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ZDM 2002 Vol. 34 (1) Analyses 1 Another Approach to Proof: Arguments from Physics Gila Hanna, Toronto (Canada) Hans Niels Jahnke, Essen (Germany) Abstract: In the first part of the paper we will explore the use of arguments from physics in mathematic
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From One Life to Another – 150 Years of Emigration from Sweden to the United States Read the text carefully, then do the two tasks that follow. The words printed in bold are tested in Task II. Background
Between 1846 and 1995 two million four hundred thousand Swedes left their country, most of them to settle in North America. They came from diverse backgrounds, some poor, some well-todo, but they all left their homes, their friends and their relatives. Most of the elders who were left behind, never saw their children again, although the children did write home telling of marvelous things. The letters circulated, newspapers sometimes printed them, and thus another generation was drawn to seek its fortune overseas. The Swedish emigrants left behind them an overpopulated countryside. Often their first stop was at the nearest town. Many never went farther. Others, after stopping for a while, resumed their journey. Ellis Island was the gateway to America. Through its portals, between 1892 and 1954, passed twelve million people from every part of Europe and beyond. They lined up and waited, full of hope and expectation, but also of anxiety. Birgitta Hedman, age seven, came to Ellis Island in the winter of 1924 with her mother Elin. “I hung on to my mother and my mother hung on to me, so that we wouldn’t lose each other in all the hubbub of people and suitcases.”
several hundred of his followers 150 years ago. They were seeking religious freedom and sailed from Sweden to New York, then, by way of the Great Lakes, arrived in Chicago. When they reached Chicago some of Eric Jansson’s followers decided they had gone far enough in their pilgrimage. And so they settled in a district just north of the Chicago River. The neighborhood came to be known as “Swede Town”. With 10,000 inhabitants in the 1870s, it was America’s largest settlement. By the turn of the century, only Stockholm had a larger Swedish population than Chicago. Erik Jansson and most of his followers continued their journey to a place, where in 1846 they eventually founded the colony of Bishop Hill, in Illinois. After the deprivations of their first winter, this agrarian communal society grew and prospered. Their spiritual life flourished until 1850 when Erik Jansson was fatally shot by an ex-member of the colony. At that time the governing of the Colony was turned over to a board of trustees. By 1861, with accusations of financial mismanagement and lessening of religious unity, the Bishop Hill Colony was dissolved. The Colony is still evident in Bishop Hill today in the form of historic buildings and artifacts as well as in its people, many of whom are descendants of the original settlers.
Among the first to leave for the United States was the revivalist Erik Jansson who crossed the ocean with http://www.ped.gu.se/sol/engaex.htm
Show that you have understood the text by completing the sentences with one or a few words in English.
1 From the l850s on, more and more people left Sweden, inspired by ______________________________________________________________ 2 Some people who left the countryside never went to America. Instead they ____________________________________________________ 3 Ellis Island was called the gateway to America because _________________ ______________________________________________________________ 4 Those who followed Erik Jansson left Sweden because they wanted ______________________________________________________________ 5 Some people in the group didn’t go all the way to Bishop Hill but instead they __________________________________________________________ 6 A group of representatives had to take over the leadership of the colony when _________________________________________________________ 7 Bishop Hill Colony lasted until_____________________________________
The following words and expressions are all written in bold in the text. Mark the alternative, that best corresponds to the meaning of the words and expressions as they are used in the text. Write the letter of your answer in the appropriate box below. 8