistent and reliable data and methods are required to assess the overall environmental performance of products (…)”. The Handbook’s main goal is to ensure quality and consistency of life cycle data, methods and assessments. It’s main target audience is LCA practitioners, data providers, and reviewers. * http://eplca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/uploads/JRC-Reference-Report-ILCD-Handbook-Towards-more-sustainable**

production-and-consumption-for-a-resource-efficient-Europe.pdf http://eplca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ELCD3/datasetDownload.xhtml Attilio Citterio

European Platform for LCA - Support life cycle thinking and assessment in gov. and business Integrated Product Policy Communication (IPP) Sustainable Consumption and Production Action Plan (SCP)

http://eplca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ Attilio Citterio

ELCD -

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LCA Tools • EIA (environmental impact assessment) a site-specific tool typically used to evaluate the environmental impact of capital investments/ designed services. (a procedure for encouraging decision-makers to take account of the possible effects of development investments on environmental quality and natural resource productivity and a tool for collecting and assembling the data planners need to make development projects more sustainable and environmentally sound [and ...] is usually applied in support of policies for a more rational and sustainable use of resources in achieving economic development) • EA (environmental assessment) a site-specific tool typically used to evaluate an existing service. Include considerations on communications and management of information on environment. • RA (risk assessment, seldom included both in EA and EIA) consider the risk shown by a material or service and includes considerations both of potential danger and of occurrence probability.

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LCA vs. EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment )

Space Extraction Production

Use

Disposal

LCA Time

Crossing all phases

EIA

Concentrations/rate of waste production

A complete Life Cycle Analysis normally refers to a flow of materials and energy involved in a product from cradle to grave: starts from raw materials in their natural state and covers all the processes and operations of product use until its final discharge as waste. The Eco Profiles are, on the contrary, an analysis from cradle to gate, and are concluded with the realisation of an useful, more or less finished, product. Attilio Citterio

Life Cycle Assessment: Principles and Framework

LCA Framework Goal and scope definition Inventory analysis LCI

Interpretation

Impact assessment (LCIA)

Direct Applications • Product develop. and improvement • Strategic planning • Public policy making • Marketing • Other

Other aspects

http://lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/lcainfohub/index.vm http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/lcaccess/index.html Attilio Citterio

• Technical • Economic • Market • Social, etc.

LCA Steps (ISO 14044) Generally, a LCA consists of several main activities: a. Goal definition and Scoping:  Define and describe the product, process or activity. The basis and scope of the evaluation are defined. b. Inventory Analysis (LCI):  Create a process tree in which all processes from raw material extraction through wastewater treatment are mapped out and connected and mass and energy balances are closed (all emissions and consumptions are accounted for). c. Impact Assessment (LCIA):  Emissions and consumptions are translated into environmental effects. The environmental effects are grouped and weighted. d. Interpretation/Improvement Assessment:  Evaluate the results of the inventory analysis and impact assessment. Areas for improvement are identified. e. reporting and critical review of the LCA, f. limitations of the LCA, g. relationship between the LCA phases, and h. conditions for use of value choices and optional elements. Attilio Citterio

Life Cycle Assessment and ISO 14 000 Standards

Goal and Field Definition

ISO 14 040

Inventory Analysis process block diagram; data collection; system boundary definition and data analysis

ISO 14 041

Impact Assessment Classification and characterization of effects of resource use; assessment

ISO 14 042

ISO 14044 Attilio Citterio

Improvement Assessment/ Interpretation Reports; need assessment and opportunity to reduce impact

ISO 14 043

Two Different Approaches of LCA

LCA of products Goal Object

LCA of processes

Assessment of environmental impacts through whole life cycle of products/processes fulfilling the function of interest Products with specific function

Main stream Production-use-waste disposal Functional unit : performance Base of characteristic of products assessment

Processes for specific product Construction-operation-demolition Functional unit : quantity of product or treatment object

Reference flow : same as Reference flow : quantity of product fulfilling functional unit functional unit

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The LCA Process for Products

Goal

Scope

Assess product

Functional Unit

Improve product

Reference product(s)

Compare products

Assessment parameters

Design new product

Important Processes

Create product specifications

Time Horizon

Inventory

Environmental Exchanges Inputs (Energy & Materials)

Impact assessment

Impact Potentials Resource Consumption (Energy & Materials)

Environmental Impacts (Global Warming, Work Environment Acidification, Ozone, etc.) Outputs (Air, Water & Waste)

Allocation

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Impact on Work Environment

LCA – Goal Definition • The goal shall unambiguously state the intended application, the reasons for carrying out the study , criteria to be adopted, and the intended audience. • Moreover, the system boundary – both temporal and spatial – must be determined. • The scope should include / consider the following: function of the product

assumptions

functional unit

limitations

boundaries

type of report format

allocation procedures

the product system

types of impact and methodology of assessment

data requirements

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System  System – a group of interconnected and interacting objects and phenomena; any portion of universe that can be isolated from remaining universe with the aim to observe changes  Surrounding – region outside the system boundary

– Classification: » » » »

Boundary nature Open Closed Isolated

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System Classification

The main terrestrial systems are Dynamic Systems Sun

A. Isolated system

B. Closed system

C. Open system

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System Components

Reserve

Stock

Flow(s) rate

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Earth System

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Cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and several other biologically essential elements are strictly coupled in terrestrial, fresh water and see waters ecosystems

CO2

CO2

These three subsystems of the biosphere are linked each other through the changes of the hydrological cycle of the atmosphere. The ocean-atmosphere gas exchange, which is controlled by marine biology at long times, determines the atmospheric concentration of CO2 and therefore the global climate. Terrestrial plants are sensitive to climate and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. The state of the vegetation controls the speed of transfer from land to sea essentials to marine organisms, thus closing the cycle. Attilio Citterio

Boundaries • The choice of processes, products, and activities that are accounted for and those that are not, can have a major impact on life-cycle analysis results…. at times the placement of boundaries can have direct bearing on the overall conclusions. • It is impossible to clinically isolate a process or product – of course, the question literally is: where do we draw the line? • Determined by several factors:  intended application of the study  assumptions  cut-off criteria  data and cost constraints  intended audience

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System Boundary and Structure

Waste materials

emissions Extraction process nonrenewable energy

energy

Raw Materials

energy

emissions energy

Net emissions

emissions

Intermediates

Process of Interest

Process

Process

emissions energy

Intermediates

Final Product

Intermediates

energy nonrenewable materials

Waste disposal

energy

emissions

emissions energy emissions

Process

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Raw materials

Extraction process

The LCA Process

Goal

Scope

Assess product

Functional Unit

Improve product

Reference product(s)

Compare products Design new product Create product specifications

Assessment parameters Important Processes Time Horizon

Inventory

Environmental Exchanges Inputs (Energy & Materials)

Impact Assessment

Impact Potentials Resource Consumption (Energy & Materials)

Environmental Impacts (Global Warming, Work Environment Acidification, Ozone, etc.) Outputs (Air, Water & Waste)

Impact on Work Environment

Allocation

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Functional Unit (FU) or Basis A FU is a measure of the performance of the functional outputs of the product system. In LCA the focal point is not the product, but the service or function provided by the product  Purpose → provide a reference to which the inputs and outputs are related.  Necessary → to ensure comparability of LCA results FU must be defined and measurable. 1 million bottles for distributing water”

glass bottle

vs.

plastic bottle “Distributing 1 million liters of bottled water”

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Scope Functional Unit  What provides the service?

• Egg tray – Transports 12 eggs from grocery store to home without breaking… • Crane arm – Fits on existing base, lifts at least 200 kg…

Reference product(s)  Existing products that delivery same or almost same service

• Egg trays already in use • Are there existing cranes that deliver ~ same service?

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Scope (cont.) Assessment parameters  Environmental Impacts  Resource Consumption  Work Environment… Important Processes Time Horizon  While product is manufactured?  While product is in use?  Long-term environmental effects? • Could be hundreds of years or more

Allocation  It may be difficult to allocate environmental impacts

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• May be multiple products from single processes • Inputs may be byproducts of other processes • Outputs may become inputs for other processes

The LCA Process

Goal

Scope

Assess product

Functional Unit

Improve product

Reference product(s)

Compare products Design new product Create product specifications

Assessment parameters Important Processes Time Horizon

Inventory

Environmental Exchanges Inputs (Energy & Materials) Outputs (Air, Water & Waste) Workplace

Allocation

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Impact assessment

Impact Potentials Resource Consumption (Energy & Materials) Environmental Impacts (Global Warming, Acidification, Ozone, etc.) Impact on Work Environment

What are Inventory Flows?

LCA inventory is an objective, data-based process of quantifying material and energy flows throughout the life cycle of a product, process activity…  energy and raw material requirements  air emissions  waterborne effluents

data collection

calculation procedures

 solid waste  etc.

quantify ins and outs use of resources release to air release to water release to land

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Inventory Analysis (LCI) •

Assess that the inputs and outputs of all life-cycle processes have to be determined in terms of material and energy (i.e. kg of a product used × kg of CO2 produced /kg)



Start with making a process tree or a flow-chart classifying the events in a product’s life-cycle which are to be considered in the LCA, plus their interrelations.



Next, start collecting the relevant data for each event: the emissions from each process and the resources (back to raw materials) used.



Establish (correct) material and energy balance(s) for each process stage and event.

Inventory Examples      

Gas contributing to global worming Gas contributing to ozone layer depletion Gas favoring the smog formation Toxic chemicals Energy Degradation of land/habitat

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MMAM





Methanol

Natural gas Hydrogen Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide

Natural gas

Acetic acid

Methanol

Acetic acid







10°

11°

12°

Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur

Petroleum extraction/refinery

Natural gas Natural gas

Natural gas Hydrogen

Natural gas

Carbon monoxide

Natural gas Propylene

Petroleum extraction/refin. Water

Acetic anhydride ketene

Acetone

Isopropanol Sulfuric acid

Sulfur trioxide

Oxygen

Oxygen Water Water Oxygen Dimethyl malonate

Chlorine

Sodium Chloride

Salt Water

Water Sodium hydroxide

Sodium Chloride

Salt Water

Water Sodium Cyanide

Ammonia Hydrogen cyanide

Air Natural gas Water

Natural gas Oxygen

Air

Natural gas Methanol

Sodium hydroxide

Hydrogen

Natural gas

Carbon monoxide

Natural gas

Sodium Chloride

Salt Water

Water Sulfur Sulfuric acid

Sulfur trioxide

Air Water

Natural gas Methanol

Hydrogen

Natural gas

Carbon monoxide

Natural gas

Air

Methylamine Ammonia

Natural gas

Petroleum extraction/refinery

Inventory in the Synthesis of MonoMethylAminoMalonate (MMAM)

Water

O

O

Water Water

Sulfuric acid

Ethyl acetate

Acetic acid

Ethanol Water

CH3NH

C

C H2

C

OMe

Flow Diagram for the Synthesis of Sertraline

T

Toluene SMB EtOH S

NHCH3

THF

Cl Cl

antidepressant drug Attilio Citterio

7 th

8 th

9 th

10 th

11 th

12 th

13 th

14 th

15 th

Benzene (182 kg)

Nafta (2230 kg)

Oil Refinery

Natural Gas (209 kg) Cyclohexane (196 kg) Hydrogen (14.9 kg)

Cyclohexanol (223 kg)

Oxygen (22.5 kg)

Air (364 kg)

Nafta (3010 kg)

Oil Refinery

Air (134 kg) Benzene (246 kg)

Natural Gas (72.4 kg)

Adipic acid (599 kg)

Cyclohexane (265 kg) Cycloexanone (223 kg)

Adiponitrile (443 kg)

Water (418 kg) Oxygen (61.1 kg)

Hydrogen (20.1 kg)

Water (145 kg) Oxygen (82.4 kg)

HexamethyleneDiamine (476 kg)

Oxygen (72.7 kg)

Air (489 kg)

Air (433 kg) Air (2800 kg)

Ammonia (1560 kg) Nitric Acid (6410 kg)

Natural Gas (697 kg) Water (1870 kg)

Water (641 kg) Air (22000 kg) Air (252 kg)

Nylon 6.6 (1000 kg)

Ammonia (140 kg)

Natural Gas (62.5 kg) Water (168 kg)

