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LIFE CYCLE COST AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT ANALYSIS FOR A RO-PAX SUPERSTRUCTURE IN COMPOSITE MATERIAL Anna Hedlund-Åström 1, Anna Björklund 2 and Shakila Umair 2 1
Dept. of Machine Design, The Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden Dep. of Urban Planning and Environment, The Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden
KEYWORDS: Environmental effect, LCA, LCC, payload, glass fibre. INTRODUCTION Lightweight materials are becoming more important especially within the transporting sector. For the shipbuilding sector composite material is used to reduce weight or increase payload capacity. Both alternatives will result in decreased energy consumption per transported weight-kilometres, which is beneficial for both economy and environment. This is one aim of the project LÄSS, Lightweight construction applications at sea were different types of ship structures are studied. The overall goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of marine transport and to increase the competitiveness of the Swedish shipbuilding industry. The cost over the life cycle, from manufacturing to end of life treatment is analysed by life cycle cost analysis, LCCA, and the environmental effect is analysed by life cycle assessment, LCA. With these methods the economic potentials and the environmental benefits are demonstrated when changing from traditional materials to lightweight materials. The Ro-Pax superstructure Here results from the LCCA/LCA analysis of one of the concept studies are presented. It is the analysis of the superstructure of a Ro-Pax vessel for transport of vehicles and passengers. Three different structural materials are analysed. Two composite alternatives, sandwich with core of balsa-wood and sandwich with core of PVC-foam, are compared to the origin steel superstructure. The decreased weight for the sandwich superstructures is utilized in form of increased payload.
End of life
Operation (fuel) Mateial & maufacture
40000 20000 0 SSS
Fig. 1: Distribution of costs through the life cycle for the three versions.
Although the lowest initial cost, for material and manufacture of a superstructure, see figure 1, is for the steel design (SSS), the life cycle cost allocated to the transported tonnekilometers is
lower for the two sandwich alternatives, balsawood core (BWSS), PVC-core (PVCSS). This is explained by the increase in payload by around 10% for the sandwich alternatives with the same fuel consumption as for the steel ship. From the LCA analysis, , the results showed that over the complete lifecycle the environmental impacts of the sandwich alternatives PVC and balsa-wood superstructure were almost the same and lower than compared to the steel superstructure, see table 1. Three impact categories are studied, abiotic depletion, global warming and acidification. Especially for the sandwich superstructures three different end of life scenarios are analysed. These are incineration, recycling and landfill. No influence from the final result is presented due to the difference in end of life treatment. The total environmental impact related to the transported goods per tonnekilometer is decreased with around 10% for the sandwich alternatives compared to the origin superstructure in steel. The main contribution of impacts over the lifetime is due to the fuel consumption during the operation phase. Table1: Environmental impact for the three superstructures. Impact Categories
Abiotic Depletion (in kg Sb eq)
Global warming (in kg CO2 eq) Acidification (in kg SO2 eq)
Similar results are presented in a previous study were three structural materials are compared for the hull of a high speed ferry, . The materials are steel, aluminium and carbon fibre composite sandwich. Also here it is shown that decreasing the structural weight is favourable for both environment and economy, seen in a life cycle perspective.
REFERENCES 1. Umair S., “Environmental impacts of fibre composite materials; Study on life cycle assessment of materials used for ship superstructure”, Master Thesis, SOM-EX 0640, Environmental Strategies Research- FMS, KTH, Stockholm, 2006. 2. Burman M., Lingg B., Villiger S., Enlund H., Hedlund-Åström A., Hellbratt S.E., ”Cost and energy assessment of a high speed ship”, Presented at Second Conference on High Performance Yacht Design, 14-16 February, Auckland, New Zeeland, 2006.