Dr. Abigail Dunn Lehre in der Fremdsprache Teaching in English

b think up c spell out why d jot down / note down e Organise yourselves into groups of four. ... 6 small groups Moderating a Seminar: Getting Students...

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Dr. Abigail Dunn

Lehre in der Fremdsprache Teaching in English

Herausgeber DAAD Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst German Academic Exchange Service Kennedyallee 50, 53175 Bonn www.daad.de Internationale DAAD-Akademie www.daad-akademie.de Projektkoordination und Lektorat Lena von Eichborn (verantw.), Corinna Jörres, Katharina Kohm, Johannes Mahlke, DAAD Gestaltung Umschlag LPG Löwenstern Padberg GbR, Bonn Gestaltung Innenteil DITHO Design GmbH, Köln Druck Brandt GmbH Druck plus Medien, Bonn 1. Auflage Dezember 2018 – 500 Exemplare © DAAD Bildnachweis Fotolia / Rawpixel.com (Titel) Diese Publikation wird aus Zuwendungen des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung an den DAAD finanziert.

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Working in Small Groups The role of an instructor of small groups is varied. It ranges from imparting knowledge, to mediating between students, to coaxing students into action, and to advising on academic writing and presentations. Some of the many things which group work can encompass are analysing case studies, research and project work. These scenarios are specific and therefore require a different bank of vocabulary and approach. For example, the language of small group work is more informal and personal than in lectures.

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Small Groups: Tricky and Common Scenarios Aims: • Preparation for awkward moments that

confront lecturers when teaching in small groups.

This exercise is intended to get you thinking about challenges that can occur when teaching in small groups, before addressing more specific techniques and language.

1

Consider the situations below and write two sentences for each. a You observe a group presentation where one

person barely spoke. How do you phrase your feedback?

b Nobody asks questions after a presentation.

How do you prompt them?

c A student has been assigned a task as part

of their group project. They have not contributed much and have tried to wriggle out of their responsibilities. What do you say to them?

d A fellow lecturer is criticised for not being

prepared and giving unstructured classes. Students ask to come to your class instead, but you have reservations. What do you tell them?

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Student Group Work: Giving Instructions Aims: • Introduce phrases to guide students and

allocate tasks in group work.

• Introduce phrases to encourage students to

cooperate.

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Read through the phrases below and decide which ones you would use before students start a task, and which you would use to check on progress during the task. The words highlighted in bold highlight idiomatic phrases. a Put your heads together. b think up c spell out why d jot down / note down e Organise yourselves into groups of four. f Work in pairs. g Break up tasks. h work to individual strengths i Involve all group members. j Intervene if necessary.

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k Make sure you all pull together. l Once you’ve finished organising,

I’ll leave you to it.

m circulate notes n distribute materials o think through questions p Allocate a time keeper. q Keep track of progress. r Pencil in a time to meet up with your

group members.

s Hand in your answers next week. t Stick to the guidelines. u Schedule time within class. v Spread out the sheet onto the table. w Read out the tasks clearly. x Right, off you go … y Cut out any unnecessary details. z Organise follow-up sessions. 

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Match the phrasal verbs in bold above with the formal verbs below for written expression. Please note that not all of the phrasal verbs can be used.

adhere to, explain, write down, produce, submit, omit, get started, monitor, divide

4

Take a short scenario from your own teaching and formulate a short set of instructions for your students using the phrases in the list above.

5

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Moderating a Seminar: Getting Students to Cooperate Aims: • Coaxing students into action. • Facilitating communication between students

of differing opinions.

• Intervention and diffusing tension.

In many group scenarios, some voices are louder than others and relevant or insightful viewpoints can become overlooked. In these situations, intervention may be required, and certain phrasing is often used to create a harmonious atmosphere and moderate when debate becomes heated.

