Danish emission inventory for particulate matter (PM)

particulate matter. Further results of the improved emission inventory for the year 2000 are shown. The particulate matter emission inventory includes...

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National Environmental Research Institute Ministry of the Environment . Denmark

Danish emission inventory for particulate matter (PM) Research Notes from NERI No. 189

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National Environmental Research Institute Ministry of the Environment . Denmark

Danish emission inventory for particulate matter (PM) Research Notes from NERI No. 189 2003 Malene Nielsen Morten Winther Jytte Boll Illerup Mette Hjort Mikkelsen

Data sheet Title:

Danish emission inventory for particulate matter (PM)

Authors: Department:

Malene Nielsen, Morten Winther, Jytte Boll Illerup og Mette Hjort Mikkelsen. Department of Policy Analysis

Serial title and no.:

Research Notes from NERI No. 189

Publisher: URL:

National Environmental Research Institute  Ministry of the Environment http://www.dmu.dk

Date of publication:

November 2003

Referee:

Hanne Bach; Christian Lange Fogh.

Financial support:

Danish Environmental Protection Agency.

Please cite as:

Nielsen, M., Winther, M., Illerup, J.B. & Mikkelsen, M.H. 2003: Danish emission inventory for particulate matter (PM). National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark. 126 p. – Research Notes from NERI No. 189. http://research-notes.dmu.dk Reproduction is permitted, provided the source is explicitly acknowledged.

Abstract:

The first Danish emission inventory that was reported in 2002 was a provisional estimate based on data presently available. This report documents methodology, emission factors and references used for an improved Danish emission inventory for particulate matter. Further results of the improved emission inventory for the year 2000 are shown. The particulate matter emission inventory includes TSP, PM10 and PM2,5. The report covers emission inventories for transport and stationary combustion. An appendix covering emissions from agriculture is also included. For the transport sector, both exhaust and non-exhaust emission such as tyre and break wear and road abrasion are included.

Keywords:

Particulate matter, PM, emission inventory, TSP, PM10, PM2,5

Layout:

Ann-Katrine Holme Christoffersen

ISSN (electronic):

1399-9346

Number of pages:

126

Internet version:

For sale at:

The report is only available in electronic format from NERI’s homepage http://www.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Publikationer/3_arbejdsrapporter/rapporter/AR189.pdf

Ministry of the Environment Frontlinien Strandgade 29 DK-1401 København K Denmark Tel.: +45 32 66 02 00 [email protected]

Contents

Preface

5

Summary

6

Sammenfatning

9

1 Introduction

12

2 Emission inventory

13

2.1 Road transport and other mobile sources 2.2. Stationary combustion plants

16 19

3 Methodology and references

22

3.1 Activity rates 3.2 Emission factors

22 22

4 Further improvements

25

5 Projections

26

6 Conclusion

28

Appendix 1 Inventory of particulate matter (PM) emission from stationary combustion plants

29

Appendix 2 Emission inventory for particulate matter – Road transport and other mobile sources

89

Appendix 3 Emission of particulate matter from the agricultural sector

121

[Blank page]

4

Preface This report contains a description of methodology, references and results of the Danish emission inventory of particulate matter. The work is carried out by the Department of Policy Analysis of the National Environmental Research Institute (NERI). The project has been financed partly by the Danish Environment Protection Agency (EPA) and NERI. The steering committee of the project consisted of the following members: Christian Lange Fogh (chairman, EPA), Ulrik Torp (EPA), Jytte Boll Illerup, (NERI), Malene Nielsen (NERI).

5

Summary Introduction At the beginning of 2002 the first Danish emission inventory of particulate matter (PM) was prepared and reported. The emission inventory was part of the Danish emission inventories reported under the UN-ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). This provisional version of the inventory was based on activity data and emission factors presently available. The inventory included total suspended particles (TSP), PM10 and PM2.5. This report documents methodology, emission factors and references used for an improved Danish emission inventory for particulate matter. Further results of the improved emission inventory for the year 2000 are shown. The particulate matter emission inventory includes TSP, PM10 and PM2.5. The report covers emission inventories for transport and stationary combustion. An appendix covering emissions from agriculture is also included. For the transport sector both exhaust and non-exhaust emission such as tyre and break wear and road abrasion are included. Emissions The improved Danish emission inventory of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 from stationary combustion and transport for the year 2000 is shown in Table s1 According to the CLRTAP reporting guideline emissions from international air traffic and international bunkers are not included. Table s1. Emission inventory year 2000 (stationary combustion and transport), main SNAP categories SNAP1 SNAP1 name 01

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 02 NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS 03 COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY Stationary combustion plants 07 ROAD TRANSPORT, exhaust emissions 07 ROAD TRANSPORT, brake and tyre wear and road abrasion 08 OTHER MOBILE SOURCES AND MACHINERY Transport 1) Total

TSP Ton 1131

PM10 Ton 948

PM2.5 Ton 810

3058 741 4930 3969 14783 4355 23106 28037

2899 575 4423 3969 1116 4152 9235 13659

2734 448 3992 3969 323 3957 8249 12241

1)

1) Only the emission sources stationary combustion plants and transport are included. In the official Danish inventory 2003 PM emissions from some industrial processes, agriculture and from waste treatment and disposal are also included

From figure s1 it is seen that road transport, other mobile sources and non-industrial combustion plants are the largest sources. Non-exhaust emissions from road transport (brake, tyre wear and road abrasion) are only important for TSP and PM10. In general the uncertainty for the PM emission inventory is high especially for domestic combustion of wood, road abrasion and other mobile sources.

6

PM [ton] 16000 14000 12000 10000

TSP [ton] PM10 [ton] PM2,5 [ton]

8000 6000 4000 2000

OTHER MOBILE SOURCES AND MACHINERY

ROAD TRANSPORT, brake and tyre wear and road abration

ROAD TRANSPORT, exhaust emissions

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

0

Figure s1 Emission of PM, 2000

Transport The emission inventory for road transport and other mobile sources is shown in Table s2. Road transport and other mobile sources accounts for 67% of the overall Danish PM2.5 emission. Emissions from international sea and air traffic are not included in the UN-ECE inventory. The latter contributions are reported to the UN-ECE as memo items only. Table s2 Particulate emissions for transport 2000 Category Road traffic Brake wear Tyre wear Road abrasion Military Railways Inland waterways National sea traffic National fishing Domestic LTO Domestic cruise Agriculture Forestry Industry Household and gardening UN-ECE total International sea traffic International LTO International cruise

SNAP codes 07 0707 0707 0708 0801 0802 0803 080402 080403 080501 080503 0806 0807 0808 0809 080404 080502 080504

TSP [tons] 3969 400 4632 9751 19 162 72 352 398 2 2 2174 2 1145 27 23106 7618 4 34

PM10 [tons] 3969 392 234 490 19 162 69 335 378 2 2 2066 2 1090 27 9235 7237 4 34

PM2.5 [tons] 3969 160 163 0 19 162 66 318 359 2 2 1963 2 1037 27 8249 6875 4 34

The PM results show that around 80%, 20% and 10% of total road traffic TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 come from non-exhaust sources. The emission shares of agriculture and industry are approximately one half and one fourth, respectively, of the total for other mobile sources.

7

Stationary combustion plants The PM emission inventory year 2000 of stationary combustion plants is shown in Table s3. Stationary combustion plants accounts for 33% of the overall Danish emission of PM2.5. According to the improved emission inventory the primary sources of PM emission are: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Residential boilers, stoves and fireplaces combusting wood Farmhouse boilers combusting straw Power plants primarily combusting coal Coal and residual oil combusted in industrial boilers and processes

Furthermore there are considerable emissions from: ♦ Residential boilers using gas oil ♦ Refineries The PM emission from wood combusted in residential plants is the predominant source. Thus 40% of the PM2.5 emission from stationary combustion is emitted from residential wood combustion. This corresponds to 13% of the overall Danish emission. Wood combustion accounts for almost 90% of the PM2.5 emission from residential plants in spite of the limited wood consumption share. Table s3. Improved emission inventory year 2000, stationary combustion plants snap1 01

snap1 name

snap2

COMBUSTION IN EN- 0101 ERGY AND TRANS0102 FORMATION INDUS0103 TRY 0104 0105

02

03

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY Stationary combustion plants

snap2 name Public power

TSP PM10 PM2.5 Ton Ton Ton 826 702 594

District heating plants

161

115

91

Petroleum refining plants

142

129

122

Solid fuel transformation plants

0

0

0

Coal mining, oil / gas extraction, pipeline compressors

3

3

3

136

132

123

2793 2665

2529

0201

Commercial and institutional plants (t)

0202

Residential plants

0203

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture

129

102

81

0301

Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

447

339

254

0303

Processes with contact

294

235

194

4930 4423

3992

Further improvements The estimate of the total exhaust emissions from road transport could be improved if a more precise classification of gross vehicle weights for heavy duty vehicles and annual mileage given per first registration year for light and heavy duty vehicles were available. Detailed Danish fleet and mileage data is gathered by the Danish Motor Vehicle Inspection Office in the Danish inspection and maintenance programme and will be made available as input data for future emission modelling. The outcome of other research at NERI and other non-exhaust emission research activities will be the basis for future emission factor improvements. The literature survey showed that the uncertainty of the emission factors for residential combustion of wood in stoves and boilers are immense. The emission factors used in other Nordic countries are from 3 to 14 times higher than the emission factor used in Denmark. Still, other references supported the current emission factor and at present the emission factor has not been changed. Further studies of this emission factor are of great importance for improvement of the inventory. Improved PM emission factors for decentralised combined heat and power plants have been developed recently and these emission factors will be used in future inventories.

8

Sammenfatning Den første danske emissionsopgørelse for partikler (PM) blev udarbejdet i 2002. Emissionsopgørelsen var en del af de danske opgørelser der rapporteres til UN-ECE konventionen om langtransporteret luftforurening (CLRTAP). Den foreløbige opgørelse var udarbejdet på basis af de aktivitetsdata og emissionsfaktorer, der umiddelbart var tilgængelige. Opgørelsen inkluderede totale partikler (TSP), PM10 og PM2.5. Nærværende rapport dokumenterer de metoder, emissionsfaktorer og referencer, der er anvendt ved udarbejdelsen af en forbedret opgørelse af TSP, PM10 og PM2.5 for år 2000. Rapporten dækker emissionsopgørelser for transport og stationær forbrænding. Emissioner fra landbruget er beskrevet i et appendiks til rapporten. For transportsektoren omfatter resultaterne emissioner fra såvel udstødning som ikke-udstødning – såsom dæk, bremser og vejslid. Emissioner Hovedresultaterne for de forbedrede opgørelser for TSP, PM10 og PM2.5 fra stationær forbrænding og transport for år 2000 er vist i tabel s1. I henhold til UNECE’s retningslinier for rapportering er emissioner fra international flytrafik og skibsfart ikke medregnet i de danske total emissioner. Table s1. Emissionsopgørelse for stationær forbrænding og transport for år 2000

01 Kraft- og fjernvarmeværker og energikonvertering 02 Ikke-industrielle forbrændingsanlæg 03 Industrielle forbrændingsanlæg Stationære forbrændingsanlæg 07 Vejtrafik, udstødning 07 Vejtrafik, bremser, dæk og vejslid 08 Andre mobile kilder Transport 1) Total

TSP Ton 1131 3058 741 4930 3969 14783 4355 23106 28037

1)

PM10 Ton 948 2899 575 4423 3969 1116 4152 9235 13659

PM2.5 Ton 810 2734 448 3992 3969 323 3957 8249 12241

1) Kun emissioner fra stationær forbrænding og transport er inkluderet. I de officielle danske opgørelser for 2001 er også inkluderet emissioner fra visse industrielle processer, landbrug og lossepladser.

Figur s1 viser at vejtrafik, andre mobile kilder og ikke-industrielle forbrændingsanlæg er de største kilder. Kilderne til ikke-udstødnings emissioner fra vejtrafik er kun vigtige for TSP og PM10. Generelt er er der en stor usikkerhed på opgørelserne for forbrænding af træ i husholdninger, vejslid og andre mobile kilder.

9

PM [ton] 16000 14000 12000 TSP PM10 PM2.5

10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 Andre mobile kilder

Vejtrafik, bremser, dæk og vejslid

Vejtrafik, udstødning

Industrielle forbrændingsanlæg

Ikke-industrielle forbrændingsanlæg

Kraftværker, fjernvarmeværker og energikonvertering

0

Figur s1.Partikelemissioner for 2000

Transport Emissionsopgørelserne for vejtrafik og andre mobile kilder er vist i tabel s2. Disse to kilder udgør 67% af de samlede danske PM2.5 emissioner. Emissioner fra international sø- og lufttrafik er ikke inkluderet i de totale danske emissioner, og er i stedet rapporteret særskilt. Tabel s2. Partikelemissioner for transport for år 2000 Kategori Vejtrafik Bremseslid Dækslid Vejslid Militær Jernbane Småbåde og fritidsfartøjer National søtransport Fiskeri Indenrigs LTO Indenrigs cruise Landbrug Skovbrug Industri Hus- og havehold UN-ECE total International søtransport International LTO International cruise

SNAP koder 07 0707 0707 0708 0801 0802 0803 080402 080403 080501 080503 0806 0807 0808 0809 080404 080502 080504

TSP [ton] 3969 400 4632 9751 19 162 72 352 398 2 2 2174 2 1145 27 23106 7618 4 34

PM10 [ton] 3969 392 234 490 19 162 69 335 378 2 2 2066 2 1090 27 9235 7237 4 34

PM2.5 [ton] 3969 160 163 0 19 162 66 318 359 2 2 1963 2 1037 27 8249 6875 4 34

Emissionerne af TSP, PM10 og PM2.5 fra ikke-udstødningskilder udgør 80, 20 og 10% af de totale emissioner fra vejtrafik. Emissionsandelen fra landbrug og industri udgør ca. halvdelen og en fjerdedel af de totale emissioner fra andre mobile kilder.