Natural Gas (119 kg) Hydrogen (33.1 kg)

Water (283 kg) Oxygen (136 kg)

Air (811 kg) Benzene (197 kg)

Cyclohexanol (241 kg)

Cyclohexane (212 kg)

Oxygen (24.3 kg)

Hydrogen (16.1 kg) Air (145 kg) Benzene (265 kg)

Adipic acid (645 kg)

Cyclohexanone (241 kg)

Cyclohexane (286 kg) Hydrogen (21.7 kg) Oxygen (78.6 kg) Ammonia (1679 kg)

Nitric Acid (6902 kg) Water (699 kg) Air (23700 kg) Oil refinery Polypropylene (1058 kg)

Nafta (6010 kg) Propylene (1058 kg) Steam (3005 kg)

Hevea Brasiliensis sap

Hevea Brasiliensis tree

Water (3005 kg)

Air (469 kg) Air (3010 kg) Natural Gas (751 kg) Water (2010 kg)

Quantified Inventory in the production of some polymers (Nylon 6,6, Polypropylene, Rubber NR)

Life Cycle Diagram of Nylon-6,6 Carpet P11

P10

P9

P8

P7

O *

P5

P4

P3

P2

P1

Primary

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

6th

Nylon Yarn 1000kg

Spinning 2909MJ

H N

N O

P6

n

*

H Nylon-6,6

Cogeneration Non-poly amid 6,6

Plant

Chalk From Backing

Reuse Nylon 6,6

Virgin + Recycled Nylon

Melting

Size Separation Reduction

Automatic Sorting

Carpet Waste

Steam Cleaning

Vacuuming 900MJ

Carpet Ready for sale 1029m2 2058kg

Dyeing 36400MJ

Carpet 1029m2 2058kg

Tufting 14.03MJ

Polyamide 6,6

Carpet Forming/ Backing Molding 1058kg

Adhesive

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Latex

MDI and TDI routes with respect to other Large Volume chemical processes BZ

Ammonia

Toluene

NitroBZ

Nitric acid

DNT

H2SO4

Aniline

Formaldehyde

MDA

H2

TDA

MDI

Phosgene

TDI

CO2

Chlorine CH3 N C O

MeOH

CH2

N C MDI O C N methylenediphenyl diisocyanate

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O

N C O

TDI Toluene diisocyanate

Eco-Effectiveness and Design Get Free of Known Culprits  Avoid chemicals that are known problems • E.g., cadmium, lead, mercury

Follow Informed Personal Preferences  When dealing with gray areas, data uncertainty…

Good Better Optimum

Create Lists  X list (known culprits): avoid  Grey list: problematic, but may be the best, or only, available  Positive list: preferred Reinvent

Cradle to Cradle, by McDonough & Braungart, 2002

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Five Main Criteria to Assess Dangerous Chemicals (1) Quantity. The amount of chemical to apply, as well as the method. (2) Persistence. Is provided in terms of half life or residence time. (3) Toxicity - LC50 and LD50 (4) Bioaccumulation and bioamplification. The risk is that bioaccumulation may cause toxicity. The majority of pesticides are hydrophobic, ”soluble in water," and lipophilic. Moreover, they can have more than one functional group which influence the properties of solubility. (5) Other negative effects , i.e. unusual chemical properties as chelating ability which alter the availability of other chemicals in the environment, generating other problematic substances.

REACH – white book EU

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Green Purchasing The basic three principles of Green Purchasing  Taking into account the product cycle

GREEN  Politics and practices of Green Purchasing management PURCHASING  Availability of eco-correlated information to assess product manufacturers and sellers

Green Purchasing work at 2 levels

Purchase more safe, eco-compatible materials, technology, etc. by manufacturers End users demand of of Eco-compatible products

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The LCA Process

Goal

Assess product

Functional Unit

Improve product

Reference product(s)

Compare products Design new product Create product specifications

Inventory

Scope

Assessment parameters Important Processes Time Horizon

Environmental Exchanges Inputs (Energy & Materials)

Impact assessment

Impact Potentials Resource Consumption (Energy & Materials)

Outputs (Air, Water & Waste)

Environmental Impacts (Global Work Environment Warming, Ozone, Acidification, etc.)

Allocation

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Impact on Work Environment

Impacts Assessment Impacts identification → impacts evaluation Methods of assessment : 1) Models – Based on a mathematical relationship between the cause and effect – Can be: Physical, Chemical, Biological 2) Experiments – Field – Laboratory 3) Physical representation (pictures, photographs, films, 3D models) 4) Assessment – Used to calculate the cost or benefit of an environmental aspect as a result of an activity

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LCI to LCA – Making the Data Useful Life-Cycle Inventory

Life-Cycle Impact Assessment

> 5000 data points

converts LCI data into 12-20 “impact indicators” that address all relevant environmental issues

} Attilio Citterio

LCI to LCA Impact assessment

Inventory analysis

characterisation Mining of ores and minerals

normalisation

CO2 to air Mining of fossil fuels

CH4 to air NOx to air SO2 to air

Raw Energy material production production

Nickel to water

global worming stratospheric ozone depletion

Benzene to air

Photoc. oxidation

Xylene to air Ethyl alcohol to air Methylethylketone to air

human toxicity ecotoxicity acidification eutrophication

use

Benzene to water Waste treatment

Process tree

Impact categories

Zinc to soil Toluene to air

final material production

weighting

Inventory table

depletion of abiotic resources

category indicator results

normalised category Indicator results

weighting results

Source (modified): Study "Policy Review on Decoupling" (CML and partners) for EC, DG Env Attilio Citterio

Selection of Impact Category

Commonly the following impact categories are taken into consideration: • Abiotic resources

• Ecotoxicological impact

• Biotic resources

• Toxicological human impact

• Land use

• Oxidant formation from light

• Global warming

• Stratospheric ozone depletion

• Acidification

• Eutrophication • Work environment

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Environmental Indicators (EPI) “An indicator is a parameter (or value derived from parameters) which provide information on a phenomenon. The indicator include a meaning which overcomes the properties directly associates to the value of the parameter” production

150

Rel. Intensity

climate change

100 noises landfills

50

acidification toxic compounds

0 1980

ozone depletion

1985

1990

1995

Year

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2000

2005

2010

Indicator Themes The Three Bottom Lines

Physical/chemical/ biological  Volatility  GWP  Primary Energy  Aquatic Ecotoxicity  Atom Efficiency

Financial  Turnover  Net earnings  “Added Value”  Cash flow  etc..

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Social  Adult literacy rate  Access to drinking water  Household income  etc.

Commonly Used LCIA Impact Categories Impact Category

Scale

Relevant LCI Data (i. e., classification)

Common Characterization Factor

Description of Characterization Factor

Global Warmin (GWP)

Global

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Methane (CH4) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) Methyl Bromide (CH3Br)

Global Warming Potential

Converts LCI data to carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) Halon Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) Sulfur Oxides (SOx) Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Hydroflouric Acid (HF) Ammonia (NH4)

Ozone Depleting Potential

Converts LCI data to trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) equivalents.

Acidification Potential

Converts LCI data to hydrogen (H+) ion equivalents.

Phosphate (PO4) Nitrogen Oxide (NO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Nitrates Ammonia (NH4)

Eutrophication Potential

Converts LCI data to phosphate (PO4) equivalents.

Stratospheric Ozone Depletion increased UV

Global

Acidification

Regional Local

(AC)

Eutrofizzazione (EP)

Local

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Note: global warming potentials can be 50, 100, or 500 year potentials.

Commonly Used LCIA Impact Categories Impact Category

Scale

Relevant LCI Data (i. e., classification)

Common Characterization Factor

Description of Characterization Factor

Photochemical Smog (POCP) -

Local

Non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC)

Photochemical Oxidant Creation Potential

Converts LCI data to ethane (C2H6) equivalents.

Terrestrial Toxicity (TETP)

Local

Toxic chemical compounds with a known lethal concentration on rats

LC50

Converts the data LCI into equivalents.

Aquatic Toxicity (AETP) Uman Health (HTP)

Local

Toxic chemical compounds with a known lethal concentration on fish

LC50

Converts the data LCI into equivalents.

Global Local Regional

Total release in air, in water, and in soil.

LC50

Converts the data LCI into equivalents.

Resources Depletion

Global Local Regional

Amount of used minerals Amount of used fossil fuels

Resource Depletion Potential

Converts the data LCI in a ratio between the amount of used re source and the amount of leaved resource

Land Use

Global Local Regional

Solid wastes

Converts the mass of solid waste in volume using density values

(LU)

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Complexity of Impact Assessment Related to Life Cycle

Materials

Life Cycle Stages

Materials

Energy

Raw Material Extraction Impacts

Materials

Energy

Materials

Energy

Energy

Material processing

Product Manufacturing

Use, Reuse, Disposal

Impacts

Impacts

Impacts

Life Cycle Impacts global warming

Ozone depletion

Smog formation

Acidification

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Other toxic releases

Resource depletion

Human health and ecosystem damage

Impact Assessment Focuses more Specifically on Evaluation of Type and Severity of Environmental Impact

Materials/impact

Environmental effects Depletion of biotic resources

Copper

Depletion of abiotic resources

CO2 CFC

Greenhouse effect

Weighting of effect?

SO2 NOx

Ozone layer depletion

phosphorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) Heavy metals PCB

Acidification Eutrophication (Summer) smog

pesticides styrene

Human toxicity Eco-toxicity

(example)

Odor

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There are different ways to assess and weight the environmental effects.

Eco Indicators - Methodology • All environmental impacts converted to Eco-indicator points using weighting method • Point calculated for: 

Material Production (per kg)



Production Processes (per unit appropriate to process)



Transportation (m3·km-1)



Energy Generation (electricity and heat)



Disposal (per kg) • Negative Eco-points for recycling and reuse

• Inventory emissions, resource extractions, land uses related to life cycle of product • Calculate damage to human health, ecosystem quality, and resources • Weight three damage categories to come up with one number

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Impact Assessment: Classification and characterization – Acidification Potential Impact category Acidification LCI results Emissions of acidifying substances to the air (in kg) Characterization model model describing the fate and deposition of acidifying substances, adapted to LCA Category indicator Deposition/acidification critical load Characterization factor Acidification potential (AP) for each acidifying emission to the air (in kg SO2 equivalents/kg emission) Unit of indicator result kg SO2 eq. Compound

MW

Resulting Acid

α

APi

SO2 NO NH3 NO2 HCl HF H2S HNO3 H2SO4

64.1 30.0 17.0 46.1 36.5 20.0 34.8 63.1 98.2

H2SO4 HNO3 HNO3 HNO3 H2SO4

2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3

1.00 1.07 1.88 0.70 0.88 1.60 1.88 0.51 0.65

-

Attilio Citterio

(in kg SO2 equivalents/ kg emission)

APi =

αi / MWi

α SO / MWSO 2

= IA

2

∑ AP ⋅ m i

i

i

Impact Assessment: Classification and characterization – Ozone Depletion Potential Impact category Stratospheric ozone depletion LCI results Emissions of ozone-depleting gases to the air (in kg) Characterization model The model developed by WMO, defining the ozone depletion potential of different gases Category indicator Stratospheric ozone breakdown Characterization factor Ozone depletion potential in the steady state (ODP∞) for each emission (in kg CFC-11 equivalents/kg emission) Unit of indicator result kg CFC-11 eq. Formula

Name

Lifetime, y

CH3Br CH2Cl2 CHCl3 CHClF2 CHBrF2 CCl4 CCl3F CCl2F2 C2HCl2F3 CBrF3 CBr2ClF2

methyl bromide methylene chloride chloroform HCFC-22 Halon 1201 carbon tetrachloride CFC-11 CFC-12 CHFC-123 Halon 1301 Halon 1211

0.47 0.17 15 60 47 60 120 1.4 13

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ODP 0.37 <0.001 <0.001 0.055 1.4 1.1 1.0 0.82 0.012 16.0 4.00

ODPi =

δ [O3 ]i

δ [O3 ]CCl F 3

= I OD

∑ ODP ⋅ m i

i

i

Impact Assessment: Classification and characterization – SMOG MIRi SFPi = MIRROG = I SF