5

Complete the following sentences with the words and / or phrases below. Some words can be used more than once and sometimes you might need more than one word per box.

in

on

round

with

along

over

in with

over to

with

against

upon

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a I go

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Sandra on this one. I think

she’s right.

b I may well have persuaded Martin to come

to our point of view.

c While he was initially against the idea, I

eventually managed to talk him

.

d Kurt sided

Gert on this issue and they were able to prevent the course from being scrapped.

e I wasn’t at first convinced by the proposal,

but everybody else was in favour and I had to give .

f Do you think you can bring Jake

our point of view?

g We didn’t see eye to eye at first but I was

able to win him

.

h It's not worth kicking up a fuss. Sometimes

you have to go

the flow.

i He didn't want to contribute towards the

presentation, but, when he realised his final mark was under threat, he caved .

j The seminar instructor really doesn’t under-

stand what you have pairs.

working in

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k I really believe

this proposal and will do everything I can to support it.

l Drinking alcohol in lectures is frowned

.

m I really don’t want to quibble

minor and pointless details.

n If that's what the Dean wants, I think we

have to fall

their view.

o We had several possible candidates for

this PhD project, but we finally settled Charlotte.

Preparing Students for Presentations: Error Correction (Syntax) Aims: • Improve incorrect sentence structure or badly

phrased sentences.

• Help simplify the language of presentations.

One of the most common areas of weakness is incorrect syntax. Incorrect word order or word stress can obscure the intended message, making it difficult for the audience to follow.

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9

Improve the sentences below. Tips are provided in brackets. a It is the best and most effective way of learn-

ing a language by interacting with native speakers. (unnecessary words)

b Only after three or four weeks the excite-

ment of the new cultural environment is decreasing. (tense, word order)

c A year abroad needs some time to prepare.

(word order)

d Reading the title of this article, the first thing

that might have come to mind, was probably … (word order)

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Tackling Research: Ways of Reading Aims: • Introduce idiomatic phrases to be used for

providing instructions on how materials should be read.

In Academic English, there are several phrases that specifically describe different approaches to reading relevant topic information.

7

Read the phrases below. What do you think each of them implies? a pore over b skip c flick through d scour e refer to f skim g dip into h browse i peruse j wade through k look up l scan

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11

Complete the sentences below, using the correct words or phrases from the list above. One word or phrase can be used for two of the sentences. a I spend a lot of time in the library. I don’t

often take books out, I just

.

b When I come to an irrelevant section in a

textbook, I just vant section.

c I’ll just

tionary.

to the next rele-

the definition in the dic-

d I found the recent guest lecture interesting,

so I thought I would to see what it’s about.

the subject

e The research results included a lot of irrele-

vant information. I had to thousands of pages to find what we needed.

f I didn’t know quite what I was looking for, so

I

the books to find what I needed.

g I didn’t need to know the subject in-depth, so

I just

the report.

h A colleague vaguely recollected a pertinent

quote from one of my subject authors, so I the literature to find it.

i I frequently

HR issues.

University Policy on

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j I get so many emails each day, that I just

have time to

through them.

k I leave a bunch of literature on the table

outside my office to encourage the students to through them when they are waiting to meet with me.

l I had a few minutes, so I

recent edition of the journal.

the

m We wanted to extend a Ph.D. research pro-

ject, so we the funding agreement to see if the terms allowed it.

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Using one or more of the words and phrases from the list at the top of the exercise in Exercise 7 above, explain in a sentence or two how you would use the following. An example has been done for you.

Software Manual

Research Paper

I dip into it when I need it, and scour the sections with the information I need, but skip most of it.

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Article

Contract

Thesis Proposal

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Tackling Research: Highlighting Inadequacies of Research to Date Aims: • Introduce phrases to critically evaluate sources.

In English, there are numerous ways to describe specific limitations in current research and literature. This section aims to create a more colourful vocabulary that will help to more accurately describe these shortcomings.

10

Match the words on the left-hand side of the list below with their appropriate prepositions.

relies too heavily

to

limitations

whether

exception

with

no general agreement

how

drawback

on

inconsistency

to

distinguish

of

ascertain

between

failure to address

to

small groups

give sufficient consideration

with

account

to

fail

for

limited /  restricted

about

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Commonly Confused Words: Highlighting Inadequacies Aims: • Iron out common issues with word confusion

relating to criticism.