10

Stationære forbrændingsanlæg Partikelemissionsopgørelsen for stationære forbrændingsanlæg er vist i tabel s3. Emissionerne fra disse anlæg udgør 33% af de samlede danske emissioner af PM2.5. Den forbedrede opgørelse viser at de vigtigste kilder til partikelemissioner er: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Træ der forbrændes i husholdningers fyr, brændeovne og pejse. Halmfyr i landbrugserhverv Kulforbrænding på kraftværker Kul- og olieforbrænding i industrielle kedler og processer

Desuden er der betragtelige emissioner fra ♦ Oliefyr i husholdninger ♦ Raffinaderier Forbrænding af træ i husholdninger er den dominerende emissionskilde, og emissionsandelen er 40% af den samlede PM2.5 emission fra stationær forbrænding. Det svarer til 13% af den samlede danske emission. Forbrænding af træ udgør næsten 90% af emissionen fra husholdningers forbrændingsanlæg på trods af et begrænset forbrug af træ i denne sektor. Table s3. Forbedret emissionsopgørelse for stationære forbrændingsanlæg for 2000. SNAP1 01

02

SNAP1 navn

SNAP2

Kraft- og fjernvar0101 meværker og ener- 0102 gikonvertering 0103

Kraftværker

TSP PM10 PM2.5 Ton Ton Ton 826 702 594

Fjernvarmeværker

161

115

91

Raffinaderier

142

129

122

0104

Omdannelse af fastbrændsel

0

0

0

0105

Olie- og gasudvinding

3

3

3

136

132

123

2793 2665

2529

Ikke-industrielle 0201 forbrændingsanlæg 0202 0203

03

SNAP2 navn

Industrielle forbrændingsanlæg

Stationære forbrændingsanlæg

Erhverv og institutioner Husholdninger Forbrændingsanlæg i landbrug, skovbrug og dampbrug

129

102

81

Kedler, gasturbiner og stationære motorer

447

339

254

Processer med kontakt

294

235

194

4930 4423

3992

Fremtidige forbedringer Emissionsberegningerne for vejtrafikkens udstødning kan forbedres hvis en mere præcis fordeling af totalvægt for lastbiler bliver tilgængelig sammen med differentierede årskørsler per førsteregistreringsår for varebiler og tunge køretøjer. Detaljerede danske data for køretøjsbestand og årskørsler indsamles af Statens Bilinspektion som en del af det generelle synsprogram. Disse data vil blive gjort tilgængelige for emissionsberegningerne i fremtiden. Øvrig forskning på DMU og andre forskningsaktiviter relateret til ikke-udstødning vil blive brugt til at forbedre emissionsfaktorerne for de sidstnævnte kilder Litteraturundersøgelsen viste at usikkerheden for forbrænding af træ i husholdningers fyr og brændeovne er meget stor. Emissionsfaktorerne brugt i andre nordiske lande er fra 3 til 14 gange større end den emissionsfaktor, der er anvendt i den danske opgørelse. Andre referencer understøtter dog emissionsfaktoren anvendt i den danske opgørelse. Yderligere undersøgelser af emissionsfaktoren er af stor betydning for at kunne forbedre opgørelsen. Forbedrede partikel emissionsfaktorer for decentrale kraftvarmeanlæg er nylig blevet udviklet og disse ville blive anvendt i fremtidige opgørelser. 11

1

Introduction

At the beginning of 2002 the first Danish emission inventory of particulate matter (PM) was prepared and reported. The emission inventory was part of the Danish emission inventories reported under the UN-ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). This provisional version of the inventory was based on activity data and emission factors presently available. The inventory included total suspended particles (TSP), PM10 and PM2.5 . Traditionally the emissions of particulate matter have been referred to by their total mass. However, more recently an increased attention has been given to the adverse health effects that particulates can cause depending on their numbers, sizes and chemical compositions. Particulate matter is subject to major research activities in many countries. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has started a 4-year research project concerning PM. As part of this work The Danish Environmental Protection Agency wanted to get a more detailed emission inventory of PM emission from Danish sources. The input data of the emission inventory had to be improved and the methodology and references documented. The present report includes improved emission inventories for: ♦ Transport: Exhaust and the non-exhaust emission of the transport sector such as tyre and brake wear, road abrasion. ♦ Stationary combustion Further a note about the temporary methodology for the PM emission inventory from agriculture is enclosed. Methodology, references and results of the improved emission inventory for stationary combustion and transport are presented in this report. The report also identifies the emission sources for which further improvements were required to increase accuracy of the Danish inventory. The selection of sources for further studies was based on the provisional version of the inventory. Detailed reflections, documentation and discussions concerning emissions and sources, activity rates and emission factors of each sector are enclosed in appendix 1 – 3. Revised emission factors are determined and an improved emission inventory for the year 2000 is presented. Appendix 1: Road transport and other mobile sources. Appendix 2: Stationary combustion plants. Appendix 3: Agriculture. The project has contributed to improve the quality of the Danish emission inventories of particulate matter reported under the UN-ECE CLRTAP. All the emission data shown in the main report are based on the improved inventory.

12

2

Emission inventory

The improved Danish emission inventory of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 from stationary combustion and transport for the year 2000 is shown in Table 1. According to the CLRTAP reporting guidelines emissions from international air traffic and international bunkers are not included. PM emissions from storage of coal, waste treatment and agriculture have been included in the Danish inventory 2003 reported to UNECE/EMEP but these emission sources are not further discussed in this report and the emissions from these sources are not included in totals in tables and figures below. Coal storage and waste treatment account for less than 3% of the total PM emission. Agriculture is an important emission source for TSP but accounts for only about 10% of the PM2.5 emission. The emission source contributions are illustrated in Figure 1 - Figure 4. Table 1 Emission inventory year 2000 (stationary combustion and transport), main snap categories snap1

snap1 name

01

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 02 NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS 03 COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY Stationary combustion plants 07 ROAD TRANSPORT, exhaust emissions 07 ROAD TRANSPORT, brake and tyre wear and road abrasion 08 OTHER MOBILE SOURCES AND MACHINERY Transport 1) Total

TSP Tonnes 1131

PM10 Tonnes 948

PM2.5 Tonnes 810

3058 741 4930 3969 14783 4355 23106 28037

2899 575 4423 3969 1116 4152 9235 13659

2734 448 3992 3969 323 3957 8249 12241

1)

1. Only the emission sources stationary combustion plants and transport are included. In the official Danish inventory reported in 2003 PM emissions from coal storage, agriculture and from waste treatment and disposal are also included

PM [ton] 16000 14000 12000 10000

TSP [ton] PM10 [ton] PM2,5 [ton]

8000 6000 4000 2000

OTHER MOBILE SOURCES AND MACHINERY

ROAD TRANSPORT, brake and tyre wear and road abration

ROAD TRANSPORT, exhaust emissions

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

0

Figure 1 Emission of PM, 2000

13

From Figure 1 it is seen that road transport, other mobile sources and non-industrial combustion plants are the largest sources. Non-exhaust emissions from road transport (brake, tyre wear and road abrasion) are only important for TSP and PM10. For detailed level emission inventories please refer to appendix 1-3. In general the uncertainty for the PM emission inventory is high especially for domestic combustion of wood, road abrasion and other mobile sources.

14

TSP [ton]

OTHER MOBILE SOURCES AND MACHINERY 16%

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 4%

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS 11% COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY 3% ROAD TRANSPORT, exhaust emissions 14%

ROAD TRANSPORT, brake and tyre wear and road abration 52%

Figure 2 Emission of TSP, 2000 PM10 [ton] COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 7%

OTHER MOBILE SOURCES AND MACHINERY 31%

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS 21% COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY 4%

ROAD TRANSPORT, brake and tyre wear and road abration 8%

ROAD TRANSPORT, exhaust emissions 29%

Figure 3 Emission of PM10 , 2000 PM2,5 [ton] COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 7%

OTHER MOBILE SOURCES AND MACHINERY 32%

ROAD TRANSPORT, brake and tyre wear and road abration 3%

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS 22%

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY 4% ROAD TRANSPORT, exhaust emissions 32%

Figure 4 Emission of PM2.5 , 2000

15

2.1

Road transport and other mobile sources

The emission inventory for road transport and other mobile sources is shown in Table 2. Road transport and other mobile sources accounts for 67% of the overall Danish PM2.5 emission. Emissions from international sea and air traffic are not included in the UN-ECE inventory. The fuel consumption in the international sea and air traffic category comprises the fuel bunkered in Denmark by sea vessels or aircraft with foreign destinations. The associated emissions for the latter categories are not included in the Danish UNECE total. Instead the emissions are reported as memo items. Table 2 Particulate emissions for transport 2000 Category Road traffic Brake wear Tyre wear Road abrasion Military Railways Inland waterways National sea traffic National fishing Domestic LTO Domestic cruise Agriculture Forestry Industry Household and gardening UN-ECE total International sea traffic International LTO International cruise

snap codes 07 0707 0707 0708 0801 0802 0803 080402 080403 080501 080503 0806 0807 0808 0809 080404 080502 080504

TSP [tonnes] 3969 400 4632 9751 19 162 72 352 398 2 2 2174 2 1145 27 23106 7618 4 34

PM10 [tonnes] 3969 392 234 490 19 162 69 335 378 2 2 2066 2 1090 27 9235 7237 4 34

PM2.5 [tonnes] 3969 160 163 0 19 162 66 318 359 2 2 1963 2 1037 27 8249 6875 4 34

Exhaust PM emissions from road transport are shown on a more detailed level in Table 3 and in Figure 5. Non-exhaust emissions from road transport are shown at a detailed level in Table 4. The PM results show that around 80%, 20% and 10% of total road traffic TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 come from non-exhaust sources. Since the smallest fractions of particulate matter are known to have the biggest influence on health, and given the absolute figures emitted, road traffic is still the most important source in relation to air quality. Table 3 Total exhaust PM2.5 emissions for road transport year 2000 Category Passenger Cars Light Duty Vehicles Heavy-duty Vehicles Buses Mopeds Motorcycles Grand total

Urban

Rural

Highway Total

% of Grand total

[tonnes] 381 837 326 171 25 11

[tonnes] 228 697 478 122 6 9

[tonnes] 124 232 289 32 0 3

[tonnes] 733 1766 1092 324 31 23

18 44 28 8 1 1

1750

1539

680

3969

100

For road transport some uncertainties still prevail as regards the split of total road transport fuel use into fuel used by different vehicle categories, and the total mileage driven. The latter point of uncertainty in some cases refers to total mileage numbers and the distribution of mileage into vehicle age. In 2000 the urban, rural and highway shares of total road traffic exhaust PM emissions 16

(all emissions are PM2.5 ) was 44, 39 and 17%, respectively. The total exhaust emissions have decreased substantially since the mid-1990s due to the stepwise strengthening of emission standards for all vehicle types. This decrease will continue in the future as new low emitting vehicles complying with future emission standards substitute older and more polluting vehicles. In absolute amounts the conventional types of diesel light duty and heavy-duty vehicles have the highest emissions and for these vehicles the future emission reductions will become most effective. Conventional passenger cars still contribute significantly to this vehicle type’s PM total. However the conventional emission share will be negligible in the future following the penetration of catalyst vehicles into the Danish traffic.

Light duty vehicles

Passenger cars 1600

300

1400

250

1200

[Tons]

[Tons]

200 150 100

1000 800 600 400

50

200 0

0 Conv. Gasoline

Cat. Gasoline

Euro Diesel

Gasoline

Conv. Diesel

Euro Diesel

Mopeds and Motorcycles

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

35 30 25

[Tons]

[Tons]

Trucks and Buses

Conv. Diesel

20 15 10 5 0

Conv. Buses

Euro Buses

Conv. Trucks

Euro Trucks

Mopeds

2-stroke MC

< 250 cc

250-750 cc

> 750 cc

Figure 5 Each vehicle category’s exhaust PM2.5 emissions divided into layers

Table 4 Non-exhaust emissions per vehicle category in the Danish inventory Vehicle category

Brake wear (tonnes) TSP PM10 PM2.5

Tyre wear (tonnes) Road abrasion (tonnes) TSP PM10 PM2.5 TSP PM10 PM2.5

Total (tonnes) TSP PM10 PM2.5

Passenger cars Light duty veh.

223 61

219 60

89 24

2565 732

130 37

91 26

5390 1545

271 77

0 0

8178 2338

620 174

180 50

Heavy-duty veh.

87

85

35

1001

50

35

2112

106

0

3201

241

70

Buses

27

27

11

314

16

11

662

33

0

1003

76

22

Mopeds

0

0

0

4

0

0

9

0

0

14

1

0

Motorcycles

1

1

1

15

1

1

32

2

0

49

4

1

400

392

160

4632

234

163

9751

490

0 14783

1115

323

Grand total

Emission results for other mobile sources are shown in Table 5. The working machinery categories comprise the working equipment and machines in agriculture, forestry, industry, household and gardening.

17

Table 5 Total Danish PM emissions (exhaust) from other mobile sources in 2000 TSP [tonnes]

PM10 [tonnes]

PM2.5 [tonnes]

Military Railways 1) Inland waterways National fishing National sea traffic Domestic aviation Agriculture Forestry Industry Household and gardening

21 162 72 398 352 3 2174 2 1145 27

21 162 69 378 335 3 2066 2 1090 27

21 162 66 359 318 3 1963 2 1037 27

Grand Total

4357

4153

3959

1. Small boats and pleasure crafts

Other mobile sources Fuel use 2000 Domestic aviation

Other mobile sources TSP 2000

Domestic aviation Internal navigation

Internal navigation Military Railways

Working machinery

Military Railways

Other mobile sources PM10 2000

Domestic aviation

Working machinery

Internal navigation

Working machinery

Other mobile sources PM2.5 2000

Domestic aviation

Internal navigation

Military

Military

Railways

Railways

Working machinery

1

Figure 6 Fuel use and emissions for the most dominant other mobile sources in the year 2000.