Allen and Shonnard, Green Engineering, Prentice-Hall, 2002



Extensive list in Guinée, Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment, Kluwer 2002, pg 335 (but divided by 3.1)

∑ SFP ⋅ m i

i

i

Alkanes

Alkenes/Alkynes

Aromatics

Chemical

MIR

Chemical

MIR

Chemical

MIR

Methane

0.015

Ethene

7.40

Benzene

0.42

Ethane

0.25

Propene

9.40

Toluene

2.7

Propane

0.48

1-Butene

8.90

o-Xylene

6.5

Butane

1.02

1-Hexene

4.40

m-Xylene

9.0

Pentane

1.04

1-Octene

2.70

p-Xylene

6.6

Hexane

0.98

2-Butenes

10.0

1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene

10.1

Octane

0.60

2-Pentenes

8.80

Naphthalene

1.17

Decane

0.46

2-Hexenes

6.70

Tetralin

0.94

Methylpentanes

1.5

1,3-Butadiene

10.9

Methylnaphthalenes

3.3

Cyclopentane

2.40

Ethyne

0.50

Styrene

2.2

Cyclohexane

1.28

Propyne

4.10

Attilio Citterio

SMOG Carbonyl-containing

Alcohols & ethers

Halide-containing

Chemical

MIR

Chemical

MIR

Chemical

MIR

Methanol

0.56

Carbon monoxide

0.05

Trifluoromethylbenzene

0.28

Ethanol

1.34

Methyl acetate

0.09

Chlorobenzene

0.25

Propanol

2.08

Ethyl acetate

0.53

2-Chlorotoluene

2.86c

2-Propanol

0.56

Vinyl acetate

5.27

1-Chlorobutane

0.74

1-Butanol

2.70

Methyl acrylate

5.27

1,4-dichlorobenzene

0.09

t-Butyl alcohol

0.42

Ethyl acrylate

4.53

1,2-dichlorobenzene

0.17c

Ethylene glycol

1.74

Formaldehyde

7.20

Dichloromethane

0.03

Phenol

1.12

Acetaldehyde

5.50

Trichloromethane

0.03

Alkyl phenols

2.30

C3 aldehydes

6.50

Vinyl chloride

1.93

Diethyl ether

2.82

Benzaldehyde

-0.57

Chlorine

18.3d

Methyl t-butyl ether

0.62

Acetone

0.56

1,2-Dichloroethane

0.2a

Ethylene oxide

0.03

2-Butanone

1.09

1,2-Dibromoethane

0.1a

Propylene oxide

0.31

2-Pentanone

2.54e

Methyl iodide

-0.54b

Furan

16.9

2-Heptanone

2.33e

Propylene carbonate

0.33

cCarter,

Report to the California Air Resources Board, Contract 06-408, February 2008. Attilio Citterio

Others Chemical

MIR

DMSO

5.86b

ROG

3.10

Kow and Bioaccumulation

Kow =

1-octanol

[solute]octanol [solute]water

water moderate potential low bioaccumulation potential

3.5

high bioaccumulation potential

4.3

Log Kow methanol -0.7

1-butanol 0.8

HCO2H -0.5

-1

THF 0.5

0

NEt3 1.5

1

1-decanol C6Cl6 4.6 5.5

1-hexanol 2.0 toluene 2.7

2

hexane 4.0

octane 5.2

4

5

3

hydrophilic lipophobic

(C6Cl5)2O 8.3 stearic acid 8.2

decane 6.3

6

7

8

9 logKow hydrophobic lipophilic

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Abiotic Depletion Potential

ADPi =

(depletion rate)i / (reserve)i (depletion rate) ref / (reserve) ref

I AD =

∑ ADP ⋅ M i

i

i

Not all elements are of concern. Mi is mass used, not mass emitted. Res.

ADP

Res.

ADP

Res.

ADP

Res.

ADP

Sb

1

Au

89.5

Mo

0.032

Se

0.48

Bi

0.0731

He

148

Ne

0.325

Ag

1.8

B

0.00467

In

0.0090

Ni

1.1 x 10-4

S

3.6 x 10-4

Br

0.00667

I

0.0427

Os

14.4

Sn

0.33

Cd

0.33

Ir

32.3

Pd

0.323

W

0.012

Cr

0.00086

Kr

20.9

P

8.4 x 10-5

U

0.0029

Co

2.6 x 10-5

Pb

0.0135

Pt

1.29

V

1.2 x 10-6

Cu

0.00194

Li

9.2 x 10-6

Re

0.77

Xe

17,500

F

3.0 x 10-6

Mn

1.4 x 10-5

Rh

32

Zn

9.9 x 10-4

Ge

1.5 x 10-6

Hg

0.495

Ru

32

Zr

1.9 x 10-5

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Soil Sorption Coefficient (Koc)

Concentration in organic carbon of soil (in µg per g of organic C) Concentration in the water (in µg per ml)

Koc =

ethanol 0.20

1.0

2.6

C6H5OH

DDT

3.7

5.3

PhCO2H PhCO2Me 1.5 2.1

1-butanol 0.50

0

1-decanol

1-hexanol

1

2

di-n-hexylphthalate 4.7

3

hydrophilic lipophobic

4

5

6 logKoc hydrophobic lipophilic

Data available from: Huuskonen, J. Chem. Information & Computer Sci. (2003), 43(5), 1457 (available online, choose the supporting information PDF file) hint: Koc ≈ 0.41 Kow Attilio Citterio

Impact Assessment: Classification and Characterization – GWP Impact category LCI results Characterization model Category indicator Characterization factor Unit of indicator result

CO2 CH4 N2O CF4 C2F6 SF6 CHF3 CF3CH2F CH3CHF2 CHCl3

Abundance 1998, ppt 367,000 1,745 314 80 3 4.2 14 7.5 0.5

Climate change Emissions of greenhouse gases to the air (in kg) the model developed by the IPCC defining the global warming potential of different gases Infrared radiative forcing (W·m-2) Global warming potential for a 100-year time horizon (GWP100) for each GHG emission to the air in kg CO2 equivalents/kg emission IGW = Σ GWPi • mi Trend, ppt/yr 2,000 7.0 0.8 1.0 0.08 0.24 0.55 2.0 0.1

Annual emissions 6.4 PgC 600 Tg 16 TgN 15 Gg 2 Gg 6 Gg 7 Gg 25 Gg 4 Gg

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Lifetime, y

GWP

8 120 >50,000 10,000 3,200 260 14 1

1 23 296 6,500 11,900 23,900 12,000 1,300 120 4

Indicator Methodology: Global Warming (GWP-indirect) Absolute Global Warming Potential (GWP) Values Non-mobile CO2 Emissions

Mobile CO2 Emissions Process related emissions, e.g. release of CFC

Energy related CO2 emissions

Indicator expression : “Absolute global warming potential (MT CO2)” GWP for short-lifetime chemicals

GWPi (indirect) =

Attilio Citterio

NCi / MWi NCCO2 / MWCO2

Importance of Substances for GWP (IPCC 1996)

Time span considered

CO2 CH4 NO2 O3 H1201 Halon* R134aFCKW** R22FCKW***

20 years

100 years

1 62 290

1 23 320 2000 5600 1300 1700

6200 3300 4300

*CHF2Br **CH2FCF3 ***CHF2Cl Attilio Citterio

Lifetimes and uncertainties of ODSs from WMO and SPARC - 2013

ODS = ozone-depleting substances

G. J. M. Velders and J. S. Daniel Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2757–2776, 2014

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Calculate Indicator Results Indicator Value = ∑ (Inventory Result × Characterization Factor) Example – Global Warming Potential: Inventory – 1000 kg CO2 emissions and 100 kg CH4 emissions per 0.454 kg of product GPW = (1000 kg CO2 × 1 eq/kg CO2) + (100 kg CH4 × 23 eq/kg CO2) GPW = 1000 kg CO2 eq + 2300 kg CO2 eq GPW = 3300 kg CO2 eq per 0.454 kg of product Note: Inventory data alone will tell you to focus on CO2 emissions. Impact assessment informs you that methane emissions (CH4) have a bigger impact on global warming.

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Global Warming due to Energy Requirements To heat a liquid = q = m CP (Tf-20˚C) To distill a liquid = q = m CP (Tb-20 ˚C) + m ∆Hvap To

×

reflux a liquid = q = m CP (Tb-20 ˚C) + n m ∆Hvap

150 g CO2 per kWh or 0.042 g CO2 per kJ

77

Cp, J g-1 K-1 1.94

363

Heat to distill, J/g 473

Ethanol

78

2.44

837

979

498

Hexane

69

2.27

335

446

245

284

Methanol

65

2.53

1099

1213

1.19

330

354

Nitromethane

101

1.75

557

699

2.33

358

390

Tetrahydrofuran

65

1.72

413

491

Toluene

111

1.70

360

515

Water

100

4.18

2259

2593

Solvent

Tb, ˚C

501

Heat to distill, J/g 580

Ethyl acetate

2.23

725

863

80

1.74

393

Chloroform

61

0.96

Dichloromethane

40

Ether

34

Solvent

Tb, ˚C

Cp, J g-1 K-1

∆Hvap J g-1

Acetone

56

2.18

Acetonitrile

82

Benzene

DMF

153

2.06

578

852

DMSO

189

1.96

552

883 Attilio Citterio

∆Hvap J g-1

Life Cycle GWP and Energy Balance for a Coal-Fired Power System

Total greenhouse gas emissions 1041 g CO2 equivalent/kWh 990.6

1.0 Fossil Energy In

28.5 (3%) Coal Mining

17.5 (2%) Transport

0% carbon closure

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5.0 (<1%) Construction

(95%) Power plant operation

Electricity out 0.3

Life Cycle GWP and Energy Balance for a Direct-Fired Residue-Biomass Power System

Total greenhouse gas emissions - 410 g CO2 equivalent/kWh 1204

1.0 Fossil Energy In

Avoided emissions 1627 Landfill and Mulching

10 Transport

3 Construction

134% carbon closure

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Power plant

Electricity out 28.4

Life Cycle GWP and Energy Balance for Advanced IGCC Technology using Energy Crop Biomass

Total greenhouse gas emissions 49 g CO2 equivalent/kWh 890

890 1.0 Fossil Energy In

31.3 64% Biomass production

5.6 11% 10 Transport

12.1 15%

95% carbon closure

Attilio Citterio

3

Construction

Power plant operation

Electricity Out 15.6

Remember!!! Photosynthesis H 2O

solar energy 6 O2

6 CO2

C6H12O6 (biomass)

Balance for 1 kg wood Input 1.44 kg CO2 0.56 kg H2O 18.5 MJ solar energy

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Output 1 kg biomass 1 kg O2 18.5 MJ thermal use

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions 1200

GWP (g CO2-equivalent / kWh)

1000 800 600 400 200 0 -200

Dedicated biomass IGCC

Average PC coal

Coal/biomass Cofiring

-400 -600

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Direct-fired biomass residue

NGCC

SUMMARY OF THE POTENTIALS 1.

APi =

Acidification

αi / MWi

α SO / MWSO δ [O3 ]i ODPi = δ [O3 ]CCl F 2

2.

Ozone depletion

= IA

i

i

i

2

= I OD

∑ ODP ⋅ m i

i

i

3

MIRi MIRROG

∑ AP ⋅ m

= I SF

∑ SFP ⋅ m

3.

Smog formation

SFPi =

4.

Global warming

GWPi

5.

Human toxicity by inhalation

INHTPi =

Ci ,a / RfCi Ctol ,a / RfCtol

= I INH INHTPi ⋅ mi

6.

Human toxicity by ingestion

INGTPi =

Ci ,w / RfDi Ctol ,w / RfDtol

= I ING INGTPi ⋅ mi

7.

Persistence

Boethling index

8.

Bioaccumulation

logKow

9.

Abiotic resource depletion

ADPi

i

= I SF SFPi ⋅ mi

where m = mass of the compound emitted M = mass of the element consumed Attilio Citterio

i

i

= I AD ADPi ⋅ M i

VOC Emission in the Production of Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2

O2

OH

O CH2CH3

CH2CH3

O

OH H2

2.1

2.3

Org.

H2 Oxidation

Hydrogenation

Aqu.