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Choose the correct word from the two words in brackets to complete each sentence below. a The existing literature fails to

the discrepancy between X and Y. (solve / resolve)

b This theory has been

challenged over the last 5 years by various academics. (rigorously / vigorously)

c The most serious limitation, however, is that

Peters fails to that this trend is not representative. (notice / note)

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d The paper makes no attempt to offer a / an

explanation for these worrying trends. (sufficient / adequate)

e The research paper does not give

consideration to the problems faced by working-class students. (sufficient / adequate)

Academic Writing: Lost in Translation Aims: • Highlight issues with direct translation from

German to English.

• Introduce the tendency for use of simple and

succinct formulations.

Students may need to write academic papers or articles in English, or translate an existing German text into English. Problems often occur with tense, word order and over-complication. One key issue, for example, is that whereas the German makes use of the verb “werden”, English tends to stick to the present simple form.

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Translate the following German sentences into English. a In dieser Studie werden die Auswirkungen

von Eheproblemen auf die Entwicklung von jungen Kindern untersucht.

b In diesem Artikel werden alle diese Fragen

beantwortet.

c Im ersten Teil wird die relevante Literatur

besprochen, und im zweiten Teil wird eine neue Hypothese präsentiert.

d Abbildung 3 zeigt die Korrelation. e Keine der führenden Zeitungen hat seinen

neuen Roman besprochen.

f Studien haben klar festgestellt, dass … g In diesem Text wird deutlich behauptet,

dass … 

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Correcting Common Mistakes: Confused Words Aims: • Address issues with some commonly

misused words.

There are some words in English that are commonly misused, which can lead to confusion or misunderstandings, especially when used in presentations to other non-native speakers. It can also damage credibility, weakening the impact of a presentation, or presented results.

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Select the correct word pair from the list below and fill in the blanks in the sentences. Some words may be used more than once. Please note that the words are not in the same order as the sentences!

beside / besides

imply / infer

illusion / alluded

visit / attend

remind / remember

principal / principle

if / when

if / whether

by / until

borrow / lend

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a You forgot your library card. You ask a fellow

student: “I need to a book. Can you me yours?” They reply, “Yes, I can you mine.”

b I keep forgetting to make an appointment

with my supervisor. I wanted to see her in her office hour, so I put a note on the fridge to me. The note will help me the appointment.

c The text has various hidden meanings. The

author that the protagonist is a nihilistic figure. We this through the description of the protagonist’s extremely solitary nature.

d I did an MBA in London. Prior to that, I

one of the most prestigious universities in America. At university I many useful seminars and conferences. Professors from renowned universities frequently and gave guest lectures.

e I’m going to Amsterdam tomorrow. I’ll phone

you I get back. the train is delayed, I’ll drop you a message.

f Your research proposal is due on November

23. You can work on it ber 22 but you must hand it in November 23.

Novem-

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g She was uncertain

go. She was uncertain stay.

she should to go or to

h There is some new equipment in this lab,

the mass spectrometer, there is also an Electron Microscope standing the thin wafer microscope.

i The author

to the hardship of the widow, while creating the of a seemingly fulfilled existence.

j His strategy is based on the

that the stock market offers the best returns for long-term investors. The reason is that stocks can return up to 100% interest whereas term deposits only return 5%.

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There are also some words that are often confused as a result of their similarity, or direct translation from German. This can result in the message being obscured.

14

Read the sentences below and highlight the sentence that is correct. a I The literature review precedes the

experimental phase.

II The literature review proceeds the

experimental phase.

b I The poll sample for the study was

appropriate.

II The poll sample for the study was

convenient.

c I We need to ensure there is enough time

left for questions.

II We need to assure there is enough time

left for questions.

d I The student presented a consistent

argument.

II The student presented a coherent

argument.

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Correcting Common Mistakes: Tenses and Frequently Misused Words Aims: • Address issues with misuse of tenses and

frequently misused words.

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Read the text below, which deals with tenses and other frequently misused words. The words highlighted in bold offer a choice to complete the sentence. Select the correct word.