The emission shares of agriculture and industry are approximately one half and one fourth, respectively, of the total for other mobile sources. The two sector’s fuel use shares are somewhat lower. Due to the implementation of the two stage EU emission directive, a possible strengthening of this, and a future directive for gasoline fuelled working machinery (2000/0336), the emissions from agricultural and industrial machinery (and working machinery in general) will decline in both absolute and relative terms.

1

Internal navigation comprises the contributions from small boats, pleasure crafts, fishing vessels and the emissions associated with the use of fuel bunkered by ships leaving Danish ports with domestic destinations.

18

2.2

Stationary combustion plants

The PM emission inventory year 2000 of stationary combustion plants is shown in Table 6. Stationary combustion plants account for 33% of the overall Danish emission of PM2.5 . According to the improved emission inventory the primary sources of PM emission ranked after importance are: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Residential boilers, stoves and fireplaces combusting wood Farmhouse boilers combusting straw Power plants primarily combusting coal Coal and residual oil combusted in industrial boilers and processes

Furthermore there are considerable emissions from: ♦ Residential boilers using gas oil ♦ Refineries The PM emission from wood combusted in residential plants is the predominant source. Thus 40% of the PM2.5 emission from stationary combustion is emitted from residential wood combustion. This corresponds to 13% of the overall Danish emission. The literature survey showed that the uncertainty of the emission factors for residential combustion of wood in stoves and boilers are immense. In Figure 7 fuel consumption and PM2.5 emission of residential plants is shown. Wood combustion accounts for almost 90% of the PM2.5 emission from residential plants in spite of the limited wood consumption share. Table 6 Improved emission inventory year 2000, stationary combustion plants snap1 01

snap1 name

snap2

snap2 name 1)

COMBUSTION IN 0101 Public power ENERGY AND 0102 District heating plants TRANSFORMATION 0103 Petroleum refining plants INDUSTRY 0104 Solid fuel transformation plants 0105 Coal mining, oil / gas extraction, pipeline compressors

02

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

0201 Commercial and institutional plants (t) 0202 Residential plants 0203 Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture

03

COMBUSTION IN 0301 Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines MANUFACTURING 0303 Processes with contact INDUSTRY Stationary combustion plants

PM2.5 TSP PM10 Tonnes Tonnes Tonnes 826 702 594 161

115

91

142

129

122

0

0

0

3

3

3

136

132

123

2793

2665

2529

129

102

81

447

339

254

294

235

194

4930

4423

3992

1. Including both large power plants and decentralised heat and power plants (CHP-plants)

19

LPG 1%

WOOD AND SIMIL. 16%

AGRICUL. WASTES 5%

NATURAL GAS 38%

KEROSENE 0%

GAS OIL 8% AGRICUL. WASTES 3%

NATURAL GAS STEAM COAL 0% 0% PETROLEUM COKE 0%

RESIDUAL OIL 0%

GAS OIL 40%

WOOD AND SIMIL. 89%

Figure 7 Fuel consumption and PM2.5 emission from residential plants Processes with contact 6% Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines 9%

Public power 17% District heating plants 3%

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 3%

Petroleum refining plants 3% Commercial and institutional plants (t) 3%

Residential plants 56%

Figure 8 Emission of TSP from stationary combustion

Processes with contact 6% Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines 9%

Public power 17%

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 3%

District heating plants 3% Petroleum refining plants 3% Commercial and institutional plants (t) 3%

Residential plants 56%

Figure 9 Emission of PM10 from stationary combustion

20

Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines 6% Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 2%

Processes with contact 5% Public power 15% District heating plants 2% Petroleum refining plants 3% Commercial and institutional plants (t) 3%

Residential plants 64%

Figure 10 Emission of PM2.5 from stationary combustion

21

3

Methodology and references

The Danish emission inventory is based on the CORINAIR (CORe INventory on AIR emissions) system, which is a European program for air emission inventories. CORINAIR includes a methodology structure and software for inventories. The methodology is described in the Emission Inventory Guidebook 3rd edition, prepared by the UN-ECE/EMEP Task Force on Emissions Inventories and Projections. Emission data are stored in an Access database. The detailed methodology specifications and references of the Danish emission inventory are included in appendix 1-3. The inventory of emissions from diesel road transport is based on the COPERT model. For gasoline vehicles the COPERT model principle is used in a new database developed at NERI. The total exhaust PM emissions are calculated separately for operationally hot engines and for engines driving under cold start conditions. The non-exhaust emissions are simulated using the hot engine emission calculation methodology. Emissions and fuel use results for operationally hot engines are calculated for each layer, and urban, rural and highway driving. The procedure is to combine fuel use and emission factors, number of vehicles, annual mileage numbers and their urban, rural and highway shares. The cold start emissions are estimated using information on cold:hot emission ratios, average trip length and ambient temperatures. The inventory of emissions from stationary combustion is based on activity rates from the Danish energy statistics and on emission factors for different fuels, plants and sectors. Large plants like e.g. power plants are registered individually as large point sources and plant specific emission data are used.

3.1

Activity rates

Road transport Information of the vehicle stock and annual mileage is obtained from the Danish Road Directorate. This covers data for the number of vehicles, annual mileage, mileage split between urban, rural and highway driving and the respective average speeds. The figures are modified as a result of the COPERT model fuel balance. Fuel consumption rates refer to the official Danish energy statistics. Some uncertainties still exist as regards the split of total road transport fuel use into fuel used by different vehicle categories, and the total mileage driven. Other mobile sources The activity data for other mobile sources consist of fuel use information provided by the Danish Energy Authority. The sectors: Inland waterways, agriculture, forestry, industry and household and gardening consist of off road working machines and equipment. Stationary combustion Activity rates of stationary combustion refer to the official Danish energy statistics prepared by the Danish Energy Authority.

3.2

Emission factors

Road transport Road transport exhaust emission factors for diesel vehicles are taken from the COPERT model. The COPERT model specifies trip speed dependent fuel use and emission factors. For gasoline vehicles relevant emission factors are derived from Dutch measurements and shown in the TNO/CEPMEIP database. 22

Table 7 Emission factors (hot and cold aggregated) used in the Danish inventory Vehicle class PC PC PC PC PC LDV LDV Trucks Trucks Trucks Trucks Urban buses Coaches Mopeds Motorcycles Motorcycles Motorcycles Motorcycles

Fuel type Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Diesel Diesel Gasoline Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline

Engine/weight < 1.4 l. 1.4 – 2 l. > 2 l. < 2 l. > 2 l.

3.5 – 7.5 tonnes 7.5 – 16 tonnes 16 – 32 tonnes > 32 tonnes

Urban (g/km) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.17 0.17 0.02 0.33 0.27 0.53 0.59 0.63 0.49

Rural (g/km) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.06 0.06 0.02 0.19 0.18 0.36 0.40 0.43 0.33

Highway (g/km) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.10 0.02 0.21 0.15 0.29 0.33 0.36 0.26

0.48 0.12 0.12 0.04 0.04 0.04

0.32 0.12 0.12 0.04 0.04 0.04

0.26

2 stroke < 250 cc 4 stroke 250 – 750 cc 4 stroke > 750 cc 4 stroke

0.12 0.04 0.04 0.04

The non-exhaust emission factor of road transport used in the Danish inventory comes from the TNO/CEPMEIP database. The emission factors originate from Dutch roadside measurements, as the only source of information. Table 8 Emission factors (mg/km) per vehicle category in the Danish inventory Vehicle category

TSP

Brake wear PM10 PM2.5

Passenger cars Light duty veh.

6 7.5

5.9 7.4

Heavy-duty veh.

32.25

Buses Mopeds Motorcycles

2.4 3.0

TSP

Tyre wear PM10 PM2.5

Road abrasion TSP PM10 PM2.5

69 90

3.5 4.5

2.5 3.2

145 190

7.3 9.5

0 0

31.6

12.9 371.25

18.6

13.0

783

39.2

0

32.25 1.5

31.6 1.5

12.9 371.25 0.6 17.25

18.6 0.9

13.0 0.6

783 36.5

39.2 1.85

0 0

3

2.9

1.7

1.2

73

3.7

0

1.2

34.5

Other mobile sources For military ground material and railways aggregated emission factors for diesel are derived from the road traffic emission simulations made by NERI. The diesel emission factors for the remaining sectors come from the EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook, however size fractions are taken from the TNO/CEPMEIP database. The emission factors for all other fuel types come from the TNO/CEPMEIP database.

23

Table 9 Danish PM exhaust emission factors for other mobile sources in 2000 TSP [g/GJ] Military Railways Inland waterways National fishing National sea traffic Domestic aviation Agriculture Forestry Industry Household and gardening

PM10 [g/GJ]

13.63 52.40 80.62 42.12 72.24 1.63 124.67 32.36 94.14 23.25

PM2.5 [g/GJ]

13.63 52.40 77.28 40.02 68.63 1.63 118.47 31.82 89.57 23.25

13.63 52.40 74.10 38.03 65.20 1.63 112.58 31.30 85.22 23.25

Stationary combustion For each fuel and snap (sector and e.g. type of plant) a set of general emission factors has been determined. The emission factors are either national referenced or based on the TNO/CEPMEIP database. Most country specific emission factors refers to: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Danish legislation Danish research reports Calculations based on plant specific emissions from a considerable number of power plants Calculations based on plant specific emissions from a considerable number of municipal waste incineration plants

TSP emissions from large point sources are often based on emission measurements and thus they are plant specific. Table 10 shows some of the emission factors used for stationary combustion plants. Please refer to appendix 1.1 for more detailed emission factor tables. Some of the highest emissions factors are seen for wood and straw combustion in the residential sector. Table 10 Some of the emission factors used for stationary combustion plants Fuel

snap

Source category

Coal Coal Petroleum coke Wood Wood Wood Municipal Waste Municipal Waste Agricultural waste (straw) Agricultural waste (straw) Agricultural waste (straw) Residual oil Residual oil Residual oil

0101 0102 02 0101 0102 0202 0101 0102 0101

Public power District heating Non-industrial combustion Public power District heating Residential plants Public power District heating Public power

0102

District heating

0202

Residential plants

0101 0102 02 (engines)

Residual oil Gas oil Natural gas LPG Biogas

0301 All All All All

Public power District heating Non-industrial combustion in engines Industrial combustion All All All All

24

3 6 100 8 19 150 6 6 8

PM10 g/GJ 2.6 6 60 6 13 143 5 5 6

PM2.5 g/GJ 2.1 5 30 4 10 135 4 4 4

21

15

12

234

222

211

3 3 60

3 3 50

2.5 2.5 40

14 5 0.1 0.2 1.5

10.5 5 0.1 0.2 1.5

7 5 0.1 0.2 1.5

TSP g/GJ

4

Further improvements

Transport Even though the available fleet and mileage data is adequate for emissions calculations with the COPERT II model, a more precise classification of: ♦ gross vehicle weights for heavy-duty vehicles ♦ annual mileage given per first registration year for light and heavy-duty vehicles would improve the estimate of total exhaust emissions. Detailed Danish fleet and mileage data is gathered by the Danish Motor Vehicle Inspection Office in the Danish inspection and maintenance programme and could be made available as input data for emission modelling in 2003 depending on external resources. In this study no change in particulate exhaust emission factors is proposed. Instead areas with poor or missing data should await the availability of new and COPERT consistent emission factors in mid-2003. However the use of Swedish factors will be considered depending of the outcome of parallel dispersion studies at NERI. In the first place the factors for road abrasion are kept. However, the outcome of other research at NERI and other non-exhaust emission research activities will be the basis for future emission factor improvements. Stationary combustion plants The literature survey showed that the uncertainty of the emission factors for residential combustion of wood in stoves and boilers is high. The emission factors used in other Nordic countries are from 3 to 14 times higher. Still, other references supported the current emission factor and at present the emission factor has not been changed. Further studies of this emission factor are of great importance for improvements of the inventory. Improved PM emission factors for decentralised CHP plants have been developed recently and these emission factors will be used in future inventories.

25

5

Projections

Transport Emission projections are made using the Danish official energy use forecast (provided by the DEA) together with the emission projection models for road transport and other mobile sources developed by NERI. For road transport the projections are based on the COPERT III methodology and use the vehicle fleet and mileage projections provided by the Danish Road Traffic Directorate. For other mobile sources fuel related emission factors are used. In this category future emission reductions for diesel engines are taken into account for working machinery and equipment in the sectors agriculture, forestry, industry and household and gardening. For the remaining other mobile sources no real emission improvements are expected. Table 11 Projections of exhaust emissions (PM2.5 ) for road transport in 2010 and relative changes to 2000 Category Passenger Cars Light Duty Vehicles Heavy-duty Vehicles Buses Mopeds Motorcycles Grand total

Urban 150 384 145 82 28 12 801

Rural 82 289 208 58 7 10 654

Highway 59 109 123 15 0 4 310

Total 291 782 477 155 34 27 1766

%-change 2000-2010 -60 -56 -56 -52 10 17 -56

From 2000 to 2010 the total exhaust emissions has decreased substantially due to the stepwise strengthening of emission standards for all vehicle types (except 2-wheelers). Table 12 Projections of non-exhaust emissions for road transport in 2010 and relative changes to 2000 Vehicle category Brake wear (tonnes) TSP PM10 PM2.5 Passenger cars 248 243 99 Light duty veh. 77 76 31 Heavy-duty veh. 106 104 42 Buses 32 31 13 Mopeds 0 0 0 Motorcycles 2 2 1 Grand total 465 456 186

Tyre wear (tonnes) Road abrasion (tonnes) TSP PM10 PM2.5 TSP PM10 PM2.5 2850 145 101 5989 302 0 926 46 32 1954 98 0 1222 61 43 2577 129 0 364 18 13 768 38 0 5 0 0 10 1 0 19 1 1 40 2 0 5385 271 190 11338 569 0

Total (tonnes) %-change TSP PM10 PM2.5 2000-2010 9088 689 200 11 2956 220 63 26 3904 294 85 22 1163 88 25 16 16 1 0 11 61 5 1 24 17189 1296 376 16

The 16% increase in non-exhaust emissions from 2000 to 2010 is determined by the development in total mileage for road transportation vehicles, which in turn rely on the vehicle fleet numbers, and corresponding annual mileages.