2.4 Extraction

H2O

WS

Catalyst recovery 3.4

WS regeneration

WS Drying

Purification

3.3

WS

3.1 Regen material

Concentration

Attilio Citterio

EPD (1) (g/kg)

Ecoprofile(2) (mg/kg)

CO2

523000

39000

NOX

760

210

SO2

360

400

Dust

170

120

HC

300

150

Aromatic HC

3.2

AC Absorber 2.2

Pollutant

H2O2

150

CO

130

CH4

410

Hydrogen (1)

37 340

AkzoNobel's certified environmental declaration: Overall LCA emission (2) Cefic Ecoprofile data sheet: Manufacturing process emissions

Coal Power Plant Environmental Impact Profile

(1500 MW Capacity; 2,296 GWH Sustainability of Energy Resources Net Depletion - energy resources

Amt.

(equiv. tons of oil)

51,800

Annual Production)

*

Scale of Impacts

Ecosystem Disruption Terrestrial and Aquatic Habitats Key Species (%increased mortality)

Emission Loadings and W

4,600 NA

(equiv. acres)

astes

Greenhouse Gases (equiv. tons CO 2) Acidifying Chemicals (equiv. tons SO 2) Ground Level Ozone (equiv. tons O 3) Particulates (equiv. tons PM-10) Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (equiv. tons CFC-113) Hazardous Air Pollutants (equiv. tons Hg) Haz./Radioactive Waste (tons IBHP Uore equiv. )

1,545,000 300 180 310 -0.008 -Lower

equiv. = equivalent -- is used to denote negligible results

* Per 1,000 GWh

Higher

PJM Average Impacts (1998)

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Hydropower Plant Environmental Impact Profile

(512 MW Capacity

, 1714 GWH

Sustainability of Energy Resources Net Depletion - energy resources

Amt.

(equiv. tons of oil)

209

Annual Production)

*

Scale of Impacts

Ecosystem Disruption 1610 < 50%

Terrestrial and Aquatic Habitats (equiv. acres) American Shad (%increased mortality)

Emission Loadings and W

astes

Greenhouse Gases (equiv. tons CO 2) Acidifying Chemicals (equiv. tons SO 2) Ground Level Ozone (equiv. tons O 3) Particulates (equiv. tons PM-10) Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (equiv. tons CFC-113) Hazardous Air Pollutants (equiv. tons Hg) Haz./Radioactive Waste (tons IBHP U ore equiv. )

1,022 0.2 -----Lower

equiv. = equivalent -- is used to denote negligible results

* Per 1,000 GWh

Higher

PJM Average Impacts (1998)

Attilio Citterio

Synthesis of Benzene to Aniline

Benzene (75 mL, 0.842 mol) and triflic acid (20 mL, 0.22 mol) are warmed to 55 °C. Trimethylsilyl azide (0.037 mol, 4.4 g) in 20 mL benzene (0.224 mol) is added. The mixture is stirred for 50 min until no more N2 is given off. The mixture is then cooled to room temperature and poured over ice. The organics are extracted with three washings of dichloromethane. The aqueous layer is basified to pH ∼13 and any additional product is extracted with three washings of dichloromethane. The organic fractions are combined and dried with MgSO4. The solvent is evaporated off to give aniline in 95% yield and 100% selectivity. (modified from Olah and Ernst, JOC (1989) 54, 1203)

Table 1. Masses (to make 1 kg) Compound

Benzene

Role

Reagent

Mass used (or made) /kg

Mass emitted / kg

20

2.0x10-2

Me3SiN3

Reagent

1.3

1.3x10-3

Triflic Acid

Reagent

9.8

9.8x10-3

Me3SiOTf

Byproduct

(2.4)

2.4x10-3

NaOTf

Byproduct

(9.3)

9.3

CH2Cl2

Solvent

236

0.24

NaOH

Reagent

2.3

0.12a

MgSO4

Drying agent

8.9

8.9

CO2

Energy byproduct

(1.8)

1.8

Attilio Citterio

Assumption about Amounts Used if the literature method doesn’t tell you enough information: • • •



Refluxing: n = 1 for every half hour The standard drying agent is Na2SO4. Assume 10 g per 100 mL of wet solvent. The standard column packing for flash chromatography is silica gel. The standard amount of silica gel is 100 g per g of sample. Standard volume of eluting solvent is 1 L per g of sample. If you’re extracting a product from a solution of volume V, use three batches of extracting solvent each having the same volume. Total volume of extracting solvent is 3V. Same thing for washing a solution,

Concentrated solutions:       

Concentrated brine (NaCl) contains 359 g per L of solution Concentrated NH4Cl contains 371 g per L of solution. Commercial concentrated NH4OH is 28 wt% NH4OH. Concentrated HCl (12 M) is 37 wt% HCl of 440 g HCl per L of solution. Glacial acetic acid (17 M) is 100 wt% acetic acid Concentrated sulfuric acid (18 M) is 96% H2SO4. Concentrated phosphoric acid (15 M) is 85 wt% H3PO4.

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Assumption about Emissions  Water, N2, O2, H2 and product are omitted from the calculation.  0.1% escape to the environment of all materials consumed in the reaction.  Non-gaseous organic materials, including solvents, by-products, intermediates and starting materials are incinerated. Assume 0.1 % of the used or generated amount escapes to the environment.  For reactant gases, gaseous intermediates, inorganic reagents/reactants, and inorganic intermediates, assume 100 % of the remaining material (after the reaction) escapes to the environment.  100 % of the used or generated amount escapes to the environment for all other materials, including inorganic by-products, aqueous wastes, drying agents, by-product gases, catalysts, and column packing agents.

Attilio Citterio

Synthesis of Benzene to Aniline

Potentials Compound

AP

ODP

SFP

GWP

INHTP

INGTP

PER

ACCU logKow

Benzene

0

0

0.14

3.4

12

1.0

months

0.6

0

Me3SiN3

0

0

0

0

?

?

months

2.3

0

Triflic Acid

0

?

?

0

0

4.7x10-2

weeks

-0.5

Me3SiOTf

0

0

0

0

?

?

months

0.6

F: 3.0x10-6 S: 3.6x10-4 n/a

NaOTf

0

0

0

0

0

?

-

n/a

n/a

CH2Cl2

0

0.4

3.0x10-2

0.5

5.0x10-2

160

weeks

1.3

0

NaOH

0

0

0

0

0

?

-

n/a

0

MgSO4

0

0

0

0

0

?

-

n/a

S: 3.6x10-4

CO2

0

0

0

1

0

0

-

n/a

0

Attilio Citterio

ADP

Synthesis of Benzene to Aniline

Indexes IAP

Cmpd.

IOD

ISF

IGW

IINHT

IINGT

Benzene

0

0

2.8

66

240

19

Me3SiN3

0

0

0

0

0

?

months

2.3

0

Triflic Acid

0

0

0

0

0

0.5

weeks

-0.5

Me3SiOTf

0

0

0

0

0

?

months

0.6

F: 0.011 S: 0.754 -

NaOTf

0

0

0

0

0

?

n/a

n/a

-

CH2Cl2

0

94

7.2

123

12

38,081

weeks

1.3

0

NaOH

0

0

0

0

0

?

n/a

n/a

0

MgSO4

0

0

0

0

0

?

n/a

n/a

0.94

CO2

0

0

0

1829

0

0

n/a

n/a

0

TOTAL

0

94

10

2018

252

38,100

months

2.3

1.7

Attilio Citterio

ACCU logKow 2.1

IAD

PER t1/2, h months

0

Synthesis of Benzene to Aniline

Indexes IAP

Cmpd

IOD

ISF

IGW

IINHT

IINGT

PER t1/2, h

ACCU logKow

IAD

Benzene

0

0

2.8

66

240

19

months

2.1

0

Me3SiN3

0

0

0

0

0

?

months

2.3

0

Triflic Acid

0

0

0

0

0

0.5

weeks

-0.5

Me3SiOTf

0

0

0

0

0

?

months

0.6

F: 0.011 S: 0.754 -

NaOTf

0

0

0

0

0

?

n/a

n/a

-

CH2Cl2

0

94

7.2

123

12

38,081

weeks

1.3

0

NaOH

0

0

0

0

0

?

n/a

n/a

0

MgSO4

0

0

0

0

0

?

n/a

n/a

0.94

CO2

0

0

0

1829

0

0

n/a

n/a

0

TOTAL

0

94

10

2018

252

38,100

months

2.3

1.7

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Comparing Syntheses

Comparison of Routes Process

IOD

IAP

(all in grams) ISF

IGW

IINHT

IINGT

PER t1/2, h

ACCU logKow

IAD

#1

0

90

10

2,000

300

40,000

months

2.3

2

#2

1

0

200

5,000

20

40,000

months

0.6

0.2

#3

600

0

0.2

100

4,000

100,000

months

1.9

0.1

#4

3,000

0

5

1,000

600,000 300,000

months

1.9

1000

Attilio Citterio

Indicator Hierarchy

Increasing Condensation of Data

Indicators for the Public Indicators for Politic Makers Indicators for the Scientists Analysed Data Primary data

Total Quantity of Information

SOURCE: World Resources Institute, 1995, ‘Environmental Indicators’

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Indicator Issues

• Aggregation 

i.e. operation, product, division, structures  Biological Diversity?  Learning Rate?  Community investments?

• Normalization and Measurement 

“efficiency”, i.e. energy for unit  which type (physico-chemical, financial, social)

• Report • Users • Standardization and Comparison

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Risk Assessment: ECO-it Approach Developed in Netherlands  Based on European needs and data Three “Eco”s  Human Health • Number/duration of disease, life-years lost • Causes: Climate change, ozone layer depletion, carcinogenic effects, respiratory effects, ionizing radiation 

Ecosystem Quality • Species diversity • Causes: ecotoxicity, acidification, eutrophication, land-use



Resources • Surplus energy needed in future to extract lower quality mineral / fossil resources • Depletion of agricultural / bulk resources considered under land-use

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Steps in a Risk Assessment Define scope Identify hazards Identify how hazards could be realized Estimate consequences if hazards were realized

Estimate the probability that hazards will be realized

Calculate risk Assess the significance of the risk

no

Choice of more exhaustive examination

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yes

The Core Concept of the Eco-indicator 99 Methodology. Three spheres are considered: • Techno-sphere see: http://www.pre.nl/eco-indicator99/ • Eco-sphere • Value-sphere

Weighting of the three damage categories

Damage to resources

Modeling effect and damage

Resources Damage to ecosystem quality

Indicator

Mainly in Value sphere

Inventory result

Damage to human health

Land-use Mainly in Eco-sphere and Value sphere

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Emissions Emission

Inventory phase

Modeling All processes in the life cycle

Mainly in Technosphere

Example: Arsenic (As) Levels in Water

Considerations on human health

Level

Considerations on ecosystem

Unacceptable risks on health

Acute Effects

200

Acute effects measurable in 5% of species of aquatic community

130 Tolerable Concentration, low Risk of skin cancer in Individual very sensitive long term

Chronic Effects Chronic effects measurable in 5% of species of aquatic community

20 10

10 Wanted quality Interval

Wanted quality Interval

µg/m3

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Risk Levels for Arsenic in Water

Weighting

Value

Around Quality

5

200 µg/m3: unacceptable risks to human health and ecosystem in a region for high arsenic concentrations

4

130 – 200 µg/m3: high risks to human health and measurable acute effects on aquatic ecosystem

3

20 – 130 µg/m3: growing risk to human health and measurable chronic effects on aquatic ecosystem

2

10 – 20 µg/m3: Low risk to human health and no measurable effect on aquatic ecosystem

1

0 – 10 µg/m3: No effect to human health and on ecosystem In a region of arsenic concentration

High

Medium

Low

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Life Cycle Engineering

goal and scope definition preparation of a decision

continuous data updates and control ling

data collection inventory

data evaluation characterization

economic (e.g. LCC)

Structure of cost

technical (e.g. TQM)

Decision making tools

econ.

technical characterization

decision

env. tec.

environmental

regulatory (i.e. laws)

Management System

Impact assessment

Regulatory compliance System audit

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companyspecific specific Company goals

Decision Making Gates R+D Cycle

Marked and Successor Cycle

Innovation Old resp. former product.