“I’d like to make / draw your attention to the second slide, which shows how sales have increased / increased over the last year. You can see how three years ago sales rose / have risen steady / steadily. Since the beginning of this year they continued / have continued to rise, despite / although at a slower pace. In general, these results are what we like to see – steady / steadily grow / growth is a positive sign. Even so / even though, we should not get complacent. If we now take a look on / at the next slide, it is clear that for the first few months of this year things had looked really good / were looking really good. However / whereas, for no apparent reason, last month we witnessed a sudden

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drop / reduction in sales. If we want to avoid sales plummeting / falling in the near future, we really need to find out the reasons / motives as to why this happens / is happening. Shortly I’ll ask you for your thoughts and comments. But the implications are clear: it’s high / highly chance / likely that we won’t witness an improvement in figures any time soon.”

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Read the text for a second time and underline the words which need to be stressed (these are “content” words, such as verbs, nouns, principal adjectives). Read aloud, and repeat, so that you emphasise the stressed words. The other grammatical words, such as prepositions, can be read quicker and even swallowed. This helps the listener follow the important points of a given talk.

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Presenting: Highlighting Important Points of a Speech and Clarifying Succinctly for the Audience Aims: • Learn how to express in a succinct way a per-

sonal opinion towards a method or approach.

• Ensure that the attitude adverb receives the

main stress in a sentence.

Attitude adverbs express the writer’s opinion about the contents of a clause. The use of simple adverbs as attitudinal adverbs is characteristic of English and is far more common than in German. Their value in writing is that they form a very compact and elegant way of expressing an opinion on what you are talking about, without putting yourself in the foreground. In addition, when these adverbials are spoken in English they are stressed, as they carry a key meaning. So make sure that when students use these in their presentations, they use their voice to accentuate these words. Care must be taken in translating your intended message from German into English. For example, the sentence below can’t be directly translated into English: „Wichtig ist die Einsicht, dass diese Städte zumindest die Voraussetzungen für eine Fußgängerzone besitzen.“

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When directly translated into English, it becomes: “Important is the insight that these towns at least fulfil the requirements for a pedestrian precinct.” More correct and idiomatic formulations would be: “What is important is the insight that these towns at least fulfil the requirements for a pedestrian precinct.” “Important in this regard is the insight that these towns at least fulfil the requirements for a pedestrian precinct.” Please note: the word “important” receives the main stress.

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Translate the following German Attitude Adverbs into their correct English equivalent. Please note that a direct translation from German, i.e. “Noticeable is that …”, is not used in English. a Es fällt auf, dass ... b Bemerkenswert ist, dass … c Es ist offensichtlich, dass …

Style adverbs express the writer’s view regarding the formulation of the sentence which follows. In an oral presentation they also help to succinctly summarise and remind the listener of key information.

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Translate the following German Style Adverbs into their correct English equivalent. a einfacher ausgedrückt b kurz gesagt c strenggenommen

Tip: A good presenter will take a question from the audience and repeat it back to them. Make sure everyone has understood the question by summarising the area of enquiry. You can make use of a passive formulation to do this “I’ve been asked to highlight the weakness of the study”.

Crowd Control: Laying Down the Law – Expressing Basic Rules and Requirements Aims • Use firm language to inform students of the

ground rules for the course.

• Differentiate between written and spoken

language when setting expectations.

Small group work is normally undertaken to achieve specific tasks, such as projects or analyses of case studies. At the outset it is important that the students are aware of what is expected of them. These expectations

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can be delivered orally, at the beginning of the seminar, and in written form to follow up.

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How can an instructor set appropriate “ground rules” for class behaviour? What are your expectations regarding the following? • use of laptops in class • absences, excuses, lateness

(and their impact on grades)

• use of mobile phones • late submission of assignments • speaking in class, as well as preferred mode

for classroom participation

20

Consider the above points for inclusion in your syllabus. Write a short paragraph explaining how you would deal with one of the above issues.