26

Table 13 Projections of PM emissions for other mobile sources in 2010 and relative changes to 2000 Category Military Railways Inland waterways National sea National fishing Civil aviation Agriculture Forestry Industry Household Total

2010 18 83 83 221 393 3 1901 2 656 31 3390

TSP PM10 PM2.5 %-change 2010 %-change 2010 %-change 2000-2010 2000-2010 2000-2010 -14 18 -14 18 -14 -49 83 -49 83 -49 15 79 14 76 15 -44 209 -45 199 -45 12 373 11 355 12 0 3 0 3 0 -13 1807 -13 1718 -12 0 2 0 2 0 -43 625 -43 596 -43 15 31 15 31 15 -22 3231 -22 3081 -22

The development towards lower railway emissions in 2010 is caused by the increased use of electrical locomotives in this sector. For sea vessels, civil aviation and household the emissions in 2010 solely rely on this years fuel consumption, since no improvements in emission factors are taken into account in the calculations. For agricultural and industrial machinery the emissions decline with 12 and 43% from 2000 to 2010 due to the stepwise introduction of stricter emission standards for the vehicles in question. Stationary combustion plants No projection models have been developed for projection of particulate matter emissions for stationary combustion plants but a rough estimate of the emission level in 2010 compared to the level in 2000 is made. The estimate is based on the energy forecast from the Danish Energy Authority and the biggest change is seen for power plants where the fuel consumption increases with 33%. The increasing fuel consumption at the power plants is mainly due to increasing use of coal and to a less extent use of wood, straw and natural gas. Since the large combustion plants already have very efficient PM abatement technology no major changes are expected from 2000 to 2010. The PM emissions from the energy sector are estimated assuming that the emissions increase with 33% as the fuel consumption. Given the latest energy projection from the Danish Energy Authority the estimated PM emissions in 2010 for stationary combustion plants will only increase with 7 % for PM10 (Table 14). Table 14. Estimated PM emissions in 2010 for stationary combustion plants. snap1

snap1 name

01 COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 02 NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS 03 COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY Stationary combustion plants

TSP Tonnes 1500 3058 741 5299

PM10 Tonnes 1260 2899 575 4734

PM2.5 Tonnes 1080 2734 448 4262

27

6

Conclusion

An improved Danish PM emission inventory for the year 2000 has been prepared. The inventory includes TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 . The methodology and references for the sources transport, stationary combustion and agriculture are documented in appendix 1-3. Main sources of PM emissions have been analysed and future improvements and uncertainties discussed. The improved Danish inventory shows that the main source of TSP emission is non-exhaust emissions from road transport. There is a considerable difference if only the fine PM fraction is considered. Thus the main sources of PM2.5 emission are other mobile sources, exhaust emissions from road transport and non-industrial combustion plants. PM2.5 emission from transport accounts for 67% of the total Danish emission. The primary sources of PM2.5 emission from transport are: ♦ Exhaust emissions from road transport ♦ Off road exhaust emissions from agriculture and industry The primary sources of TSP emission from transport are: ♦ Road abrasion ♦ Tyre wear ♦ Exhaust emissions from road transport PM2.5 emission from stationary combustion accounts for 33% of the total Danish emission. The primary sources of particulate emission from stationary combustion are: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Residential boilers, stoves and fireplaces combusting wood Farmhouse boilers combusting straw Power plants primarily combusting coal Coal and residual oil combusted in industrial boilers and processes

The PM emission from wood combusted in residential plants is the predominant source. Thus the PM2.5 emission corresponds to 13% of the overall Danish emission.

28

Appendix 1 Inventory of particulate matter (PM) emission from stationary combustion plants

Malene Nielsen and Jytte Boll Illerup NERI January 2003 29

Contents 1 Introduction

31

2 Method of emission inventory

32

2.1 snap categories 2.2 Activity rates, fuel consumption 2.3 Emission factors 2.4 Large point sources 2.5 Area sources

3 Provisional emission inventory of particulate emissions 3.1 Total 3.2 Stationary combustion plants 3.2.1 Residential plants, snap 0202 3.2.2 Power plants and CHP plants, snap 0101 3.2.3 Combustion in the manufacturing industry, snap 0301 3.2.4 District heating plants, snap 0102 3.2.5 Large point sources

4 Data, references and improvements of inventory

32 33 33 34 34

35 35 37 39 39 40 41 42

43

4.1 Energy statistics 43 4.1.1 Firewood 43 4.1.2 Wood 43 4.2 Emission factors 44 4.2.1 Combustion aerosols from power plants, Danish study 45 4.2.2 Eltra PSO 45 4.2.3 Emission factors for residential wood fired boilers, stoves and fireplaces 46 4.2.4 Emission factors for wood and straw, district heating plants and industrial boilers 50 4.2.5 Emission factors for wood and straw, power plants and CHP 52 4.2.6 Emission factors for coal, power plants 53 4.2.7 Emission factors for orimulsion, power plants 54 4.2.8 Emission factors for municipal waste, CHP plants 54 4.2.9 Emission factors for residual oil, industry 55 4.2.10 Other emission factors 56 4.3 Revised emission factors 56

5 Improved Danish emission inventory

58

6 Emission Projections

60

7 Conclusion

61

References

62

Appendix Appendix 1.1 Appendix 1.2 Appendix 1.3 Appendix 1.4 30

65 73 77 83

1

Introduction

At the beginning of 2002 the first Danish emission inventory of particulate matter (PM) was prepared. The emission inventory was part of the Danish emission inventories reported under the UN-ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). The inventory includes total suspended particles (TSP), PM10 and PM2.5 . In 2002 emission of PM was reported for the first time and the inventory of the year 2000 is considered to be a provisional version based on activity data and emission factors presently available. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has started a 4-year research project. The project will increase knowledge of particulate air pollution in Denmark. The primary objective of the work is to characterise the air pollution of particulate matter, including estimation of emission sources based on analyses of particulate size distribution and composition. To supplement and support the conclusions of this work The Danish Environmental Protection Agency wanted to get a more detailed emission inventory of PM emission from Danish sources. The basis of input data of the emission inventory will be improved and the method of calculation documented. This appendix includes improvements of emission inventories of stationary combustion plants. The project will contribute to improve the quality of the Danish emission inventories of particulate matter reported under the UN-ECE CLRTAP. This appendix deals only with emissions from stationary combustion plants and waste incineration. Method, results and primary sources of the provisional emission inventory of the year 2000 are discussed. Revised emission factors are determined and an improved emission inventory of the year 2000 is presented.

31

2

Method of emission inventory

The Danish emission inventory is based on the CORINAIR (CORe INventory on AIR emissions) system, which is a European program for air emission inventories. CORINAIR includes methodology structure and software for inventories. The inventory is based on activity rates from the Danish energy statistics and on emission factors for different fuels, plants and sectors. Large plants like e.g. power plants are registered individually as large source plant sources and emission data from the actual plant are used. Emission data from large point sources are often based on emission measurements. Only primary particulate matter emissions are included in the emission inventories. Secondary emissions formed in the atmosphere from oxidation and subsequent reactions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds are not considered.

2.1

Snap categories

All emissions are defined in snap categories (Selected Nomenclature for Air Pollution). 11 main categories are defined; categories that are further divided into a second and third level of snap. The 11 main sectors are: Table A1-1 Main snap categories 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11

Combustion in energy and transformation industry Non-industrial combustion plants Combustion in manufacturing industry Production processes Extraction and distribution of fossil fuels and geothermal energy Solvent and other product use Road transport Other mobile sources and machinery Waste treatment and disposal Agriculture and forestry, land use and wood stock change Nature

Stationary combustion plants are included in the main snap categories 01, 02 and 03: Energy and transformation industry, non-industrial combustion and combustion in the manufacturing industry. A detailed list of snap codes of combustion plants is shown in Table A1-2. Snap 01 includes power plants, district-heating plants, petroleum refining plants and oil/gas extraction. In Denmark all municipal waste incineration is utilised for heat and power production. Thus incineration of waste is included in snap 0101 or 0102. Snap 02 includes commercial and institutional plants, residential plants and plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture. Snap 03 includes industrial combustion in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines and industrial combustion in processes.

32

Table A1-2 snap categories of stationary combustion plants (snap 01-03) snap1 snap1 name snap2 snap2 name 01 COMBUSTION IN EN0101 Public power ERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

Petroleum refining plants

0104

Solid fuel transformation plants Coal mining, oil / gas extraction, pipeline compressors

0203

0301

0303

2.2

Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary gas turbines Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary gas turbines Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Other stationary equipment (n) Gray iron foundries Secondary lead production Cement (f) Container glass (f)

0103

NON-INDUSTRIAL COM- 0201 BUSTION PLANTS

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

010502 010504 010505 Commercial and institutional 0201 plants (t) 020103 020104 020105 Residential plants 0202 020202 020204 Plants in agriculture, forestry 0203 and aquaculture 020302 020303 020304 Comb. in boilers, gas turbines 0301 and stationary engines 030102 030103 030104 030105 030106 030303 Processes with contact 030307 030311 030315

District heating plants

0202

03

snap3_name Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines

0102

0105

02

snap3 0101 010101 010102 010103 010104 010105 010202 010203 010205 010303 010304 010405

Activity rates, fuel consumption

Fuel consumption rates also called activity rates are based on the official Danish energy statistics prepared by the Danish Energy Authority. The Danish Energy Authority aggregates fuel consumption rates to snap categories using the official energy statistics. Furthermore some fuels are aggregated to the fuel categories used in the inventories. Emissions from petroleum coke bought abroad and combusted in Danish residential plants (border trade of 251 TJ) are not included in the inventory. Fuel consumption of large point sources are also reported by the Danish Energy Authority based on a database including fuel consumption of all district heating and power producing plants. This database is updated each year. Fuel consumption of area sources is calculated as total fuel consumption minus fuel consumption of large point sources.

2.3

Emission factors

For each fuel and snap (sector and e.g. type of plant) a set of emission factors has been determined. The temporary emission factors of the year 2000 are shown in Appendix 1.1. Further references of the emission factors are given in this appendix. Note that some references are used for plants or fuels beyond their immediate application. For instance, due to lack of emission factors for agricul-

33

tural waste (straw) combusted in residential plants the emission factors used in the provisional inventory refer to district heating plants.

2.4

Large point sources

Large point sources like power plants, industrial plants and refineries are included as point sources in the Danish emission inventory. By registering the plants as point sources it is possible to use plant specific emission factors. It is often the case that only some of the emissions included in the inventory have been measured, but the rest can still be based on general emission factor for the fuel/snap. Each point source consists of one or more parts of e.g. a power plant with several units. In the year 2000 68 large point sources were included in the Danish emission inventory. The point sources were: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Power plants and CHP plants (combined heat and power plants) Municipal waste incineration plants A few large industrial plants Petroleum refining plants One international airport

Fuel consumption of large point sources included in snap categories 01-03 is 306 PJ corresponding to 57% of the overall fuel consumption rate of stationary combustion plants. Plant name of large point sources and corresponding PM emissions are shown in appendix 1.4 (only snap 01-03) together with the references of particulate emission data. Annual environmental reports of the plants often contain information of TSP emissions. Further some plant owners have informed about TSP emission on inquiry. In general emission data from annual environmental reports are based on emission measurements, but they can be calculated from general emission factors as well. TSP emission of the largest ten point sources is stated in annual environmental reports of the plants or stated by plant owners. The PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from the most important sources are not based on measurements but are calculated based on the TNO particulate size distribution (TNO CEPMEIP database, 2001).

2.5

Area sources

Fuel consumption not used on large point sources are included as sector specific area sources in the inventory. Plants like residential boilers, small district heating plants, small CHP plants and industrial plants are defined as area sources. Emission inventories of area sources are based on fuel consumption and emission factors given in appendix 1.1. In general fuel consumption of the snap categories is stated with good accuracy whereas the emission factors can be very uncertain.

34

3

Provisional emission inventory of particulate emissions

3.1

Total

The provisional Danish emission inventory of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 is shown in Table A1-3. These emission data were reported to UN-ECE in the beginning of 2002. According to the reporting guidelines emissions from international air traffic and international bunkers should not be included. snap categories 01-03 include stationary combustion plants. The emission source contributions are illustrated in Figure 1 – Figure 3. Only emission from stationary combustion plants, combustion in transport and automobile tyre and brake wear were included in the provisional inventory. As seen from the figures the particulate emission from transport is larger than from stationary combustion plants. The TSP and PM2.5 emission from stationary combustion plants contribute with 18% and 31% of the total Danish emissions. The emission inventory is shown on detailed snap level in appendix 1.2. In appendix 1.3 the emissions from combustion plants is further disaggregated to fuel level. Table A1-3 Emission inventory year 2000, main snap categories snap1

snap1 name

01 COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 02 NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS 03 COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY Stationary combustion plants 07 ROAD TRANSPORT 08 OTHER MOBILE SOURCES AND MACHINERY Transport 09 WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL Total

TSP Tonnes 1588 2330 1217 5135 18647 4357 23004 1 28140

PM10 Tonnes 1223 2245 801 4269 18647 4153 22800 1 27070

PM2.5 Tonnes 1009 2130 660 3798 4346 3959 8305 1 12104

An improved emission inventory has been prepared in this project. Changes of emission factors are discussed in chapter 4.2-4.3 and the improved emission inventory is presented in chapter 5. The data presented in chapter 3 are based on the provisional emission inventory reported to UNECE in 2002.