Variation

Conception and definition phase

Design Testing prototypes

Batch planning zero series

Production, sales services

Product definition process

Delivery

engaged

Control

Prod. engaged

Control

selection

R+D engaged

Control

Ideas

Control

Control

Action Level Variation Elimination

Evaluation and Selection of Alternatives Aims, Strategies

Company strategy, company policy Information Screening of market, Competitors, Government and Clients Survey on own value creation process

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Evaluation process

Decision Level

Environmental Information Tools R+D Cycle

Marked and Successor Cycle

Innovation Old resp. former product.

Variation

Conception and definition phase

Design Testing prototypes

Batch planning zero series

Production, sales services

Product definition process

EMS EPE

LCE+LCC

Control

Screening checklist

Control

Material list check.

Control

Scelta LCA Idee preliminary

Control

Control

Action Level

Evaluation and Selection of Alternatives Aims, Strategies

Company strategy, company policy Information Screening of market, Competitors, Government and Clients Survey on own value creation process

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Full LCA Evaluation process

Decision Level

Target / Effort • LCA Conceptual –Life cycle Thinking  This is the first and more simple level of LCA, used to carry out evaluations based on limited inventory of qualitative type. • LCA Simplified - investigation  The aim of this approach is the same as in detailed LCA but here simplification are provided to significantly reduce the time need to complete the study. • LCA detailed  Is a more specialist and scientific approach.

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GP Techniques, Costs and Effort Level

Design for Environment

Costs and Effort Level

Pollution control Process and Equipment changes Raw material change Resources conservation Recycle, Reuse and recover Improvement of Operative Procedures Good management and waste attention

GP Techniques

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LCA Detail Levels Detail level in some LCA applications; "x" in bold indicates the more used level. LCA detail level. Applications

Conceptual

Simplified

Detailed

Design for Environment

x

x

-

No LCA formal link

Product Development

x

x

x

Strong change in sophistication

Environmental Chain (ISO type II )

x

Environmental labels (ISO type I)

Seldom based on LCA Inventory and/or impact evaluation

x

Environmental accounting (ISO type III) Sales organization

Comments

x

x

Inventory and/or impact evaluation

x

Inclusion of LCA in the environmental report

Strategic design

x

x

development of LCA knowledge

Green procurements

x

x

LCA not detailed as in definition of environmental labels

warehouse/delivery scheme

x

LCA with reduced number of parameters

Environmental "green" taxes

x

"

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Life Cycle Management (LCM) • LCM is the application of life cycle thinking to modern business practice with the aim to manage the total life cycle of an organization’s products and services towards more sustainable consumption and production • LCM is systematic integration of sustainability, e.g. in company strategy and planning, product design and development, purchasing decisions and communication programs • LCM is not a single tool or methodology but a flexible integrated management framework of concepts, techniques and procedures incorporating environmental, economic, and social aspects of products, processes and organizations • LCM is voluntary and can be gradually adapted to the specific needs and characteristics of individual organizations

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LCM Drivers and Benefits Corporate strategy  Expansion of product stewardship programmes  Competitive advantage: being at the forefront of development  Reduce costs: Increased operational and resource efficiency  Improve public reputation, image and general relations to stakeholders  Enhance product innovation: development and design of new products  Increased brand value (‘sustainable’ products) Market requirements  Increased market share: advantages to ‘first movers’ on sustainability issues  Ability to focus on sustainability and go beyond the production fence; e.g.

• Supply chain management (supplier evaluation) • Communication in the value chain • Environmental product declarations Financial sector requirements  Increase shareholder value, to get a ‘Dow Jones Sustainability Index’  Less risky business with decreased liabilities resulting in lower insurance rates and

reduced fines New regulations or legislative demands - Anticipate future legislative demands, e.g. ‘Take back legislation’ - Joining eco-labelling schemes and green public procurement programmes - Joining corporate social responsibility programmes

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LCM Objectives, Strategies, Systems, Tools

management Level

Social dimension

Environmental dimension

Objective

SUSTAINABILITY

Concept

LIFE CYCLE THINKING

Economic dimension

LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT

Strategies Corporate social responsibility

Pollution prevention

Product- and supply chain management

Systems

OHSAS 18001

ISO 14001 & POEMS

ISO 9001, TQM, EFQM

Tools

Work place evaluation

Cleaner production LCA, Eco-design

EMA & LCC

Explanations: OHSAS = Occupational Health And Safety, POEMS = Product Oriented Environmental, Management System, TQM = Total Quality Management, EFQM = European Foundation for Quality Management, LCA = Life Cycle Assessment, EMA = Environmental Management Accounting, LCC = Life Cycle Cost Analysis.

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Overview of LCM issues

Policies / Strategies

Sustainable Development, Triple Bottom line, Integrated Product Policy (IPP), Dematerialization (Factor 410), Cleaner Production, Industrial Ecology, Eco-efficiency, Sustainable Asset Management, etc.

Systems / Processes

Integrated and Environmental Management Systems (i.e.. ISO 9000/14000, EMAS, EFQM), Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), Product Development Process (PDP), Certification, Environmental Communication, Value Chain Management, etc.

Concepts / Programs

Product stewardship, Design for Environment, Supply Chain Management, Public Green Procurement, Stakeholder Engagement, Corporate Social Responsibility, Green Accounting, Supplier Evaluation, etc.

Tools / Techniques

Analytical: LCA, MFA, SFA, I/O, ERA, CBA, LCC, TCO, etc. Procedural: Audits, Checklists, Labeling, EIA, etc. Supportive: Weighting, Uncertainty, Sensitivity/Dominance, Scenarios, Back casting, Standards, Voluntary Agreements, etc.

Data / Information / Models

Data Databases, Data Warehousing, Controlling. Information: Best Practice Benchmarks, References, etc. Models: Indicators, Fate, Dose-response, Monte Carlo etc.

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LCM must Involve Many Levels of the Organization





LCM must be a high priority for all parts of management, and all relevant departments / functions must participate Participation of employees ensures that LCM initiatives will be deeply rooted in the organization and that the focus will be on concrete improvements to a product’s environmental profile, rather than mere talk and data collection.

Live-cycle based environmental policy and product strategy

Design for the environment

Green distribution

Management Product development

Distribution

Life cycle management Sales and marketing

Procurement

Green procurement

Production

Cleaner production

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Green marketing

The Organization must ‘go beyond its Facility Boundaries’ Shifting the focus from within the organization’s fence to the entire product chain includes: • The product life cycle: flow of materials from acquisition of raw materials to production, transport, use and disposal.

Producers of Raw materials Retailers

Waste disp. companies

Producers Material and services flow Communication and co-operation

• The market: a value and currency flow from the consumer to the producer.

Cash and asset flow

Distributers SubSub-furniture contractors

• Communication and cooperation in form of exchange of knowledge and experience.

consumers

Collaboration in the Product Chain

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Integrated Management System and Tools: Examples ISO 9001:2000

AFNOR FD X 50-189:2003 Management systems – Guidelines for their integration

 quality

ISO 14001:2004 

environment

ISO 18001:2004 

occupational health and safety

DS 8001 Guidance for integrated management systems

SA 8000:1999  social accountability

AA 1000:1999 

AFNOR AC X 50-200:2003 Integrated management systems – Good practices and experience feedback

accountability

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Product Design Based on LCA and Product Development

• Design determines:  70~80% of the total project life cycle costs  most of the total life cycle environmental impacts

• Early assessment of the cradle- to- grave environmental aspects of the product system can lead to effective integration of environmental considerations into the design process “Long-term prosperity depends not on the efficiency of a fundamentally destructive system, but on the effectiveness of processes and products designed to be healthy and renewable in the first place” William McDonough

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Design For Environment (DFE) Examining a product’s entire projected lifecycle and identifying measures that can be taken to minimise the environmental impact of the product at its design stage DFE strategies considers design measures to reduce the environmental impact in each stage of its life cycle 

Raw materials: design measures relating e.g. to resource conservation



Manufacturing: providing for eco-efficiency in the production phase



Product use: making provision in product-use phase e.g. for energy and water efficiency, reduced material use, and increased durability



End-of-life: key design considerations include design for disassembly, design for durability, product re-use, and design for recycling

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Design for The Environment (DfE) Evaluation

• Three Categories of Evaluation Criteria  Energy Consumption during the Entire Life Cycle  Material Utilization & Selection  Process Improvement & Selection

• Tools  Life Cycle Assessment Tools  CAD/Material/Process Selection Tools  Disassembly Modeling and Analysis Tools  Simulation Tools

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Integrated Product Development Change of task Change of function Change of working principle

Design

Change design Change material

Measures

Criteria

Raw materials Production Use End of life

Ecological Economic Technical Raw materials Production Use End of life

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Design for Environment

classification of the task concept design

design

detailed design

raw materials

production

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use

recycling disposal

Eco-Design Eco-Design considers the relation between a product and the environment. Common propositions: 

Environmental impacts from products have continued to rise relative to production processes



A life-cycle perspective on the environmental impacts of a product captures the whole production-consumption chain



Of the (life-cycle) impacts from products, 60% to 80% are determined at the design stage



A focus on products is a better way to engage business interest and action because it focuses on the products' market vulnerability

Cradle-to-Cradle Design – A New Paradigm • True change: Designing industrial processes so they do not generate toxic pollution and "waste" in the first place

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Cradle-to-Cradle Design – “Environmentally Intelligent” New paradigm modeling human industry on nature’s processes in terms of which

WASTE = FOOD Materials are viewed as nutrients circulating in healthy, safe metabolisms: 1) Nature's biological metabolism should be protected and enriched all waste = food for biological system (biodegradable) 2) Technical metabolism enhanced through circulation of mineral and synthetic materials All waste = food for another industrial system Cradle-to-Cradle by William McDonough & Michael Bragnaurt

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Cradle-to-Cradle Design – Benefits •

Design for life-time customers – products leased again & again to customer base



Risk management – risks to environmental and human health are reduced by eliminating the concept of waste & selecting materials that are safe to both human and natural systems



Cost reduction – dramatically reduce legal & material costs



Product differentiation – products that offer customers excellence by all measurements “Cradle-to-Cradle designs have positive effects extending beyond the client company to its suppliers, customers, communities, and the natural world ” William McDonough

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Product Stewardship A product-centred approach to environmental management, where manufacturers – either voluntarily or under pressure from government – take responsibility for the entire life-cycle impacts of a product and its packaging Benefits: - Green marketing opportunities - Avoids regulation - Achieves environmental goals The objective of product stewardship is to encourage manufacturers to redesign products with fewer toxins, to make them more durable, reusable, recyclable, and using recycled materials. Tools of Product Stewardship include:  Take-back programs  Leasing  Life-cycle management  Shared responsibility  Extended producer responsibility  Manufacturer responsibility

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Assessment of Toxic Impact Methods for the assessment of toxic impacts Eco-indicator 99

Referencealternative

A

Referencealternative

A

B

B

carcinogenic Unit-Risk

+ further methods

CML 96

+ further methods

toxic

endocrine EAP (Estrogenic Activity Potential)

Referencealternative

A

B

Referencealternative

A

B

solution: method set «Darmstadter Model»

Cd Pb Hg PCDD/F SO2 Nox PCB Benzene

impact assessment

Aggregation

Impacts toxic carcinogenic

weighting factors

endocrine

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results

LCAD environmentalsurplus load discharge

inventory analysis

global

Referencealternative

regional

local

Surfactant Criteria Snapshot Chemical Green Card Aquatic Tox Best (3)

Class 3, Preferred

Ult. Biodegradable EU- Enviro Classif. Class 3

• LC50/EC 50> 1mg/L • Readily biodegradable • 3 or more species (OECD 301) tested >60% w/in 10 d Better (2)

Class 2

Class 2

• LC50/EC 50> 1mg/L • >60% w/in 28 d • 1/2 species tested

Acute Human Tox

Class 3 (Best)

Class 3

• Aquatic tox 100mg/L

• LD50 >2000 mg/kg

Class 2 (Better)

Class 2

• No adverse classification • LD50 between 500 -2000 mg/kg • Readily biodegradable • Aquatic tox >1mg/L

Acceptable (1) Class 1

Class 1

• LC50/EC50 < 1mg/L • <60% w/in 28 d

Class 1 (Acceptable)

Class 1

• Any EU classification

• LD50 < 500 mg/L

(N, R50; N, R50-53; N, R51-53; R52-53, R52 or R53)

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Gate New Product Development Process Source: ISO/TR 14062: 2002

Planning

G

Company Goal & Policies

Conceptual Design

G

Detailed Design

G

Testing/ Prototype

G

Production Launch

G

Product Review

Supporting Activities

stage stage

 A set of tasks that generate information, typically in the form of deliverables

such as drawings, reports, etc. needed to support key business decisions

gate G

 A point for review where a decision to continue investment in the project or

terminate is made Attilio Citterio

Stage - Details

Planning

Surveys external pressures, public expectations, customer needs, and industry trends to define the requirements for a successful product offering

Conceptual design

Assesses the strategic fit of the identified business opportunity with company capabilities and objectives. Develop product concept

Detailed Design

Develops complete bill-of-material, drawings, manufacturing plans, etc. that meets technical specifications and enables design of the manufacturing and support processes consistent with project cost and quality goals

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Stage - Details

Testing/ Prototype

Production Launch

Product Review

Make prototypes and test its performance Prescribed tasks confirm the producibility of the design and verify projected manufacturing costs.