21

Choose a second ground rule and write a short paragraph as if you were to recount orally to a group of students. Don’t forget to make the language here more informal and avoid using “must”.

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Crowd Control: Responding to Student Grievances Aims • Introduce participants to typical phrases to

respond in a calm and fair manner to student grievances.

Softening phrases are often used in spoken English to deliver negative information in a way that minimises the chances of a defensive response. Here are some examples to help you.

I think …

It seems to me …

It appears …

I feel …

At times …

It might be better …

Perhaps you could consider …

I have noticed …

You could have …

Have you thought about …

I try to …

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Using the softening words and phrases above, write three sentences where you respond to a student who has complained that they have to write too much in your seminars.

Answer Key

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answer key

1 Sample Answers: a I felt that I heard more from your fellow stu-

dents. Next time, think about how you can elaborate more on the points that you briefly touched upon. It’s important to get some practice with presentations as it’s a skill which you’ll need throughout your career.

b We’ve been given a lot to think about there.

I’m sure there must be some questions. (silence from audience) Let me get the ball rolling …

c What do you think was your major contri-

bution to the assignment? Do you think this matches the quality and quantity of work that your teammates have put in?

d There are already a lot of people in my

classes, and I do not feel that I could give you appropriate individual attention and feedback. Have you tried speaking to your current lecturer about the issues you have just raised with me, and what you’d like to do differently?

answer key

2 Starting a task a Put your heads together. b think up e Organise yourselves into groups of four. f work in pairs g break up tasks h work to individual strengths i involve all group members k Make sure you all pull together. l Once you’ve finished organising,

I’ll leave you to it.

o think through questions p allocate a time keeper q keep track of progress r Pencil in a time to meet up with your group

members.

s Hand in your answers next week. t stick to the guidelines u schedule time within class x Right, off you go …

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answer key

Checking on Progress d jot down / note down c spell out why j intervene if necessary m circulate notes n distribute materials v spread out the sheet onto the table w read out the tasks clearly y cut out any unnecessary details z organise follow-up sessions

answer key

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3 formal verb

phrasal verb

adhere to

stick to

explain

spell out

write down

jot down /  note down

produce

think up

submit

hand in

omit

cut out

get started

off you go

monitor

keep track

divide

break up

4 Sample Answer: “OK everybody. Please get yourselves into groups of four. I’d like you to all talk for three minutes on your allocated topic. As a group, discuss and think up how you’d like to break up the task. Once you’ve jotted down your key points, have a dry run and remember to keep track of time.”

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answer key

5 a I go along with Sandra on this one. I think

she’s right.

b I may well have persuaded Martin to come

over to our point of view.

c While he was initially against the idea,

I eventually managed to talk him round.

d Kurt sided with Gert on this issue and they

were able to prevent the course from being scrapped.

e I wasn’t at first convinced by the proposal,

but everybody else was in favour and I had to give in.

f Do you think you can bring Jake over to our

point of view?

g We didn’t see eye to eye at first but I was

able to win him over.

h It's not worth kicking up a fuss. Sometimes

you have to go with the flow.

i He didn't want to contribute towards the

presentation, but, when he realised his final mark was under threat, he caved in.

j The seminar instructor really doesn’t under-

stand what you have against working in pairs.

answer key

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k I really believe in this proposal and will do

everything I can to support it.

l Drinking alcohol in lectures is frowned upon. m I really don’t want to quibble with / over

minor and pointless details. (Either answer is correct)

n If that's what the Dean wants, I think we

have to fall in with their view.

o We had several possible candidates for this

PhD project, but we finally settled on Charlotte.