35

OTHER MOBILE SOURCES AND MACHINERY 15%

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 6%

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS 8% COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY 4%

ROAD TRANSPORT 67%

Figure A1-1 Emission of TSP, 2000

OTHER MOBILE SOURCES AND MACHINERY 15%

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 6%

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS 8% COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY 3%

ROAD TRANSPORT 69%

Figure A1-2 Emission of PM10 , 2000

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 6%

OTHER MOBILE SOURCES AND MACHINERY 33%

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS 18%

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY 5%

ROAD TRANSPORT 36%

Figure A1-3 Emission of PM2.5 , 2000

36

3.2

Stationary combustion plants

Emission inventory of PM from combustion plants is shown on a more detailed snap level in Table A1-4 and in Figure A1-4 – Figure A1-6. The primary sources of emission are discussed in the following chapters. The most important sources are: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Residential boilers and stoves (snap 0202) Public power plants (snap 0101) District heating plants (snap 0102) Manufacturing industry, combustion in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines (snap 0301)

Table A1-4 Emission inventory of combustion plants year 2000, snap -2 level snap1 snap1 name 01

02

03

Total

COMBUSTION IN EN- 0101 ERGY AND TRANS0102 FORMATION INDUS0103 TRY 0104 NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Public power

PM2.5 TSP PM10 Tonnes Tonnes Tonnes 910 859 705

District heating plants

676

361

301

Petroleum refining plants

0

0

0

Solid fuel transformation plants

snap2 snap2 name

0

0

0

0105

Coal mining, oil / gas extraction, pipeline compressors 3

3

3

0201

Commercial and institutional plants (t)

178

178

163

0202

Residential plants

2017

1933

1837

0203

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture

135

134

130

0301

Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

923

507

416

0303

Processes with contact

294

294

244

Stationary combustion plants

5135

4269

3798

37

Industrial comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines 18%

Processes with contact 6%

Public power 18%

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 3%

District heating plants 13%

Commercial and institutional plants (t) 3% Residential plants 39%

Figure A1-4 TSP emission of stationary combustion plants

Industrial comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines 18%

Processes with contact 7%

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 3%

Public power 20%

District heating plants 8%

Commercial and institutional plants (t) 4%

Residential plants 46%

Figure A1-5 PM10 emission of stationary combustion plants

Industrial comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines 18% Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 3%

Processes with contact 6%

Public power 19%

District heating plants 8%

Commercial and institutional plants (t) 4% Residential plants 49%

Figure A1-6 PM2.5 emission of stationary combustion plants

38

3.2.1 Residential plants, snap 0202 Residential plants, snap 0202, include stoves and boilers using various fuels. These plants are the predominant source of particulate emission from stationary combustion plants. Figure A1-7 shows fuel consumption of residential plants and Figure A1-8 shows the emission share of each fuel. It appears that combustion of wood is the primary emission source in spite of the limited consumption of this fuel. Emission of PM2.5 from wood burning residential plants makes up a total of 42% of emission from all stationary combustion plants in Denmark, however the accuracy of emission factors for residential wood combustion is low. LPG 1%

WOOD AND SIMIL. 16%

AGRICUL. WASTES 5%

NATURAL GAS 38%

RESIDUAL OIL 0%

KEROSENE 0%

GAS OIL 40%

Figure A1-7 Fuel consumption of residential plants

GAS OIL 8% AGRICUL. WASTES 3%

NATURAL GAS STEAM COAL 0% 0% PETROLEUM COKE 0%

WOOD AND SIMIL. 89%

Figure A1-8 PM2.5 emission from residential plants

3.2.2 Power plants and CHP plants, snap 0101 Emission of PM2.5 from large power plants (>50MW) account for approximately 90% of the total emission from power plants and CHP plants (Figure A1-9). Measurements of TSP emission are usually available from power plants. In the inventories PM10 and PM2.5 emissions are generally based on particulate size distribution of the fuel/snap stated by TNO.

39

Data from annual environmental reports of the power plants account for 86% of the TSP emissions from power plants/CHP plants. Thus emission of TSP is relatively well documented. The emission of PM10 and PM2.5 is less accurate and improvements should focus on particulate size distribution.

Gas turbines 1%

Stationary engines 1%

Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) 9%

Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) 15%

Combustion plants >= 300 MW (boilers) 74%

Figure A1-9 PM2.5 emission from power plants and CHP plants snap 0101

In the annual environmental reports TSP emission is given as total for several fuels. Thus disaggregation of emission to fuel level have not been possible. The fuel consumption of power plants >50MW is shown in Figure A1-10. It appears that the coal share is 65%. The work was therefore focused on combustion of coal and orimulsion (other liquid fuel in Figure A1-10). PM emissions from natural gas combustion are low.

NATURAL GAS 10%

BIOGAS 0%

OTHER LIQ. FUEL 14% GAS OIL 0% RESIDUAL OIL 2% AGRICUL. WASTES 1% MUNICIP. WASTES 8%

STEAM COAL 65%

WOOD AND SIMIL. 0%

Figure A1-10 Fuel consumption of power plants > 50MW (snap 010101 and 010102)

3.2.3 Combustion in the manufacturing industry, snap 0301 Fuel consumptions of industrial boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines are shown in Figure A1-11 and in Figure A1-12 the emission share of each fuel is shown. As seen from Figure A1-12 wood and residual oil are the primary emission sources. 40

BIOGAS 0%

STEAM COAL 9%

PETROLEUM COKE 0% WOOD AND SIMIL. 10%

RESIDUAL OIL 16% NATURAL GAS 61% GAS OIL 4% KEROSENE 0%

Figure A1-11 Fuel consumption in industrial boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

NATURAL GAS 1% GAS OIL 3%

STEAM COAL 4%

PETROLEUM COKE 0%

RESIDUAL OIL 29%

WOOD AND SIMIL. 63%

Figure A1-12 PM2.5 emission from industrial boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

3.2.4 District heating plants, snap 0102 More than 95% of the PM2.5 emission from district heating plants was registered as area sources and was disaggregated to fuel level as shown in Figure A1-14. The primary emission sources were combustion of wood and straw (agricultural wastes in Figure A1-14).

41

BIOGAS STEAM COAL 0% 0% NATURAL GAS 16%

GAS OIL 6%

WOOD AND SIMIL. 38%

RESIDUAL OIL 7%

AGRICUL. WASTES 33%

Figure A1-13 Fuel consumption in district heating plants (only area sources included)

RESIDUAL OIL 1%

GAS OIL 1%

NATURAL GAS 0%

AGRICUL. WASTES 24%

WOOD AND SIMIL. 74%

Figure A1-14 PM2.5 emission from district heating plants disaggregated to fuel level (only area sources included)

3.2.5 Large point sources The particulate emission from large point sources of stationary combustion is shown in appendix 1.4. The main sources are Aalborg Portland and Lynetten (sewage works). The emission from municipal waste incineration plants is remarkably low. PM emissions from the Danish Steel Works (Stålvalseværket) and the oil refineries were not included in the provisional inventory.

42

4

Data, references and improvements of inventory

Below data and references are evaluated for primary sources of PM emission. The data consists of energy statistics and emission factors. Emission measurements carried out on Danish plants are presented and compared to general emission factors. Furthermore a literature survey of the primary emission sources has been carried out focusing on TNO references and data from Scandinavian countries.

4.1

Energy statistics

The emission inventories are based on the official Danish energy statistics prepared by the Danish Energy Authority. 4.1.1 Firewood The provisional inventory showed that combustion of firewood in stoves, fireplaces and residential boilers is a predominant emission source. Thus the accuracy of activity rate from the energy statistics has been considered. Firewood that has not been traded (private woodcutting) is considered to account for a considerable part of the total consumption of firewood. It is important that this part of the consumption is included in the energy statistics. The Danish Energy Authority has stated that the consumption of firewood is calculated as described in the note Firewood Statistics written by dk-Teknik and Danish Energy Authority (Nielsen, & Evald, 2000). The method includes a qualified estimate of the share of the total consumption that is not traded. Each year Statistics Denmark publishes data concerning traded firewood. The total consumption is estimated to be three times this consumption. The factor 3 is determined from three independent questionnaires where the origin of firewood used in residential plants was examined. The data on consumption of firewood in residential plants from the energy statistics is thus uncertain but still it is the best estimate at present. From the note Firewood Statistics: ♦ Firewood production in forestry is determined based on annual national agricultural statistics covering all forests above 50 hectares and a representative number of smaller forests ♦ Firewood consumption is calculated to be 3.0 times higher, based on an estimate that 1/3 of all consumers get their firewood from forestry and 2/3 from other sources The factor 3.0 is best estimate based on three telephone surveys covering consumer habits in the use of firewood. 3 ♦ Using average figures for heating value per m of wood for deciduous and conifer respectively and assuming, that firewood is used after natural drying to an average of 20% moisture, con3 sumption in m is calculated in TJ. ♦ All firewood is assumed used in private homes for heating purposes. Any minor use in other consumption categories is neglected. 4.1.2 Wood The Danish energy statistics distinguish between firewood, wood waste, wood pellets and wood chips. In the inventories these fuels are aggregated and marked wood. If the emission factors differ considerably depending on wood category it might be desirable to disaggregate wood consumption in future inventories.

43

Figure A1-15 and Figure A1-16 show wood consumption and the consumption of each plant category, respectively. Breakdown of fuel consumption will only be relevant for district heating plants and CHP plants where consumption of several types of wood fuels are substantial.

12000

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0

Firewood

Wood chips 3047

Total

Wood waste

Wood pellets 3473

10743

6816

Figure A1-15 Fuel consumption [TJ] of wood chips, firewood, wood pellets and wood waste

14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Cogeneration

District heating

Public service

Residential

Industry

Agriculture Forestry Aquaculture

wood waste

435

325

4

0

5850

203

wood pellets

59

1875

426

1112

0

0

fire wood

0

0

0

10743

0

0

649

2144

146

81

0

27

wood chips

Figure A1-16 Fuel consumption [TJ] of wood chips, firewood, wood pellets and wood waste, different sectors and plants

4.2

Emission factors

The following two Danish research programmes can contribute to increase the quality of PM emission factors: ♦ Danish study of combustion aerosols from power plants (Livbjerg et al, 2001). ♦ Eltra PSO project (ongoing project, not yet reported) (Nielsen & Illerup, 2003)

44

In addition to the Danish research programmes further literature studies have been carried out. The literature studies focused on the sources that turned out to be the main emission sources in the provisional emission inventory. The sectors and fuels to be further discussed are: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Wood, residential stoves and boilers Wood and straw, district heating plants and industrial plants Wood and straw, power plants and CHP plants Coal, power plants Orimulsion, power plants Municipal waste, CHP plants Residual oil, industry

The temporary emission factors refer partly to Danish emission legislation and emission measurements from Danish plants. Where data from Danish plants were not directly available emission factors from TNO were used instead. 4.2.1 Combustion aerosols from power plants, Danish study The Danish study Feltstudier af Forbrændingsaerosoler by Livbjerg et al. (2001) included extensive measurements of particulate emissions from four Danish power plants: ♦ Enstedværket, fuelled with straw and wood chips, 40 MWe , electrofilter (overdimensioned) ♦ Avedøreværket, fuelled with coal dust, 250 MWe , electrofilter and desulphurization ♦ Asnæsværket, fuelled with orimulsion, 640 MWe , electrofilter (overdimensioned) and desulphurization ♦ Nordjyllandsværket, fuelled with coal dust, 380 MWe , electrofilter and desulphurization The project report Livbjerg et al. (2001) states emission of TSP, PM13 and PM2.5 (besides PM1). Below PM13 emission data are compared to emission factors of PM10. Table A1-5 shows the results of the emission measurements. Revised emission factors for power plants are partly based on these measurements (see chapter 4.2.5-4.2.7) and all four emission factors are changed in the improved inventory. The modifications of orimulsion and coal emission factors are rather small, whereas the estimate of the emission factors for straw and wood are reduced considerably. Table A1-5 Particulate emission from four Danish power plants Plant name Enstedværket (straw and wood chips) Asnæsværket (orimulsion) Avedøreværket (coal dust) Nordjyllandsværket (coal dust)

TSP [g/GJ] 1,93 1,3-2,5 2,5-3,0 2,6-5,0

1)

PM10 [g/GJ]

1,4-2,4 2,2-2,8 2,5-3,1

PM2.5 [g/GJ] 0,32 1,3-2,1 1,9-2,3 1,8-2,7

1)

PM10 fraction 77-109% 81-92% 64-90%

PM2.5 fraction 17% 71-94% 66-78% 48-66%

Emission factors of provisional inventory: 2) 19 Straw 19 1 100% 5% 2) Wood 18 18 18 100% 100% 2) Orimulsion 3 3 2,5 100% 83% 2) Coal dust 6 6 5 100% 83% 1. Project data are PM13 2. In the emission inventory TSP is taken from annual environmental reports of the plants. PM10 and PM2.5 are calculates from the PM10 and PM2.5 fraction of TSP. The general emission factors are included to compare the values.