Introduces the product to selected markets.

Review and capture lessons from the project and used to improve subsequent projects.

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Examples of Product Life Cycle Profiles Durable goods, (e.g. appliances)

Impact



• energy conservation Matl.

Prod.

Use

EOL

• elimination of toxic and other minor constituents that complicate maintenance and upgrades

Single-use, (e.g. diaper)

• biodegradability Impact



Eco-design strategies

• elimination of any problematic materials after its disposal

Matl.

Prod.

Use

EOL

Attilio Citterio

Eco-design Approach

Product (System) Definition

Environmental Assessment Life cycle Stakeholder Perspective Perspective

Eco-design

Environmental Communication

 Defines a product to be improved environmentally  Identifying product components, parts, and materials, plus life cycle stage information of the product.  Output

 The product composition, product system, life cycle stage data and, technical parameters of the product relevant to the significant environmental aspects or environmental parameters Attilio Citterio

Environmental Assessment – Stage II

• Life cycle Perspective



• Stakeholder Perspective •

Assess the environmental aspects of a product system based on the environmental impact caused by the product system. Tools: Life cycle thinking & LCA

Assess the environmental aspects of a product based on the stakeholders view such as legal requirements, market demands, and competitor’s products. Tools: EQFD & EBM

Output 

A set of significant environmental parameters of a product on the environment

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Eco-design – Stage III • • • • • • • • •

Link the significant environmental parameters to relevant environmental strategies Identify relevant implementation measures for the improvement of the environmental parameters belonging to a certain environmental strategy Develop redesign tasks for the chosen implementation Develop product specification. It consists of fixed and wish specification Identify function of the reference product and then add new function and/or modify existing function based on the product specification Generate ideas to realize the function Generate variants. Assembling idea corresponding to each function of the newly improved product generates the variants Develop product concept by selecting variant. Variants are evaluated against criteria such as economic, technical, social and environmental ones Continuing detailed embodiment design, layout, testing, prototype, production and market launch

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Blend LCA, 13101 and Beyond

RECYCLED CONTENT ORGANIC LOW EMITTING ENERGY EFFICIENT

RENEWABLE ENERGY Focus on Product Attributes – Product Content, Emission Profile, Performance Characteristics

EPP

Focus on Process – Energy Consumption & Source, Defects, Waste Generation, Air and Water Emissions.

BIODEGRADABLE Where we are heading – Environmentally Preferable, Well Managed, Sustainable Attilio Citterio

ISO 14000 ISO 9000 LCI/LCA GHG REGISTRY

Communication of Life Cycle Information Distinguish communication tools vs. target stakeholders • Final consumers • Business clients • Financial stakeholders • Public administrators and policy makers • Other society stakeholders • ISO-type I labels as communication tool to final consumers However, important limitations of eco-labels  other communication tools increase awareness and foster better use of products  Simplification of complex life-cycle information into ISO-type II claims  ISO-type III declarations for B2B  Combination of tools

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Final Consumers 1 – ISO-type I Labels • Diffusion of ISO-type I labels • Number of product groups, firms and products for the main ISO-type I labeling schemes as of end of 2002. Country

Year of establishment

Product group

Firms

Products

Japan1

1989

64

2107

5152

Germany

1978

94

995

3114

Nordic countries

1989

55

658

2872

Sweden (Falcon)

1992

14

617

1226

Spain/Catalunya (DGQA)

1994

16

79

864

Austria

1991

44

334

645

EU2

1992

19

128

576

France

1992

15

47

443

The Netherland

1992

69

257

360

Spain (AENOR)

1994

13

71

77

Attilio Citterio

Comparison of the main key performance indicators from 2001 to 2012 (EU Ecolabel )

KPIs

2001

2005

2011

2012

No of companies

83

250

887

~ 1000

No of licenses

95

279

1357

1671

No of products

(no stats)

(no stats)

17935

17176

No of people who have seen/heard of or bought Ecolabel products

(no stats)

11% (in 2006)

37% (in 2009) (no stats)

EU Ecolabel Work Plan for 2011 – 2015 http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/about_ecolabel/pdf/work_plan.pdf Attilio Citterio

Final Consumers 3 – ISO-type II Claims Example: ISO-type II labels in Japan Panasonic: Factor X provides concise information about the improvement of new products with respect to old ones

GHG factor = (GHG efficiency of the new product) / (GHG efficiency of the old product), where GHG efficiency = (Product life x Product functions) / (GHG emissions over the entire life cycle) Attilio Citterio

Business Clients 1 – ISO-type III Declaration COUNTRY

NATIONAL SCHEME

Denmark

Pilot project EPD (DEPA – Danish Envir. Protection Agency)

France

Experimental standard on type III environmental declarations AFNOR – Ass. Francaise de Normalisation)

SETTORIAL SCHEME

AIMCC (construction)

Finland

RTS (construction), paper

Germany

AUB (construction)

Italy

Program ANPA 2000-2001 EU-LIFE INTEND - EPD (2003/05)

Netherland

MRPI (construction)

Norwey

Project NHO Type III NHO – Conf. Norwegian Industry

Sweden

program EPD (SWEDAC - Swedish Environmental Management Council)

United Kingdom -

Volvo cars EPDs (automotive) Volvo trucks EPDs (automotive) IT Eco Declaration (IE and Telecom) Byggvarudeklaration (construction) Teko Environ. Declar. (textile) BRE environmental profile (constr.)

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Stakeholder Relationships Secondary Stakeholders Environmental and Social Non-governmental Organizations

Intergovernmental Organizations

Primary Stakeholders

Employees

Labour Associations

Public Authorities

Local Communities

Customers

Business & Products Media Suppliers / Upstream businesses

Banks, Insurance Companies, Financial Analysts

Commerce / Category Association

Technology Providers

Research Institutes / University Source: Wuppertal Institute, 2004

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Communication – Information Brochures (i.e. liquid fabric washing)

Source: Unilever Attilio Citterio

Communication: Report on Environmental Inventory

Eisai Co., Ltd. (2012) Attilio Citterio

Report example: Trend of Wastes in Sweden

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Responsible Care (a voluntary program) • An obligation for membership to the American Chemistry Council (ACC) • Initiated in 1988 following industrial accident in Bhopal, India • Inherent negative focus: Improved performance in Environment, Health and Safety (EHS), security, product management issues, and value chain • In Italy the program started in 1992 with the aim to reach:  Continuous improvement of performances of above issues  Good communication of results obtained supporting a transparent

relationship with institutions and public.

Attilio Citterio

School of Industrial and Information Engineering Course 096125 (095857) Introduction to Green and Sustainable Chemistry

Examples of LCA Prof. Attilio Citterio Dipartimento CMIC “Giulio Natta” http://iscamap.chem.polimi.it/citterio/education/course-topics/

Examples of Life-Cycle Assessment (1) Chemical Product From raw material and intermediates chemical transformations provide the product with defined composition, to be used as is. (2) Formulated. Mixture of compounds with a defined service. (3) Component of a product - Part of a more complex product but made through an independent production and finally assembled (car fender) (4) Industrial sector. Sphere of transformations in which there is a series of activities to achieve a target, e. g. publishing, textile, car making, etc.

Attilio Citterio

Example 1: LCA of Chlor-Alkali Industry The chlor-alkali industry sector produces chlorine, sodium/potassium hydroxide and hydrogen by electrolysis of brine. Nowadays, three different electrolysis techniques are applied: mercury, diaphragm, and membrane cell technology. From all these technologies, the European Commission labels the membrane process as the Best Available Technique (BAT). Here the LCA to support this.

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(eq./yr)

Chlor-Alkali Production Processes 0,01 0,009 0,008 0,007 0,006 0,005 0,004 0,003 0,002 0,001 0

diaphram mercury membrane

Normalized environmental profile of the three choralkali production processes. Normalization is based on a comparison with the total annual environmental burden of western Europe

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Example 2 - home laundering in Europe – Structure of the life cycle of Ariel 2001 (Formulation)

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LCIA indicators of Ariel 2001 regular powder detergent (Formulation) LCIA indicator

Units

Climate change

g eq. CO2

Total Formulation Manufacturing

Packaging Distribution

Use

Water treatment

298

50,40%

5,44%

1,99%

1,15%

27,80%

13,21%

Depletion of ozone layer g. eq. CFC-11 0,000049

75,79

0

1,6

5,23

10,95

6,43

Photochemical oxidants g eq. C2H4

0,029

44,70%

0,68%

0,81%

1,22%

40,86%

11,73%

Human toxicity

g 1,4-DCB eq

26,42

51,75%

0,00%

0,91%

1,11%

42,09%

4,14%

Acidification

g eq. SO2

0,58

72,24%

3,45%

2,31%

3,34%

16,90%

1,77%

Eutrophication

g eq. PO4 3-

0,46

31,29%

1,19%

0,83%

1,11%

5,75%

59,83%

Aquatic eco-tox (USES 2,0)

g 1,4-DCB eq

27474

38,58%

0,00%

0,32%

1,30%

25,16%

34,63%

Aquatic eco-tox (CML1992)

m 3 poll. wat

0,032

49,32%

0,00%

1,22%

0,43%

3,88%

45,16%

Procter & Gamble (2001) Attilio Citterio

Ingredients in Laundry Detergents and Stain Removers Ingredient type Function Anti-redeposition agents Prevents dissolved dirt to reattach to textiles and greying. Bleaching agents Bleach activators Bleach catalysts Buffering agents Builders (co-builders) Colorants Corrosion-inhibitors Dye-transfer inhibitors Enzymes Optical brighteners Fillers Fragrance Hydrotropes Preservatives Soap Solvents Suds inhibitors Surfactants

Removes or decolorizes (whitens or lightens) stains that are not removed by surfactants Activates the bleaching agent. Peracid precursors. Makes H2O2 or O21 more effective. Enables bleaching at lower T, complexing organic molecules with a metallic center. Stabilizes the pH of the wash water to maintain the cleaning efficiency. Cleaning is reduced under acidic conditions Binds Ca2+ in water and soil on the clothing. Allow better access to the soil for surfactants and thus improves cleaning Aesthetic / marketing value Protects the washing machine against corrosion Prevents transfer of dyes from one textile to another

Examples CMC, CEC, polymers, starch Perborate, percarbonate, hydrogen peroxide, peracids, sodium hypochlorite TAED Manganese complexes

Carbonate, citrate, citric acid Phosphate, phosphonate, zeolite, silicates, X2CO3, citrate, polycarboxylates Various coloring agents Silicates Polymers, co-polymers (PVP or PVPI) Proteases, lipases, amylases, cellulases, Specific stain removal, biodetergency, whiteness, color mannanase, pectinase Reflect ultra-violet sunlight as white, visible light. Impression. FWA-1, FWA-5 Adds structure Na2SO4 (In liquid products: water) Aesthetic / marketing value Various fragrance mixtures Increases the solubility of other ingredients in liquid products. Cunene/xylene/toluene sulphonates, urea, Regulates viscosity. ethanol Prevent growth of microorganisms in liquid products Various types of preservatives Cleaning agent. Reduces surface tension and Soluble sodium or potassium salts of fatty loosens/disperses/ suspends the soil. acids (C8-C22) Dissolution of ingredients (in liquid products) Alcohols Reduces the quantity of suds (foam) in the washing machine Soap, low foaming surfactants, silicones As soap (Alkyl ether sulfates, alkyl sulfates) alcohol ethoxylates, alcohol alkoxylates Attilio Citterio

Example 3 - Fender Case Study Description of the Fender Designs

Fender Design

Thickness [mm]

Steel

Weight 2 Fenders [kg]

Weight Semi-finished [kg]

0.75

5.6

11.16

Alluminum

1.1

2.77

5.63

PP/EPDM T10

3.2

3.21

3.37

PPO/PA

3.2

3.35

3.52

PC/PBT

3.2

3.72

3.9

Symbols: PP polypropylene, PPO polyphenylenether, EPDM polyethylene-propylene PA polyamide, PC polycarbonate, PBT polybutylenterephthalate

Attilio Citterio

Primary Energy Demand for the Production of Fenders

900

Brown coal

Natural gas

Crude oil

Hard coal

Uranium (U) nataral

Primary energy from hyfropower

800

700

[MJ/2 Fenders

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

Al (cl loop)

Steel

PC/PBT

Constructive Alternatives of Fenders

Attilio Citterio

PP/EPDM

PPO/PA

Impact Assessment - GWP I 120

Operation Fuel Processing Material

GWP [kg CO2 equiv]

100

80

60

40

20

0 Aluminium

  

Stahl

PC/PBT

PP/EPDM

PPO/PA

Use-Phase is dominant; lightweight design is of advantage Material-Profiles are decisive (Al, PPO/PA) Data-quality from the Material-Profiles are important (PPO/PA) Attilio Citterio

Impact Assessment - GWP II

1,20E+02 Others Methane (CH4)

GWP [kg CO 2 equiv.]