6 a The best and most effective way of learn-

ing a language is by interacting with native speakers.

b It takes about three or four weeks for the

excitement caused by the new cultural environment to disappear.

c It takes some time to prepare for a year

abroad.

d The first thing that might come to mind

when reading the title of this article was probably …

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answer key

7 a pore over

reading very carefully and intensely

b skip

to not read (a particular section) at all

c flick through

look at quickly without reading or paying great attention

d scour

reading very carefully and intensively to find specific information

e refer to

to look at a reference text for information

f skim

read very quickly to get a general overview

g dip into

to read passages at random, and briefly

h browse

casually looking or reading

i peruse

to read something casually or quickly

j wade through

read through a large quantity of information on a specific subject

k look up

to search for specific information

l scan

read quickly, looking for relevant key words

answer key

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8 a I spend a lot of time in the library. I don’t

often take books out, I just browse.

b When I come to an irrelevant section in a

textbook, I just skip to the next relevant section.

c I’ll just look up the definition in the

dictionary.

d I found the recent guest lecture interesting,

so I thought I would dip into the subject to see what it’s about.

e The research results included a lot of irrel-

evant information. I had to wade through thousands of pages to find what we needed.

f I didn’t know quite what I was looking for, so

I browsed the books to find what I needed.

g I didn’t need to know the subject in-depth, so

I just scanned the report.

h A colleague vaguely recollected a pertinent

quote from one of my subject authors, so I scoured the literature to find it.

i I frequently refer to University Policy on HR

issues.

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answer key

j I get so many emails each day, that I just

have time to skim through them.

k I leave a bunch of literature on the table out-

side my office to encourage the students to peruse through them when they are waiting to meet with me.

l I had a few minutes, so I flicked through the

recent edition of the journal.

m We wanted to extend a Ph.D. research pro-

ject, so we pored over the funding agreement to see if the terms allowed it.

answer key

9 Sample Answers: Software Manual

I dip into it when I need it, and scour the sections with the information I need, but skip most of it.

Research Paper

When they’re directly related to my work, I scour them for new information, but when they’re only vaguely related, I dip in and out if the title looks interesting

Article

I scan them quickly if the subject interests me. If it looks more interesting then I set them aside to peruse later.

Contract

Due to the binding nature of contracts, I pore over them to make sure that I am happy. I also look up anything I don’t understand.

Thesis Proposal

I always have so many thesis proposals to wade through, but if I see something novel and interesting, then I read them in more detail.

39

40

answer key

10 relies too heavily

on

limitations

with

exception

to

no general agreement

about

drawback

of

inconsistency

with

distinguish

between

ascertain

whether

failure to address

how

give sufficient consideration

to

account

for

fail

to

limited / restricted

to

answer key

41

11 a The existing literature fails to resolve the

discrepancy between X and Y.

b This theory has been rigorously challenged

over the last 5 years by various academics.

c The most serious limitation, however, is that

Peters fails to note that this trend is not representative.

d The paper makes no attempt to offer an ade-

quate explanation for these worrying trends.

e The research paper does not give sufficient

consideration to the problems faced by working-class students.

42

answer key

12 a This study examines the impact of marital

stress on young children’s development.

b The current article provides an answer to all

of these questions.

c The first section reviews the literature, and

the second section presents a new hypothesis.

d Figure three shows the correlation. e None of the leading newspapers have

reviewed his new novel.

f Research has / Studies have clearly demon-

strated that ...

g The text clearly states that ...

answer key

43

13 a You forgot your library card. You ask a fellow

student: “I need to borrow a book. Can you lend me yours?” They reply, “Yes, I can lend you mine.”

b I keep forgetting to make an appointment

with my supervisor. I wanted to see her in her office hour, so I put a note on the fridge to remind me. The note will help me remember the appointment.

c The text has various hidden meanings. The

author implies that the protagonist is a nihilistic figure. We infer this through the description of the protagonist’s extremely solitary nature.

d I did an MBA in London. Prior to that, I

attended one of the most prestigious universities in America. At university I attended many useful seminars and conferences. Professors from renowned universities frequently visited and gave guest lectures.

e I’m going to Amsterdam tomorrow. I’ll phone

you when I get back. If the train is delayed, I’ll drop you a message.