4.2.2 Eltra PSO A project funded by the electricity transmission system operator of western Denmark, Eltra, aims at improving emission factors for CHP plants <25 MWe (Nielsen & Illerup, 2003). Emission factors are calculated from existing emission measurements and additional measurements performed 45

within the project. The work includes municipal waste CHP plants, biomass fuelled CHP plants, gas turbines and reciprocating gas engines. The results of the project have not been reported yet but some temporary results are shown in Table A1-6. Emission factors of the four plant types will be recalculated when the project has been finally reported. Until then the data from Table A1-6 are used as basis for the revised emission factors. Table A1-6 Eltra PSO emission factors Plant

TSP [g/GJ] Municipal waste CHP plant Electrofilter: 7-14 Filter bag: <7 1) : 8-33 Biomass CHP plant, straw Electrofilter: 5-10 Filter bag: <5 1) : 39 Biomass CHP plant, wood chips Electrofilter: 5-10 Filter bag: <5 1) : 39 DMU emission factors provisional inventory: Municipal waste 6 Straw 19-21 Wood chips 18-143 1. Measurements that are not within general emission level

PM10 [g/GJ]

PM2.5 [g/GJ]

PM10 fraction

PM2.5 fraction

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5 19-21 18-70

4 1-21 18-55

83% 100% 49-100%

67% 5-100% 38-100%

4.2.3 Emission factors for residential wood fired boilers, stoves and fireplaces Combustion of wood in the domestic sector is an important source of PM emission. It is well known that the emission inventories are quite uncertain because it is difficult to estimate standard emission factors from measurements as the emissions from stoves and domestic boilers very much depend on the combustion conditions and technologies. There are about 300.000 stoves in Denmark and 70.000 small-scale boilers using wood (Serup et al., 1999). Furthermore there are some open fireplaces. Other types like baking ovens can be neglected in Denmark. No statistical survey on the types of stoves used in Denmark is available but almost all stoves are either conventional or non-catalytic stoves (Bjerrum, M., 2002). As seen from Figure A1-16 the dominant wood type used in the domestic sector is firewood. About 10% of the wood are pellets mostly used in small boilers with automatic fuel feeding systems. As mentioned the emission factors of PM from domestic wood fired stoves and boilers are inaccurate. Emission factors of various references and the basis of the factors are presented below. Scandinavia Table A1-7 shows the emission factors for wood stoves and boilers used in the official emission inventory reports of Denmark, Finland and Norway (Sternhufvud et al., to be published in 2003). Denmark As seen from Table A1-7 the TNO emission factors are used for both stoves and boilers in the Danish PM emission inventory 2000 (TNO CEPMEIP database, 2001). TNO recommends emissions factors in the interval 150 to 300 g/GJ. In the calculation of the PM emission from Denmark TNO use the emission factor 150 g/GJ for combustion of wood whether it is combusted in e.g. an institutional boiler or a residential stove. The emission factor 300 g/GJ is only used for countries where the general emission level is expected to be high. TNO has determined the emission factors from a literature survey discussed later. The only measurements carried out in Denmark are measurements in laboratory when stoves are approved. These laboratory emission measurements have been carried out since 1995. The measurements were carried out with a wood consumption rate of 1,6 kg/hour and the emission factor was estimated to be 30 g/GJ. At present no emission measurements are being planned in 46

Denmark but emission measurements in residential areas with many stoves are to be carried out by the end of 2002. Finland There are about 1.000.000 small-scale wood burning devices in Finland. The fuel used is predominantly firewood (logs). The amount of pellets used in the domestic sector is increasing. In the official emission report for 2000 an emission factor for TSP of 400 g/GJ is used based on a literature survey. Some types of small boilers and stoves were measured in the early 1980s by Hahkala et al. (1986). The emissions were highly variable and there were lots of technical measuring problems, especially with condensable PM. The emission factors were estimated to be in the range of 100 g/GJ to 1300 g/GJ. The most important types of stoves in Finland are: Masonry heaters (stoves, made of stones/bricks, that accumulates the produced heat, batch fed, used often as a supplementary heating device), pellet heating stoves, stoves for saunas, masonry ovens (used for baking, mainly in the countryside), kitchen and iron stoves (used for cooking and heating purpose in small recreational buildings), open fireplaces (used primarily for aesthetic effects). A new 3-year project Fine particle emissions from wood combustion started early 2002. Several types of small combustion devices will be investigated in the project. The results will be available during 2003 or 2004. Norway About 57% of Norwegian households have stoves installed. The 89% of the stoves are conventional stoves, 7% are either catalytic stoves or stoves with other emission reduction technology and 4% are open fireplaces. The dominant wood type used in the domestic sector is firewood. However, a survey based on a questionnaire have shown that also other types of fuels than wood is used, for instance newspapers, cardboard, and milk cartons (Haakonsen and Kvingedal, 2001). These fuel types are not included in the Norwegian inventory (Haakonsen and Kvingedal, 2001). Norwegian measurements have shown that emissions of particles strongly depend on the wood load (kg wood/hour). Figure A1-17 shows the emission of PM for various combustion technologies as a function of average wood consumption. It is seen that the PM emission increases dramatically when the consumption rate of wood decreases. It is also seen that the emissions are significantly lower for laboratory and catalytic stoves. Investigations show that a typical load in Norway is 1,0 to 1,25 kg wood/hour resulting in a PM emission of about 40 g/kg wood for conventional stoves (from before 1998) or 2105 g/GJ (assuming a lower heating value of 19 GJ/tonnes of dry wood). The recommended emission factors for open fireplaces and new stoves are 911 g/GJ and 326 g/GJ, respectively. The average PM10 emission factor is 1932 g/GJ. Since the emission factor strongly depends on the wood consumption Haakonsen and Kvingedal (2001) recommend that further investigation should be carried out in order to determine the typical wood consumption rate for residential stoves. It is stressed that the emissions factor is quite uncertain.

47

Figure A1-17 PM emission of 6 wood fired stoves. Dependency of wood consumption rate. A: Catalytic stove, B-D: old stoves, E: Open fireplace (Haakonsen and Kvingedal, 2001).

TNO In 2001 TNO prepared the emission inventories of 1995 for the whole UN-ECE/EMEP region. As part of this work an extensive literature survey was carried out to determine emission factors for different sectors and plants. Emission factors were stated for each fuel and snap and for four levels of technologies. Which emission factors should be used depend on the level of plant regulation and flue gas cleaning. In the TNO inventory for Denmark the lowest emission factor is always used and the provisional Danish inventory is therefore based on the lowest emission factor of TNO as well. The TNO emission factors for non-industrial wood combustion are 150-300 g/GJ and the emission factor of 150 g/GJ is used for institutional boilers as well as for residential stoves. References of TNO emission factors for wood are shown in Table A1-8. As it appears from the table emission factors of the TNO references differ very much. Most TNO references are literature surveys themselves. Other emission factors Other references of residential wood combustion are shown in Table A1-9. Spitzer et al. (1998) describes an extensive emission measurement work carried out in 1997-98 in Austria. Measurements were carried out on a total of 180 coal and wood fired plants. The random sampling of residential wood combustion (stoves, boilers, fireplaces and tiled stoves) counted 28 plants. Measurements were carried out during a full cycle starting with firing and ending when the fire burning out resulting in tests of 2-4 hours. Emission measurements of particles were carried out as ongoing ½ hour tests. The plant owners themselves lit the fire and they were asked to do this in the same way they always did. The plant owners informed about the yearly firewood consumption of their residential plants. Emission factors for residential wood burning stoves, fireplaces, boilers etc was estimated to be 148 g/GJ (80-217 g/GJ). The number of measurements was insufficient to calculate separate emission factors for stoves, fireplaces etc.

48

Emission factor outline Table A1-7 Emission factor for residential wood combustion, Scandinavian inventories Reference

Denmark Finland Norway

Comment TSP g/GJ 150 400 1932 2105 326 911

1) 2) 3)

Emission factor PM10 g/GJ 143 400 1932 2105 326 911

PM2.5 g/GJ 135 384 -

, 4) Average Traditional stoves New stoves (catalytic or other emission reduction) Fireplaces 1. TNO, http://www.air.sk/tno/cepmeip/ 2. Statistics Finland (roughly estimated the emission factor based on literature) 3. The PM10 /TSP and PM2.5/TSP fractions are taken from Karvosenoja (2000). Primary particulate emissions from stationary combustion processes in Finland.

4. Haakonsen and Kvingedal, 2001. Table A1-8 Emission factor for residential wood combustion, TNO references Reference

Comment

TNO CEPMEIP database Karvosenoja

1)

2)

Non-industrial plants (snap 02) Literature survey. TNO states Kitchen stoves, open hearths, iron stoves Baking ovens, accumulation stoves, stoves for sauna Modern accumulating stoves, heating boilers Modern heating boilers

Emission factor TSP g/GJ 150-300

PM10 g/GJ 143-285

PM2.5 g/GJ 135-270

1250

-

1200

1000

1000

960

300

300

288

100 30 500

100 30 175

96 29 105

200

90% -

-

200

-

-

200 1330 1176

100% 100% ~250 ~156 ~563 148 100%

100% 90% 148 96%

4)

CITEPA 5) Dreiseidler

Literature survey. Residential, UBA 1998 Firewood, UBA 1989 Firewood/wood waste, UBA 1998 Firewood/wood waste, STALA 1996 Open fireplace, EPA 1998 Stove, EPA 1998 Stove, Rau 1989 6) WESP 3) Spitzer 7) REMUS 1. Emission factors based on literature survey by Karvosenoja (2000). 2. TNO CEPMEIP database, 2001. 3. Spitzer et al., 1998. 4. CITEPA, 2000. 5. Dreiseidler et al., 1999. 6. WESP, Dutch Emission Registration, 1999. 7. Remus, 2000.

333 208 750 90 148 -

49

Table A1-9 Emission factor for residential wood combustion, Other references Reference

Comment

Emission factor PM10 g/GJ

TSP g/GJ Certified boilers

Boilers

1)

Danish Technological Institute, Laboratory tests Danish Technological Institute, Laboratory tests 4) Spitzer

Stoves

2)

Boilers

3)

Johansson 5) Gaegauf

6)

Measurements of 28 units Residential Stoves Stove, firewood Accumulating oven, wood Boiler, firewood Boiler, wood pellets Stove, wood pellets Boiler, dry wood chips Boiler, wet wood chips Boiler, wood chips

PM2.5 g/GJ

143 30

-

-

15

-

-

148 (80-217) 70 167 28 20 54 94 48 64

-

95 (7-190) -

3

1. TSP 300 mg/mn 2. Danish Technological Institute has data of TSP emission from laboratory test of stoves. Stoves are tested for certification. Emissions from stoves are 19,2-48,9 g/GJ, average of approximately 30 g/GJ (Lars German, 2002). 3. Danish Technological Institute has data of TSP emission from laboratory test of boilers. Emission of TSP from boilers 3 of 10-30 kW (most residential wood fired boilers) is approximately 35 mg/mn at 10% O2 (Lars German, 2002) 4. Spitzer et al, 1998 5. Gaegauf et al., 2002. 6. Johansson et al., 2001

Emission factors for residential wood combustion have not been changed so far. The emission factors are: TSP 150 g/GJ, PM10 143 g/GJ and PM2.5 135 g/GJ. The emission factors from TNO are confirmed among others by Spitzer et al. (1998) that includes a considerable number of field tests. However several other references indicate that the Danish emission factor is in the lower end of the interval. For instance the Norwegian emission factor is more than 10 times the Danish factor. In the revised emission inventory emission of wood fuelled residential stoves and boilers counts for 40% of the emission from stationary combustion plants. This corresponds to 13% of the total Danish emission of PM2.5. Further study of the emission factor for wood fired residential plants is important to improve the quality of the total PM emission inventory for Denmark. Further work including field test emission measurements and surveys of fuelling habits and plant types will contribute to increase quality. Increased knowledge of particle size distribution is also desirable. 4.2.4 Emission factors for wood and straw, district heating plants and industrial boilers Combustion of wood and straw has turned out to be the primary sources of emission from district heating plants (with no power production). Several types of wood are combusted in district heating plants: wood chips, wood pellets and a negligible part of wood waste. The same PM emission factors were used for wood combusted in district heating plants and industrial boilers. Likewise the same emission factors were used for straw combusted in district heating plants and industrial boilers. This practice will be used in future inventories as well. Emission factors refer to PM emission measurements on district heating plants. Wood chips Wood chips are combusted in boilers of 1-10 MW with an average of 3,5 MW (Serup et al., 1999). On most plants flue gas cleaning consists of multicyclon that reduces TSP emission to approximately 200 mg/mn3 (app. 100 g/GJ). Most plants are further equipped with a flue gas-condensing 50

unit, which further reduce the TSP emission to 10-50 g/GJ. Emission data from wood chip fired CHP plants are not comparable with district heating plants (with no power production) because unlike district heating plants CHP plants are usually equipped with filter bags. Various references on emission factors from district heating plants are shown in Table A1-10. All district heating plants using wood chips are >1 MW. The legislation emission value of plants larger than 1 MW is thus a reasonable emission factor of TSP. This emission factor is in accordance with two Danish reports Serup et al. (1999) and Miljøstyrelsen (1997). Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 are determined from particulate size distribution stated by TNO. Table A1-10 Emission factors for wood chips, district heating plants Reference

Comment TSP g/GJ

DMU provisional inventory DMU provisional inventory DMU new factor Legislation: 5) Luftvejledningen Legislation: 5) Luftvejledningen Legislation: 5) Luftvejledningen Legislation: Bekendtgørelse om store 6) fyringsanlæg 4) Træ til energiformål

District heating plant <50MW District heating plant >50MW All plant sizes 120kW-1MW

PM2.5 g/GJ 55 18 10 -

1MW-50MW

19

-

-

1MW-50MW Flue gas condensing > 50MW

48

-

-

18

-

-

143 (95-191)

-

-

24 (9-43) 10-30

-

-

Wood chips, multicyclon

1)

2)

Fyring med biomasserest7) produkter

Emission factor PM10 g/GJ 143 70 18 18 19 13 143 -

Wood chips, flue gas condensing Wood chips, multicyclon and flue gas 3) condensing

Wood chips, multicyclon without flue gas 80-160 condensing Eltra PSO CHP, electrofilter 5-10 CHP, filter bag <5 TNO Public power 100 70 55 3 1. Converted from 300 mg/ mn . at 10% O2 3 2. Converted from 50 mg/ mn . at 10% O2 3. District heating plants with multicyclon and flue gas condensing. Interval of 8 plants. Videncenter for Halm og Flisfyring 1994. 4. Serup et al., 1999 5. Miljøstyrelsen, 2001. 6. Miljøministeriet, 1990. 7. Miljøstyrelsen, 1997.

Wood pellets Emission factors for district heating plants using wood pellets are shown in Table A1-11. There are approximately 40 district heating plants using wood pellets in Denmark. The average plant size is 6 MW and only 6 plants are less than 1 MW. No emission measurements seem to be reported from wood pellet fired district heating plants and it is therefore reasonable to use the legislation emission factor of TSP for plants >1MW.

51

Table A1-11 Emission factors for wood pellets, district heating plants Reference

Comment TSP g/GJ

DMU provisional inventory DMU provisional inventory DMU new factor Legislation: 1) Luftvejledningen Legislation: 1) Luftvejledningen Legislation: 1) Luftvejledningen Legislation: Bekendtgørelse om store 2) fyringsanlæg TNO 1. Miljøstyrelsen, 2001.