1,00E+02

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

8,00E+01

6,00E+01

4,00E+01

2,00E+01

0,00E+00

Aluminium

 

Stahl

PC/PBT

PP/EPDM

PPO/PA

CO2 is the dominant Emission PPO/PA is dominated by the N2O Emission from PA Attilio Citterio

Fender Case Study - Impact Assessment results - total Aluminum

Steel

PC/PBT

PP/ EPDM

PPO/PA

1290

1120

1060

810

1080

resources

15

25

18

14

21

water

36

27

22

17

25

GWP

104

105

83

62

115

ODP

1

0.1

0.4

0.2

1.2

AP

28

19

20

16

20

EP

4.4

4.2

3.9

3.5

7.2

POCP

6.7

9.2

8.7

8

9.1

Htox. Air

3.8

3.7

2.5

1.9

2.5

Htox. Water

0.66

0.92

0.99

0.62

0.74

Eco tox.

2.9

3.4

2.7

1.9

2.4

waste

3.7

1.2

1

0.25

0.25

energy

Attilio Citterio

Fender Case Study - Environmental results - total

Aluminum

Steel

PC/ PBT

PP/ EPDM

PPO/PA

Score

168,5

164,2

234,9

322,3

183,0

result

48,1%

46,9%

67,1%

92,1%

52,3%

order

4

5

2

1

3

• PP/EPDM seems by far to be the most favorable design. • PC/PBT follows with significant distance. • PPO/PA, Aluminum and Steel are not competitive for this design.

Attilio Citterio

Fender Case Study - weighting results Waste Ecotox. Htox. water Htox. air POCP EP AP ODP GWP Water Resources Energy

Aluminium

Steel

PC/ PBT

PP/ EPDM

PPO PA

Weighting results have been inverted to demonstrate the environmental burdens. Attilio Citterio

Fender Case Study - Economic Characterization

Alluminum PP/ EPDM PPO/ PA

PC/ PBT

4,53

7,05

5,76

4,74

70,9%

45,3%

70,5%

57,6%

47,4%

1

5

1

3

4

Material

Steel

Score

7,09

Share Rank

• PP/EPDM and steel are economically very advanced. • PPO/PA is about to become competitive. • PC/PBT is not yet in a competitive area. • Aluminium is the least favourable solution

Attilio Citterio

Fender Case Study - Technical Characterization

Design

Steel

Aluminum PP/ EPDM PPO/ PA

Score

7,23

5,18

7,94

7,19

6,91

Share

72,3%

51,8%

79,4%

71,9%

69,1%

Rank

2

5

1

2

3

• PP/EPDM is the technically most favorable design. • Steel and PPO/PA follow closely. • PC/PBT has some technical disadvantages. • Aluminum is the least favorable solution

Attilio Citterio

PC/ PBT

Fender Case Study - Overall Valuation

Steel

Alum.

PP/ EPDM

PPO/ PA

PC/ PBT

technical

7.2

5.2

7.9

7.2

6.9

economical

7.1

4.5

7.0

5.8

4.8

environmental

4.7

4.8

9.2

4.7

6.7

• PP/EPDM is the most favorable solution. • Aluminum is the worst design here. • Steel still is competitive. • PPO/PA and PC/PBT are not yet competitive.

Attilio Citterio

Fender Case Study - Overall Valuation Technical score

Steel

10

Aluminium PP/EPDM

8

PC/PBT

Optimum

PPO/PA

6

4

Economical score

2

2

2

4

6

8

10

4 6 8 10

1= bad 10= very good

Environmental score

Attilio Citterio

• Steel has economic advantages, but strong environmental disadvantages technically good. • Aluminium is not desirable from all viewpoints. • PP/EPDM is the best solution for all dimensions. • PC/PBT is technically and environmentally strong, but has economic disadvantages. • PPO/PA is technically good, but has environmental and economic disadvantages. • Material Selection is still difficult and depends on the related design. • Competition is good for an overall improvement.

Example 4 - Printing Industry / Flow Diagram (Inventory)

paper

electricity

Printing ink

Print Press

coating

Glue &Trim

coating

Cardboard (packaging)

Packaging

HEAT Natural gas

Recycled paper

electricity

Recycling

Waste paper to landfill

IDstribution/retail

Waste disp.

Attilio Citterio

Use

Indicators for Printing Industry Indicator, for product weight Materials Material use Not renewable materials Dangerous materials Printing paper, total Printing paper, not Swan Energy Energy consumption Not-renewable energy Transports Total transports Transport (diesel) Waste Waste, total Landfill Dangerous wastes Emissions VOC (internal) VOC (prod/transp. Energy) Carbon dioxide Attilio Citterio

Unit

Interval

kg/ ton kg/ ton kg/ ton kg/ ton kg/ ton

1130–1390 0.498–12.7 0–0.529 1110–1370 0–1370

kWh/ ton kWh/ ton

520–550 130–330

tonkm/ ton tonkm/ ton

200–960 18–880

kg/ ton kg/ ton kg/ ton

127–422 0–6.32 1.13–9.44

kg/ ton kg/ ton kg/ ton

0.17–0.45 0.034–0.099 33–55

Relative Environmental Results for Life Cycle Assessment of Printing Paper 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15

Attilio Citterio

Inventory Results − Summary of Input in kg/ Functional Unit

4 - Printing example - scenery 3 3 - Printing example - scenery 2 2 - Printing example - scenery 1 1 - Printing example - scenery 0

0

50

Attilio Citterio

100

O - actual 1 - new printing 2 - new distribution 3 – recycle rate

Inventory Results − Summary of Wastes for kg/functional Unit CO(x10) CO2 NOx SO2 (x10) 4 - Printing example - scenery 3

NH3 (xe4)

3 -Printing example - scenery 2

halides (x100)

2 - Printing example - scenery 1

other air (x1000)

1 - Printing exemple - scenery 0

VOC metals air(x1000) TSP(x1000) Toxics water us.(x0.1) Metals (water) Water n.m. Water org. (x100) Water n.s. (x10) Water mix (x10) Oils (x1000) Solid waste Open output (x 10) Landfill

0

20

40

Attilio Citterio

60

80

100

Impact Assessment – Scenary Comparison

Smog (Kgx10)

Ozone depletio(CFC) Human toxicity(Kg/Kg 0.1) Eutrofiz.(Kg PO4 x100)

4 - Printing example - scenery 3 3 - Printing example - scenery 2

Ecotoxicity(m3 x100)

2 - Printing example - scenery 1 1 - Printing example - scenery 0

Acidific.(Kg SO2) Greenhouse Gases(Kg CO2 x0.1) Resource depletion(/years x10) Landill (m3 x 10)

0

5

10

Attilio Citterio

15

Soya Ink

Introduced in 1987, it was used in newspaper trade industry. Made up of soya oil instead of petrol.

soya cultivation Talloil residues

Wood paste Other

printing

Electricity generation

• Soya agriculture accounts less than 1 % of the energy involved in the life cycle of this oil. • Talloil residues (38 %) can be replaced by soya oil derivatives • The energy involved in the life cycle is mainly coming from petroleum but alternative sources are under investigation.

Attilio Citterio

Ecological Criteria and Ecological Labeling • This is a requirement to be respected by a product or by a producer to prove that the product or productive process shows a lower environmental impact than a different product or process absolving the same function. • For instance, the European Union Committee for Ecological label (CUEME) defines the ecologic criteria to which a product must adapt to obtain the Ecolabel. • Similarly, public administrations can introduce ecological criteria in their notices to orient selections to purchase products/services at a reduced environmental impact.

Attilio Citterio

Environmental Labels •



They are labels directly applied on a product or a service to inform on its overall environmental “performance”, or on one or more specific environmental aspects. Allows consumers to make informed decisions about what they are buying. Shows commitment to reduced environmental impact. Third party verification gives credibility There are several environmental labels on the market. The main types are: 

TYPE I: Voluntary label verified by independent part, awarded to products fulfilling criteria corresponding to the best environmental performance within each particular product group.



TYPE II: Self-certified labels used by manufacturers to indicate the environmental aspects of a product or service. The label may take the form of statements, symbols or graphics on product or packaging labels, product literature, advertising or similar.



TYPE III: Label censed by independent organizations, serving as a report card and providing information on the possible environmental impact of a product, leaving it to the consumer to decide which product is best. Also known as an Environmental Product Declaration. See http://www.globalecolabelling.net/ Attilio Citterio

Compulsory Labels • Compulsory labels in U.E. apply to different sectors and bind producers, users, distributors and other parties to comply to legislative regulations. • This labeling type “command and control” contributes a lot to reach some fundamental environmental objectives arranged to European and national level, so that in some cases it represents a strong stimulus for industry to activate voluntary environmental initiatives (program agreements, EMAS, etc.) • Compulsory labels apply to the following product types:  Toxic and dangerous substances (directive 93/21/EEC)  Household appliance - Energy Label (directive 92/75/CEE)  Food products  Packaging - Packaging Label  Electricity from renewable sources – Green Certification

Attilio Citterio

Voluntary Labels ISO Type I – ISO 14024, 1999 third party certification labels: claims are based on criteria set by a third part. Criteria take into account the overall life cycle of the product. It points to better environmental services of a product belonging ta a specific category. Examples include the EC EcoLabel, Nordic Swan and the German Blue Angel.

Energy Star: U.S.

Between environmental labels of product can be found some national labels for a long time on the market. Typical are labels for agriculture products

Blauer Engel: White Swan: from 1989 Green Seal: Germany from 1978 in Denmark, Sweden, USA Finland and Iceland Attilio Citterio

Umweltzeichen: NF Environnement: Austria from 1991 France from 1992

Environmental Labels of Products • •



An environmental label (i.e. "ecolabel") can be considered a ” guarantee" for environmentally compatible products and is attractive for commercial purpose. The general aim of a national and upper-national environmental label schemes is to supply products with less environmental impacts easily recognized to purchasers. Therefore, the success of a environmental label scheme is to a some extent dependent on the product classes number with that label. EU label Ecolabel (”Il fiore”) EU regulation (No 882/92) intend to:  Promote the design, production, commercialization and use of products having a low environmental impact along the overall life cycle  Supply consumers with better information on environmental impact of products, without, however, compromise products or worker health and alter significantly properties which make them ready to use.