44

answer key

f Your research proposal is due on November

23. You can work on it until November 22 but you must hand it in by November 23.

g She was uncertain if she should go. She was

uncertain whether to go or to stay.

h There is some new equipment in this lab,

besides the mass spectrometer, there is also an Electron Microscope standing beside the thin wafer microscope.

i The author alluded to the hardship of the

widow, while creating the illusion of a seemingly fulfilled existence.

j His strategy is based on the principle that

the stock market offers the best returns for long-term investors. The principal reason is that stocks can return up to 100% interest whereas term deposits only return 5%.

answer key

45

14 a II The literature review precedes the

experimental phase.

b I The poll sample for the study was

appropriate.

c I We need to ensure there is enough time

left for questions.

d II The student presented a coherent

argument.

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answer key

15 “I’d like to draw your attention to the second slide, which shows how sales have increased over the last year. You can see how three years ago sales rose steadily. Since the beginning of this year they have continued to rise, although at a slower pace. In general, these results are what we like to see – steady growth is a positive sign. Even so, we should not get complacent. If we now take a look at the next slide, it is clear that for the first few months of this year things were looking really good. However, for no apparent reason, last month we witnessed a sudden drop in sales. If we want to avoid sales plummeting in the near future, we really need to find out the reasons as to why this is happening. Shortly I’ll ask you for your thoughts and comments. But the implications are clear: it’s highly likely that we won’t witness an improvement in figures any time soon.”

16 See underlined words above (15).

answer key

17 a It’s interesting to note that ... b Interestingly, … c It is clear that / Clearly …

18 a Put simply, ... b In short, ... c Technically speaking ...

19 There is no sample answer to this question as it is about your own ideas and brainstorming.

20 Sample Answer: “Mobile phones are permitted in lectures so that they can be used to look up relevant information or terminology. However, they must be set to silent mode, and calls may not be taken under any circumstances.”

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answer key

21 Sample Answer: “There is a lot of material to get through, so we’ll be covering it very quickly in our seminars. This means that there won’t be time to go back and recap if you’re late. Please try to be on time, and when that is not possible, ask your fellow students for any work missed. Should you miss more than three classes, you will need a doctor’s note.”

22 Sample Answer: “I try to encourage students to write down in their own words the key points from the seminars. It helps important concepts to sink in and for later revision. Have you thought about writing your notes using abbreviations for key terms? Perhaps you could consider using a laptop to type notes, if writing longhand is too tiring.”

Glossary

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glossary

General Glossary a ability to give and receive criticism

Kritikfähigkeit

ability to work in a team

Teamfähigkeit

absence from an exam

Versäumnis (einer Prüfung)

a case in point

ein typisches Beispiel

access to records

Akteneinsicht

to account for

etw. begründen

acquire skills

Kenntnisse erwerben

advanced module

Aufbaumodul

analogy

Analogie

anecdote

Anekdote

to assert

etw. behaupten

at first

zunächst

attempt to cheat

Täuschungsversuch

average mark / grade

Durchschnittsnote

b block course

Blockveranstaltung

to briefly summarise

etw. kurz zusammenfassen

to bring (s.th.) up

etw. aufwerfen

to brush up (knowledge / skills)

Wissenslücken auffüllen

by appointment

nach Vereinbarung

glossary

c to cast your minds back

sich (gedanklich) zurückversetzen

class (one off); course (over a semester)

Lehrveranstaltung

closing remarks

Schlussbemerkungen

to come up with

sich etw. einfallen lassen

common thread

Faden, roter

complaint

Beschwerde

complementary module

Ergänzungsmodul

to comprise

etw. umfassen

compulsory attendance

Anwesenheitspflicht

compulsory module

Pflichtmodul

to concern

etw. betreffen, angehen

to consist of

aus etw. bestehen

course certificate

Schein

course performance

Studienleistungen

course specialisation

Studienschwerpunkt

coursework

Seminararbeit

credit

Leistungsnachweis

credit point

Leistungspunkt

to cut down

etw. reduzieren

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glossary

d to deal with

sich um jdn. / etw. kümmern

degree

Abschluss

degree certificate

Urkunde

to devote

widmen (z. B. Zeit)