District heating plant <50MW District heating plant >50MW All plant sizes 120kW-1MW

Emission factor PM10 g/GJ 143 70 18 18 19 13 143 -

PM2.5 g/GJ 55 18 10 -

1MW-50MW

19

-

-

1MW-50MW Flue gas condensing > 50MW

48

-

-

18

-

-

100

70

55

Public power

2. Miljøministeriet, 1990.

Straw In Denmark 58 district heating plants combust straw. The plant size is 0,6-9 MW (Nikolaisen et al., 1998). Different flue gas cleaning systems are used on the plants, but most common is a multicyclon followed by a filter bag (Nikolaisen et al., 1998). Flue gas cleaning is necessary to meet legislation in Luftvejledningen for plants >1 MW. Only 3 plants have a heat capacity of less than 1MW. Emission factors for straw fired district- heating plants are shown in Table A1-12 and a TSP emission factor of 21-40 g/GJ seems reasonable. The TSP emission factor 21 g/GJ is chosen because the reported emission measurements from Danish plants are rather old and the plants are assumed to meet current legislation. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 are calculated from particulate size distribution of wood combustion on power plants stated by TNO. This particle size distribution is not documented for straw combustion. Table A1-12 Emission factors for straw, district heating plants Reference

Comment TSP g/GJ 19-21 21 21

DMU provisional inventory DMU new factor Legislation: Plants >1MW 3) Luftvejledningen Legislation: Plants > 50MW 19 Bekendtgørelse om store 4) fyringsanlæg 2) 1) Halm til energiformål Plants with filter bag 40 (3-100) 1. Emission measurements on several Danish district heating plants 1987-1993 2. Nikolaisen et al., 1998 3: Miljøstyrelsen, 2001. 4. Miljøministeriet, 1990.

Emission factor PM10 g/GJ 19-21 15 -

PM2.5 g/GJ 19-21 12 -

-

-

-

-

4.2.5 Emission factors for wood and straw, power plants and CHP Power plants combusting straw and wood (chips) are all equipped with electrofilters or filter bags (Serup et al., 1999 and Nikolaisen et al., 1998). Different emission factors for straw and wood combustion on power plants are shown in Table A1-13. It appears that the temporary emission factors are too high. Based on annual environmental reports of four Danish plants a TSP emission factor of 4-13 g/GJ is calculated. The electrofilter of the plant Enstedværket is over-dimensioned, thus the particle size distribution of this plant could differ from other biomass power plants. 52

So far a TSP emission factor of 8 g/GJ will be used for all power plants and CHP plants without regard to plant size. The Eltra PSO project will increase the knowledge of emissions from CHP plants and of particle size fractions. Until the results of this work are available particle size distribution is assumed to follow the TNO distribution of wood used in power plants: PM10 70% of TSP and PM2.5 55% of TSP. Table A1-13 Emission factors for wood and straw, power plants and CHP Reference

Comment TSP g/GJ

DMU provisional inventory

DMU new factor Legislation: 3) Luftvejledningen Legislation: 3) Luftvejledningen Legislation: 3) Luftvejledningen Legislation: 3) Luftvejledningen Legislation: Bekendtgørelse om store 4) fyringsanlæg Legislation: Bekendtgørelse om store 4) fyringsanlæg Feltstudier af forbrændings2) aerosoler 6) Eltra PSO

Eltra PSO

6)

Power plants 50-300MW, wood Power plants <50MW, wood Power plants 50-300MW, straw Power plants <50MW, straw All power plants, wood and straw Wood, 120kW-1MW

PM2.5 g/GJ 18 55 1 21 4 -

Wood, 1MW-50MW

19

-

-

Straw, 1MW-50MW

21

-

-

Wood, 1MW-50MW Flue gas condensing Wood

48

-

-

18

-

-

Straw

19

-

-

1,93

-

Electrofilter: 5-10 Filter bag: <5 Electrofilter: 5-10 Filter bag: <5 1) : 39 9,7 100

-

0,32 17% -

-

-

8,2 70

4,0 55

Enstedværket Straw and wood, power plant Straw, CHP

Wood chips, CHP

5)

Emission factor PM10 g/GJ 18 18 143 70 19 19 21 21 8 6 143 -

Karvosenoja Wood, power plants 7) TNO Wood, public power 1. Measurements that are not within general emission level 2. Livbjerg et al., 2001 3. Miljøstyrelsen, 2001. 4. Miljøministeriet, 1990. 5. Karvosenoja, 2000. 6. Jacobsen, 2002. 7. TNO CEPMEIP database, 2001

4.2.6 Emission factors for coal, power plants The emission factors for power plants combusting coal are shown in Table A1-14. The emission measurements on Danish plants are somewhat lower than the TNO emission factors of efficient flue gas cleaning. Based on TSP emissions from eight Danish power plants an emission factor of 2,8 g/GJ was calculated. This supports the emission factors measured on two Danish plants. TNO refers to numerous sources but for power plants, high abatement and hard coal the 55 data set all refer to Dreiseidler et al. (1999). A new TSP emission factor of 3 g/GJ was determined based primarily on measurements on Danish plants and annual environmental reports of Danish plants. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 were 53

determined from particle size distribution from the emission measurements on Danish plants (Table A1-14). Thus emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 are 2,6 g/GJ and 2,1 g/GJ respectively. Table A1-14 Emission factors for coal, power plants Reference

Comment TSP g/GJ

DMU provisional inventory DMU new factor Feltstudier af forbrænding3) saerosoler 4) TNO CEPMEIP database

6)

Dreiseidler 2) 4) referred by TNO 1) 5) Karvosenoja

Avedøreværket Nordjyllandsværket low medium medium high high high abatement Power plant with electrofilter

6 3,0 2,5-3,0 2,6-5,0 6 35 140 510 1,3-15 average: 6 33,7

Emission factor PM10 g/GJ 6 2,6 2,2-2,8 2,5-3,1 6 25 70 180 0,9-10 average: 4,4 31,5

PM2.5 g/GJ 5 2,1 1,9-2,3 1,8-2,7 5 12 17 40 0,4-5,3 average: 2,3 10,8

Power plant with electrofilter and desulphurization/filter 10 8,9 2,7 bag 1. Calculation based on emission level without flue gas cleaning and assumed flue gas cleaning efficiency of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 6) 2. 56 data set from Dreiseidler as referred by TNO 3. Livbjerg et al., 2001 4. TNO CEPMEIP database, 2001 5. Karvosenoja, 2000. 6. Dreiseidler et al., 1999.

4.2.7 Emission factors for orimulsion, power plants Combustion of orimulsion only takes place at Asnæsværket, unit 5. The emission factor used in the provisional inventory is the residual oil emission factor. Emission measurements from Asnæsværket unit 5 are shown in Table A1-15 and the emission factors will be changed using the emission measurement results instead. PM10 and PM2.5 fractions are 93% and 83% respectively. Table A1-15 Emission factors for orimulsion, power plants Reference

Comment TSP g/GJ

DMU provisional inventory DMU new factor 1) Feltstudier af forbrændingsaerosoler TNO 1. Livbjerg et al., 2001

Asnæsværket Data of residual oil

3 1,9 1,3-2,5 3

Emission factor PM10 g/GJ 3 1,8 1,4-2,4 3

PM2.5 g/GJ 2,5 1,6 1,3-2,1 2,5

4.2.8 Emission factors for municipal waste, CHP plants Municipal waste incineration plants are equipped with efficient flue gas cleaning and are thus a limited emission source of PM. The temporary emission factors are similar to the emission factors from the Eltra PSO project reported so far. In the year 2000 65% of municipal waste was incinerated on plants with filter bag flue gas cleaning. Based on the Eltra PSO temporary results a TSP emission factor of 6 g/GJ seems reasonable. The temporary emission factor of TSP from municipal waste incineration was based on a calculation of average emission from a large number of Danish plants. The particle size distribution was unknown but the PM10 and PM2.5 fractions were assumed to be 85% and 70% of TSP. The Eltra PSO project will give a better knowledge of particle size distribution.

54

Table A1-16 Emission factors for municipal waste incineration, CHP plants Reference

Comment TSP g/GJ

DMU provisional inventory DMU new factor Eltra PSO

Electrofilter: 5-10 Filter bag: <5 1) : 6-41 1. Emission measurements that differ from the general level

Emission factor PM10 g/GJ 6 5 6 5 -

PM2.5 g/GJ 4 4 -

4.2.9 Emission factors for residual oil, industry The emission factors for the industrial combustion of residual oil are shown in Table A1-17. TNO refers to a large number of sources concerning emissions from residual oil combustion. In the Danish inventory the plant size of industrial combustion of residual oil is often unknown. The temporary emission factor for plants <50MW refer to the legislation, however, compared to the TNO data this emission factor is high and the emission factor will therefore be changed to 14 g/GJ independent of plant size. PM10 and PM2.5 emission factors are also changed and the particle size distribution will be based on TNO data. The same particle size distribution will also be used for non-industrial plants. Table A1-17 Emission factors for residual oil, industry Reference

Comment TSP g/GJ

Emission factor PM10 g/GJ 14 14 14 12 47 40

PM2.5 g/GJ 14 10 10

DMU provisional inventory

Plant size unknown Boilers >50MW Boilers <50MW

DMU new factor 2) TNO CEPMEIP database

All boilers low medium medium high high Boilers 2-50MW

14 20 60 60 240 47

10,5 15 50 50 190 -

7 10 40 40 130 -

Boilers > 50MW

14

-

-

Boilers, Lützke 1987 Boilers, UBA 1989 Boilers <1MW, Stala 1996 Boilers, EPA 1998 Boilers multicyclon, EPA 1998 Boilers, UBA 1989 Boilers, EPA 1998 Boilers, UBA 1998

3,3 30 34,1 238 48 1,5 4,7

92%

76%

86% 95%

56% 22%

50% 90%

12%

1)

24 16,5 2,9 12,3

15,8 2,2 11,8

12,3 1,7 9

Legislation: 3) Luftvejledningen Legislation: 4) Bekendtgørelse om store fyringsanlæg 7) Dreiseidler

9)

BUWAL 8) REMUS 6) CITEPA 5) Karvosenoja 1. Data referred by TNO 2. TNO CEPMEIP database, 2001 3. Miljøstyrelsen, 2001 4. Miljøministeriet, 1990 5. Karvosenoja, 2000. 6. CITEPA, 2000. 7. Dreiseidler et al., 1999. 8. Remus, 2000. 9. BUWAL, 1995.

1) 1)

Boilers >300MW Industrial plants, cyclone

55

4.2.10 Other emission factors Though the Eltra PSO project results are not reported yet it is evident that the emission factor for natural gas fuelled engines is to low, due to lube oil emission. The emission from this source will be included in the emission factor for natural gas used on gas engines when the results from the Eltra PSO project is available but until then the emission factor is not changed. The TSP emission factor for combustion of coal in the industry refers to legislation whereas the emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 refer to TNO. The particle size distribution indicated by the temporary emission factors is however misleading and instead emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 are calculated from particle size distribution stated by TNO. The revised emission factors are: TSP 17 g/GJ, PM10 12 g/GJ and PM2.5 7 g/GJ. The same emission factors will be used for non-industrial plants (snap 02). The TSP emission factor for residual oil combusted in power plants and district heating plants also refers to legislation. The emission factors are considerably higher than the TNO emission factors and are also high compared with emission factors for coal combusted on the same plants using the same flue gas cleaning. Thus the TSP emission factor is changed to follow the TNO emission factor of 3 g/GJ (snap 0101 and 0102). The temporary TSP emissions factor (19 g/GJ) for farmhouse boilers combusting straw refers to legislation of larger boilers. Farmhouse boilers can obtain certification if TSP emission is less than 600 g/mn3 (dry) at 10% O2 corresponding to 312 g/GJ. The Danish Technological Institute has estimated the emission to be 300-600 g/mn3 (dry) at 10% O2 during laboratory tests. This corresponds to approximately 234 g/GJ. Measurements on Danish plants before 1990 show emission factors of approximately 400 g/GJ (Jensen, 1990). The TSP emission factor is changed to 234 g/GJ. The PM10 and PM2.5 emission factors are calculated based on TNO particle size distribution of residential wood burning. The emissions from the refineries and the Danish Steel Works (Stålvalseværket) were not included in the provisional emission inventory. The TSP emission from the Danish Steel Works is reported in the annual environmental report and in 2000 the TSP emission was 36 tonnes. The TNO emission factors for refineries are shown in A1-Table 18. The emission factors in Table A1-18 will be used in the improved inventory. Table A1-18 Emission factors for refineries and oil/gas production. TNO data Fuel TSP g/GJ Refinery gas Residual oil

5 50

Emission factor PM10 g/GJ 5 40

1)

PM2.5 g/GJ 5 35

1. TNO CEPMEIP database, 2001

4.3 Revised emission factors Table A1-19 shows the revised emission factors. A complete list of emission factors for stationary combustion plants is included in appendix 1.1.