Attilio Citterio

ISO 14000 International Standard

Benefits:  Improve environmental performance  Reduce costs  Establish a system and process standard in the direction:

• • • •

Integrate with other management systems Increase the credibility towards public Competitivity Improve relationships with Control Agencies

Attilio Citterio

ISO 14000 Standard Package on Life Cycle Assessment ISO 14001 – Environmental management systems — Specification with guidance for use ISO14004 – Environmental management systems — General guidelines on principles, systems and supporting techniques ISO 14010/11/12 – Substitute of ISO 19011 standard – Guidelines for quality and/or EMS auditing ISO 14015 – Environmental management – Environmental assessment of sites and organizations ISO 14020 – Environmental labels and declarations — General principles ISO 14021 – Environmental labels and declarations — Environmental auto certification (Environmental labels Type II) ISO 14024 – Environmental labels and declarations — Type I environmental labeling — Principles and procedures ISO TR 14025 – Environmental labels and declarations —Type 111 Environmental declaration ISO 14031 – Environmental management — Environmental performance evaluation — Guidelines ISO 14032 – Environmental management — Environmental performance evaluation — Examples of ISO 14031 use ISO 14040 – Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework ISO 14041 – Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Goal and scope definition and inventory analysis ISO 14042 – Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Life cycle impact assessment ISO 14043 – Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Life cycle interpretation ISO TR 14047 – Environmental management - Life cycle assessment – Examples of application of ISO 14042 ISO 14048 – Environmental management - Life cycle assessment – Data format for documentation of life cycle assessment ISO TR 14049 – Environmental management - Life cycle assessment – Examples of application of ISO 14041 to the definition of targets and spheres and inventory analysis ISO 14050 – Environmental management — Vocabulary ISO 14060 – Guide for inclusion of Environmental Aspects in Product Standard ISO TR 14061 – Information to assist external organizations in the use of ISO 14001 and ISO 14004 standard of Environmental Management System ISO TR 14062 – Environmental management – guidelines to integrate environmental aspects in the product development ISO 14063 – Environmental management – Environmental Communications – Guidelines and examples ISO 14064 – Guide for the inclusion of environmental aspects in product standards ISO-14065 – Guide to compliance of national and international programs

Attilio Citterio

Systems oriented and product oriented standards within the ISO 14000 family Year 1997 1998 2000 2000 2001 2004 2006 2006 2006 2007 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 2012 2012 2012

Standard Published ISO 14040: LCA: Principles and Framework ISO 14041: LCA: Goal and Scope ISO 14042: LCA: Impact Assessment ISO 14043: LCA: Interpretation ISO 14020: Labels General Principles CEN TC350 Standardisation Mandate issued ISO 14025: Labels: Type 3 EPDs ISO 14040: LCA Principles and Framework updated ISO 14044: LCA: Requirements and Guidelines updated ISO 21930: EPDs for Construction Products CEN TR 15941: Generic Data EN 15643-1: General Framework EN 15643-2: Environmental Framework EN 15878: Building level Calculation methods EN 15942: EPD B2B Communication Formats EN 15643-3: Social Framework EN 15643-4: Economic Framework EN 15804 Core Rules for the Product Category Construction Products Attilio Citterio

ISO 14000 Route (initial) Support tools addressed to Product

Auditing and Evaluation tools Environmental Performance Evaluation (EPE) ISO 14031 – Guide to Evaluation of Environmental Service

Environmental Auditing (EA) 14010 – Guidelines for quality and/or EMS auditing 14011-1 – Guidelines for Environmental Auditing – Audit procedures Part 1: Auditing of environmental management systems 14012 - Guidelines for per Environmental Auditing – Qualification Criteria for Auditors

Management Systems ISO 14001 – Environmental Manag. System (EMS) Specifications and Use Guide

Life Cycle Assessment(LCA) 14040 – Life cycle assessment - General principles and Environmental auto certification 1 4041 - Life cycle assessment – Life cycle inventory analysis 14042 - Life cycle assessment – assessment of life cycle impact 14043 - Life cycle assessment - Life cycle interpretation and evaluation of improvements

Environmental Labeling (EL) ISO 14004 Environmental Aspects of Product Standard (EPS) General guidelines on principles of systems and support techniques

Attilio Citterio

14020 – Environmental Labeling – Basic principles for all Environmental Labeling 14021 - Environmental Labeling – Environmental autocertifications and Declarations – Terms and definitions 14022 - Environmental Labeling - Environmental autocertifications and Declarations – Symbols 14023 - Environmental Labeling - Environmental autocertifications and Declarations – Test methodologies 14024 - Environmental Labeling – guide principles, Procedures and Criteria for Certification Programs – Guide to Certification Procedures

ISO 14000 Route (actual) Prioritizing environmental aspects

ISO 14040 Series Life cycle assessment

Integration of environmental aspects in design and development

Description of environmental performance of products Improvement of environmental performance of products

ISO 14062 Design for environment

ISO 14020 Series Act

Plan

Check

Do

Communicating environmental performance

Monitoring system performance

Monitoring system performance Compliance of national and international protocols and programs

Information about environmental aspects of products

Environmental labels and declarations

Communication on environmental performance

ISO 14063 Environmental communications

ISO 14030 Series Environmental performance evaluation

ISO 19011 Environmental management systems auditing

Description of environmental performance of organization

Information about the performance of the environmental Management system

ISO 14064 Series Gas emissions ISO 14065 Validation

Compliance with Kyoto Protocol

Attilio Citterio

Environmental Management Systems An EMS is the part of the overall management system that includes organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy. Key examples include ISO 14001 and EMAS. EMS are used to: 

Help companies to identify and prioritise their key environmental impacts in a structured and systematic manner



Provide a framework for setting clear objectives and targets for managing these impacts



Ensure that structured processes and procedures are in place for measuring and monitoring performance.

The type of EMS depends on the nature, size and complexity of the company’s activities, products and services.

Attilio Citterio

ISO 14001 Environmental Management System: The Framework

Plan

Act

Continual Improvement

Check

Attilio Citterio

Do

ISO 14001 Environmental Management System Plan • • • •

Act

Identify aspects and impacts, hazards and risks Document legislation and other requirements Set objectives and measurable targets Policy and management programme

Continual Improvement

Check

Attilio Citterio

Do

ISO 14001 Environmental Management System

Plan

Do

Act

Continual Improvement

Check

Attilio Citterio

Structure and responsibility Training, awareness and competence Communication EMS documentation Document control Operational control Emergency preparedness & response

ISO 14001 Environmental Management System

Plan

Act

Continual Improvement

Do

Check Monitoring, measuring and auditing performance Maintaining records Schedule, plan and conduct system audits Non-conformance and corrective action

Attilio Citterio

ISO 14001 Environmental Management System

Plan

Act Continual Improvement

Implement corrective actions Track improvement Management review

Check

Attilio Citterio

Do

Cleaner Production “The continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy applied to processes, products, and services. It embodies the more efficient use of natural resources and thereby minimizes waste and pollution as well as risks to human health and safety.” UNEP • • • •



CP promotes the shift of mindset from corrective to preventive approach Endeavors to bring a combination of economic savings and environmental improvements CP addresses root causes of problems rather than their effects. CP aims to reduce the utilization of natural resources per unit of production, the amount of pollutants generated and their environmental impact  decoupling production from environmental impacts At the same time, it makes alternative products and processes financially more attractive

Attilio Citterio

Cleaner Production (CP) Strategy For production processes, CP includes 

More efficient use of raw materials, water and energy  Elimination of toxic or dangerous process input materials  Minimising the volume and toxicity of all emissions and waste

For products, CP focuses on 

Reducing impacts through the product’s life cycle  Adapting design, raw material input, manufacturing, use, and disposal

For services, CP implies 

Preventive environmental strategy in the design and delivery of services

Attilio Citterio

Implementing a CP Management Program

STEP 1: PLANNING

STEP 2: PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

STEP 3: DETAILED ASSESSMENT

   

 Asses effluent streams (process flow chart))  Obtain regulatory reports  Carry out walk through inspections  Prepare a programme plan  Develop a schedule with milestones

   

Management commitment Prepare policy statement Establish project team Appoint project champion

Review data and sites Collect input/output data Prepare material/energy balances Define lCP options brainstorm)

STEP 4: FEASIBILITY’ ANALYSIS

STEP 6: MONITOR PROGRESS  Track wastes, material use, cost saving  Document results and savings

STEP 5: IMPLEMENTATION  Plan and schedule  Implement selected CP options

Attilio Citterio

     

Rank various technical options Technical analysis Environmental analysis Economic analysis Select most viable options Prepare report

Areas of CP Management CP covers 3 areas of environmental management:  Pollution prevention (P2)  Toxic use reduction (TUR)

* reduction of the use of materials & energy * reduction of generation of waste & emissions

 Design for the environment (DfE)

Integrate

Cleaner Production Assessment

Analyze

Improve Source: Van Berkel, Willema, & Lafleur, 1997

time Attilio Citterio

Environmental Impact Declaration Definition  An EIS is a report which draw the potential environmental effects arising from the completion of the proposed action Aim  Present EAI conclusions to political, authority which decide law and common in order to prevent environmental burden Includes: • • • •

Environmental impact of the proposed action Unfavorable environmental impacts to be avoided Alternatives to the proposed actions Relationship between short term use and maintenance/improvement of long term productivity • Any irreversible and not recoverable ban of resources

Attilio Citterio

Political Approaches Depending on the level of intervention, and with the aim to attempt to minimize costs of economic activity and environment degradation, governments can adopt three different approaches: 

Regulatory • • • • •



Administrative in nature and fixed Complex and expensive Based on constraints Unwanted results (i.e. black market of CFC in some countries) Promoted in the past, new less common owing to costs for control and difficulties in applying

Economic instruments or market based solutions • Change of relative prices to influence the resource use system: the price of a good or service must include all externality and environmental costs



Ban of a substance • This is the case of Dioxin and CFC (considered too dangerous to be used by community)

Attilio Citterio

Other Political Approaches Based on desired effect on producers and consumers 1) Voluntary Programs – Common approach – Limited success

– The most successful: “Responsible Care” 2) Direct control, based on laws, taxation and punishment – Scarcely imposed (approved in 12 countries - (2000))

3) Economic tools and taxis – The more effective – Economic measures: green certificates, pollution tax – Economic tools : allowance schemes and deposit reimbursement, biomass compensation (carbon sequestration by forest planting)

Attilio Citterio

Software Programs for LCA 1. ECO-it 1.0 PRé Consulting http://www.pre.nl/eco-it.html 2. EcoManager 1.0 Franklin Associates, Ltd. http://www.fal.com/software/ecoman.html 3. EcoPro 1.5 EMPA http://www.sinum.com/ 4. GaBi 3.0 IPTS http://www.pe-product.de/englisch/main/software.htm 5. IDEMAT Delft Univ. of Technology http://www.io.tudelft.nl/research/mpo/idemat/idemat.htm 6. LCAD Battelle/DOE http://www.estd.battelle.org/sehsm/lca/LCAdvantage.html 7. LCAiT 2.0 CIT EkoLogik http://www.ekologik.cit.chalmers.se/lcait.htm 8. REPAQ 2.0 Franklin Associates, Ltd. http://www.fal.com/software/repaq.html 9. SimaPro 4 PRé Consulting http://www.pre.nl/simapro.html 10. TEAM 2.0 Ecobalance http://www.ecobalance.com/software/team/team_ovr.htm 11. Umberto 3.0 IFEU http://www.ifu.com/software/umberto-e/ 12. BEES 3.0 http://www.nist.gov http://eplca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ELCD3/datasetDownload.xhtml ………………………. Attilio Citterio

Scientific Journals on LCA     

International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment Journal of Industrial Ecology Journal of Cleaner Production Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Progress in Industrial Ecology

ISO Standards 14040 & 14044 (2006) U.S. EPA (2006) Life Cycle Assessment Principles & Practice EPA/600/R-06/060 Curran, M.A. (ed.) (1996) Environmental Life Cycle Assessment. McGraw-Hill, New York Baumann & Tillman (2004) The Hitch Hiker's Guide to LCA: An Orientation in Life Cycle Assessment Methodology and Application Heijungs R, et al (1992) Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Products. Vol. I: Guide, and Vol. II: Backgrounds, Center for Envir. Studies, Leiden University International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment; Journal of Cleaner Production; Journal of Industrial Ecology Attilio Citterio