to digress

von etw. abschweifen

diploma

Abschlusszeugnis

e to elaborate on

auf etw. näher eingehen

to embrace

etw. umfassen

entry requirement

Zugangsvoraussetzung

to epitomise

etw. verkörpern

to examine in more detail

etw. näher durchleuchten

exam procedure

Prüfungsverfahren

exam retake

Wiederholungsprüfung

to exceed

etw. überschreiten, etw. übertreffen

to expand on

auf etw. näher eingehen

to expound

etw. darlegen

extra / spare copies

zusätzliche Kopien

f final mark

Gesamtnote

finals

Abschlussprüfung(en)

glossary

firstly

erstens

follow-up session

Folgetermin

foundation module

Basismodul

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g to gain an insight

in etw. einen Einblick gewinnen

to get back to

auf etw. zurückkommen

gist

Kern

to give a presentation

ein Referat halten

to go back to

auf etw. zurückgreifen

to go over

etw. durchgehen

to go over time

die (Rede-)Zeit überschreiten

to go up

steigen

h house rules

Hausordnung

i to illustrate

etw. darstellen

in-depth study

Vertiefung

independent / self-directed

eigenständig

to indicate

auf etw. hindeuten

individual contribution

Eingenbeitrag

innovative spirit

Innovationsfreude

inspection of graded exams

Klausureinsicht

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glossary

j joint honours

Doppelstudium

l lab work

Laborarbeit

latter

letztgenannt

leave of absence

Beurlaubung, Urlaubssemester

to leave time for questions

Zeit lassen, um Fragen zu besprechen

lecture period

Vorlesungszeit

to lose motivation

Motivationslosigkeit

to lose sight of (something)

etw. aus den Augen verlieren

m major (subject) / main subject

Hauptfach

minor (subject)

Nebenfach

mitigating circumstances

mildernde Umstände

module grade

Fachnote

module handbook

Modulhandbuch

module examination

Modulprüfung

module requirement

Modulvoraussetzung

monitor attendance

überprüfen, die Anwesenheit

to move on to

weitergehen zu

glossary

n to negotiate an appointment time

einen Termin vereinbaren (Uhrzeit / Zeitpunkt)

not graded

unbenotet

o optional module

Wahlmodul

overall mark

Gesamtnote

overlap

Überschneidung

overview

Überblick

p Ph.D. thesis

Doktorarbeit

plagiarism

Plagiat

preceding

vorangehend

prep course

Vorkurs

procedural guidelines /  requirements

verfahrensrechtliche Vorgaben

procrastination

Aufschub, Verzögerung

to put s.th. into perspective

etw. relativieren

to put s.th. off

etw. verschieben, aufschieben

r to raise a question, raise an issue, raise a point

eine Frage aufwerfen

to read up on something

etw. gründlich studieren

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glossary

to recap

etw. wiederholen

responsibilities / duties and rights

(vereinbarte) Pflichten und Rechte

redundant

überflüssig

registration deadline

Meldefrist

to reiterate

etw. bekräftigen

research seminar

Oberseminar

s Sabbatical

Sabbatjahr, Forschungsfreisemester

to schedule a follow-up appointment

einen Folgetermin festlegen

semester break

vorlesungsfreie Zeit

signposting

Hinweise

to sign up for a course

sich für eine Lehrveranstaltung anmelden

to slump

fallen (stark, dramatisch)

to specialise in

fachliche Schwerpunkte setzen, sich spezialisieren

to subsume

etw. subsumieren

to sum up

etw. zusammenfassen

t to take an exam

eine Prüfung ablegen

team player

teamorientiert

term paper

Hausarbeit

glossary

thesis

Abschlussarbeit

time management

Zeitorganisation

time slot

Zeitfenster

to illustrate

etw. darstellen

transcript (of records and courses taken)

Modul- und Lehrverstaltungsbestätigung

to turn one’s / your / our / … attention to

einer Sache (seine) Aufmerksamkeit zuwenden

to turn to

sich beschäftigen mit

u to underscore

etw. betonen

utmost

höchste, Äußerste

w withdrawal from an exam

Rücktritt (von einer Prüfung)

workload

Arbeitsaufwand

to wrap up

zusammenfassen

written exam / test

Klausur

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