56

Table A1-19 Revised emission factors Fuel

Sector

snap

Municipal waste Residual oil Residual oil Residual oil Straw

Public power

0101

Temporary emission factor TSP PM10 PM2.5 g/GJ g/GJ g/GJ 6 5 4

Industry

0301

14-47

12-40

10-14

14

10,5

7

75

50

Public power District heating Refinery

0101, 0102 0103

14-47

3

2,5

3

3

2,5

100

83

47

40

35

50

40

35

80

70

District heating Industry Residential Public power Non-industrial combustion Industrial combustion Public power Refinery

0102, 0301 0202 0101 02, 03

19-21

19-21

19-21

21

15

12

70

55

19 6 27

19 6 7-27

19 5 5-25

234 3 17

222 2,6 12

211 2,1 7

95 80 70

90 66 40

0101 0103

3 0,1

3 0,1

2,5 0,1

1,9 5

1,8 5

1,6 5

93 100

83 100

District heating Industry Public power

0102, 0301 0101

18143 18143

18-70

18-55

19

13

10

70

55

18-70

1-55

8

6

4

70

55

Straw Coal Coal

Orimulsion Refinery gas Wood Wood and straw

Improved emission factor TSP PM10 PM2.5 g/GJ g/GJ g/GJ 6 5 4

Fraction (improved) PM10 PM2.5 % % 85 70

Comparing Table A1-21 and Table A1-4 it appears that the primary changes of the inventory are: ♦ Residential plants (0202). The increase of emission factor for farmhouse boilers using straw results in an increase of TSP emission of 777 tonnes. ♦ District heating plants (0102). Due mainly to the lower emission factor for wood the resulting PM emission is much lower in the improved inventory. TSP emission of wood combusted in district heating plants is 483 tonnes lower than in the provisional inventory. ♦ Industrial combustion (0301). The improved (lower) emission factor for wood has turned out to be important for the industrial combustion emission. Thus TSP emission from wood combusted in industrial plants is 529 tonnes lower in the improved inventory than in the provisional inventory. Emission factors for some CHP plants will be changed when results of the Eltra PSO project are reported. Change of emission factors is expected for the following plants: ♦ Natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines (snap 010105, 010405, 010505, 020105, 020204, 020304, 030105) ♦ Natural gas fuelled gas turbines (snap 010104, 010304, 010504, 020104, 020303, 030104). ♦ Municipal waste incineration power producing plants (snap 0101). Emission factors for district heating plants might be changed as well. ♦ Biomass CHP plants (snap 0101)

57

5

Improved Danish emission inventory

The improved particulate emission inventory of stationary combustion plants is shown in Table A1-20 and Table A1-21. The detailed emission inventory is enclosed in appendix 1.2 and in appendix 1.3 the inventory is further disaggregated to fuel level. According to the improved emission inventory the primary sources of particulate emission are: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Residential boilers, stoves and fireplaces combusting wood Farmhouse boilers combusting straw Power plants primarily combusting coal Coal and residual oil combusted in industrial boilers and processes

Furthermore there are considerable emissions from: ♦ Residential boilers using gas oil ♦ Refineries Table A1-20 Improved emission inventory year 2000, main snap categories snap1

snap1 name

01 COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 02 NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS 03 COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY Stationary combustion plants

TSP Tonnes 1131 3058 741 4930

PM10 Tonnes 948 2899 575 4423

PM2.5 Tonnes 810 2734 448 3992

Table A1-21 Improved emission inventory year 2000, snap -2 level snap1 snap1 name 01

02

03

COMBUSTION IN EN- 0101 ERGY AND TRANS0102 FORMATION INDUS0103 TRY 0104 NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY Stationary combustion plants

58

snap2 snap2 name Public power

PM2.5 TSP PM10 Tonnes Tonnes Tonnes 826 702 594

District heating plants

161

115

91

Petroleum refining plants

142

129

122

Solid fuel transformation plants

0

0

0

0105

Coal mining, oil / gas extraction, pipeline compressors

3

3

3

0201

Commercial and institutional plants (t)

136

132

123

0202

Residential plants

2793

2665

2529

0203

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture

129

102

81

0301

Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

447

339

254

0303

Processes with contact

294

235

194

4930

4423

3992

Processes with contact 6% Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines 9%

Public power 17% District heating plants 3%

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 3%

Petroleum refining plants 3% Commercial and institutional plants (t) 3%

Residential plants 56%

Figure A1-18 Emission of TSP, improved inventory

Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines 8%

Processes with contact 5% Public power 16% District heating plants 3%

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 2%

Petroleum refining plants 3% Commercial and institutional plants (t) 3%

Residential plants 60%

Figure A1-19 Emission of PM10 improved inventory

Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines 6%

Processes with contact 5% Public power 15%

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 2%

District heating plants 2% Petroleum refining plants 3% Commercial and institutional plants (t) 3%

Residential plants 64%

Figure A1-20 Emission of PM2.5 improved inventory

59

6

Emission Projections

No projection models have been developed for projection of particulate matter emissions for stationary combustion plants but an estimate of the emission level in 2010 compared with the level in 2000 is given in this chapter. Table A1-22 shows the latest energy forecast (excluding transport) from the Danish Energy Authority (Danish Energy Authority, 2003 http://www.ens.dk/sw998.asp). The fuel consumption is distributed between sectors and the biggest change is seen for power plants where the fuel consumption increases by 33%. Changes in fuel consumption are also seen in the offshore industry and the households. However, the increasing use of natural gas in the offshore industry will not change the emissions of PM significantly since the emission factor for natural gas is low. The decreasing use of gas oil in the households is not going to effect the emissions substantially because the largest contribution to PM emissions come from combustion of wood which is assumed almost constant from 2000 to 2010. Table A1-22. Energy forecast from the Danish Energy Authority North Sea

Own consumption Flaring

Refineries own consumption Gas works District heating plants Electric power plants, condensing production Combined heat and power production Production Agriculture etc. Manufacturing Construction Trade and Service Public service Private trade and service Households Total

2000 (PJ) 2010 (PJ) Difference (PJ) 25 33 8 10 9 0 17 17 0 1 1 0 26 23 -3 91 187 95 199 210 11 34 34 0 87 87 0 7 7 0 6 6 0 12 13 1 85 77 -8 599 704 105

The increasing fuel consumption at the power plants is mainly due to increasing use of coal and to less extent use of wood, straw and natural gas. Since the large combustion plants all ready have very efficient PM abatement technology no major changes are expected from 2000 to 2010. A rough estimate of the PM emissions from the energy sector is calculated assuming that the emissions increase by 33% as the fuel consumption. Given the latest energy projection from the Danish Energy Authority the estimated PM emissions in 2010 for stationary combustion plants will only increase with 7 % for PM10 (Table A1-23). Table A1-23. Estimated PM emissions in 2010 for stationary combustion plants. snap1 01

snap1 name

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 02 NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS 03 COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY Stationary combustion plants

60

TSP Tonnes 1500

PM10 Tonnes 1260

PM2.5 Tonnes 1080

3058 741 5299

2899 575 4734

2734 448 4262

7

Conclusion

The first Danish inventory of particulate matter emission was reported to UN-ECE in the beginning of 2002. The provisional inventory indicated that TSP emissions from stationary combustion plants add up to 18% of the overall emission. The percentage from stationary combustion plants is higher if only the fine particulate fractions are considered. Thus PM2.5 emission from stationary combustion plants adds up to 31% of the overall emission. An improved particulate matter emission inventory of stationary combustion plants for the year 2000 has been prepared. The revision is based on a survey of primary emission sources. Several emission factors have been changed as a result of improved knowledge of emission measurements performed on Danish plants and during literature surveys. The changes of emission factors that cause considerable changes of the emission inventory are: ♦ An increase of emission factors for farmhouse boilers combusting straw. The TSP emission factor is changed from 19 g/GJ to 234 g/GJ. ♦ A decrease of emission factors for district heating boilers combusting wood. ♦ A decrease of emission factors for industrial boilers combusting wood. According to the improved emission inventory the primary sources of particulate emission are: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Residential boilers, stoves and fireplaces combusting wood Farmhouse boilers combusting straw Power plants primarily combusting coal Coal and residual oil combusted in industrial boilers and processes

Further there is considerable emissions from: ♦ Residential boilers using gas oil ♦ Refineries The PM emission from wood combusted in residential plants is the predominant source. Thus 40% of the PM2.5 emission from stationary combustion is emitted from residential wood combustion. This corresponds to 13% of the overall Danish emission. PM2.5 emission from straw combustion in farmhouse boilers accounts for 19% of the total emission of stationary combustion plants. The literature survey showed that the uncertainty of the emission factors for residential combustion of wood in stoves and boilers is high. The emission factors used in other Nordic countries are from 3 to 14 times higher. Still, other references supported the current emission factor and at present the emission factor has not been changed. Further studies of this emission factor are of great importance for further improvements of the inventory.

61

References Bjerrum, M., 2000. Danish Technological Institute, personal communication. BUWAL, 1995. Handbuch: Emissionsfaktoren für stationäre Quellen; Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft. Bern. CITEPA, 2000. National Inventory Results for PM10 and PM2.5 emissions for France; CITEPA.; Document submitted within the framework of the CEPMEIP project; Paris France. Dreiseidler, A., Baumbach, G., Pregger, T., and Obermeier, A. 1999. Studie zur Korngrößenverteilung (
62

Nielsen, M. & Illerup, J:B:, 2003, Emissionsfaktorer og emissionsopgørelse for decentral kraftvarme. Eltra PSO 3141. Kortlægning af emissioner fra decentrale kraftvarmeværker. Delrapport 6. danmarks Miljøundersøgelser. 116 s. faglig rapport fra DMU nr. 442. http://fagligerapporter.dmu.dk. Nielsen, P.S. & Evald, A., 2000. Firewood Statistics. dk-Teknik Energy & Environment. Nikolaisen, L., Nielsen, C., Larsen, M.G., Nielsen, V., Zielke, U., Kristensen, J.K., HolmChristensen, B. 1998. Halm til energiformål, Teknik – Miljø – Økonomi, Videncenter for Halm- og Flisfyring. Remus, R., 2000. National Inventory Results for PM10 and PM2.5 emissions for Germany; Document submitted within the framework of the CEPMEIP project, Umwelt Bundesambt; Berlin. Serup, H. Falster, H., Gamborg, C., Gundersen, P., Hansen, L., Heding, N., Jakobsen, H.H., Kofman, P., Nikolaisen, L. og Thomsen, I.M., 1999. Træ til energiformål, Teknik – Miljø – Økonomi, Videncenter for Halm- og Flisfyring. Spitzer, J., Enzinger, P., Fankhauser, G., Fritz, W., Golja, F. & Stiglbrunner, R. 1998. Emissionsfaktoren für feste Brennstoffe, Datenband, Institut für Energieforschung, Joanneum Research. Sternhufvud, C., Karvosenoja, N., Illerup, J.B., Jensen, D., Johansson, M., Kindbom, K. and Lükewille, A. (to be published in 2003): Particulate matter emissions and abatement in residential wood burning in the Nordic countries. For the Nordic Council of Ministers. TNO CEPMEIP database, 2001 (www.air.sk/tno/cepmeip). WESP, Dutch Emission Registration (1999), Methodology Report from the Task Group WESP, RIVM, Bilthoven.

63

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64

Appendix 1.1

Emission Factors

65

Table A1-24 Emission factors for area sources, provisional inventory Fuel Fuel id

Snap1 Snap 1 name

102

01

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND 0101 TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 0102

Public power District heating plants

02

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

0202

Residential plants

0203

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines Commercial and institutional plants (t) Residential plants Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines Public power

STEAM COAL

03 110

PETROLEUM COKE

02

03 111

114

WOOD AND SIMIL.

MUNICIP. WASTES

01

66

AGRICUL. WASTES

0301 0201 0202 0203

COMBUSTION IN MANUFAC0301 TURING INDUSTRY COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND 0101 TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 0102

District heating plants

Commercial and institutional plants (t) Residential plants Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

02

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

0201 0202 0203

03

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

0301

01

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND 0101 TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

Public power

0102 NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUS0201 TION PLANTS COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND 0101 TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

District heating plants Commercial and institutional plants (t)

02 117

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

Snap2 Snap 2 name

01

Public power

0102

District heating plants Commercial and institutional plants (t) Residential plants Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

02

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

0201 0202 0203

03

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

0301

Snap3

Snap 3 name

TSP

PM10

PM2.5

Reference 1) TSP

Reference 1) PM10 & PM2.5

010103 010202 010203 0202

Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Plant size unknown

g/GJ 6 6 6 27

g/GJ 6 6 6 27

g/GJ 5 5 5 25

TNO TNO TNO Legislation

27

25

Legislation

27

7

3

Legislation

Plant size unknown Plant size unknown Plant size unknown

100 100 100

60 60 60

30 30 30

TNO TNO TNO

TNO TNO TNO PM10: all PM2.5: TNO PM10: all PM2.5: TNO TNO 2) TNO TNO TNO

0203

Plant size unknown

27

0301

Plant size unknown

0201 0202 0203 0301

Plant size unknown

10

7

3

TNO

010102 010103 010105 010202 010203 010205 0201 0202 0203

Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Plant size unknown Plant size unknown Plant size unknown

18 143 143 18 143 143 143 150 143

18 70 70 18 70 70 143 143 143

18 55 55 18 55 55 135 135 135

Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation TNO Legislation

0301 030102 030103 010102 010103 010104 010105 010203 0201 020103 010102

Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers)

143 18 143 6 6 6 6 6 100 100 19

70 18 70 5 5 5 5 5 95 95 19

55 18 55 4 4 4 4 4 90 90 1

Legislation Legislation Legislation LPS2000 LPS2000 LPS2000 LPS2000 LPS2000 TNO TNO Legislation

010103 010202 010203 0201 0202 0203 020302 030102 030105

Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Plant size unknown Plant size unknown Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Stationary engines

21 19 21 19 19 19 19 19 19

21 19 21 19 19 19 19 19 19

21 19 21 19 19 19 19 19 19

Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation

TNO 2) all TNO TNO all TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO all TNO TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO TNO PM10:all PM2.5: Elsam all all all all all all all all all

Fuel Fuel id

Snap1 Snap 1 name

203

01

RESIDUAL OIL

02

204

GAS OIL

KEROSENE

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND 0101 TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

District heating plants

0103 0201

Petroleum refining plants Commercial and institutional plants (t)

0202 0203

Residential plants Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

01

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND 0101 TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

Public power

0102

03

02

206

Snap2 Snap 2 name

0301

Public power

0102

District heating plants

0201

Commercial and institutional plants (t)

0202 0203

Residential plants Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

03

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

0301

02

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

0201 0202 0203

03

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

0301

Commercial and institutional plants (t) Residential plants Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

Snap3

Snap 3 name

TSP

PM10

PM2.5

0101 010101 010102 010103 010104 010202 010203 010303 0201 020105 0202 0203 020304 0301 030102 030103

Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Plant size unknown Stationary engines Plant size unknown Plant size unknown Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers)

g/GJ 14 14 14 47 47 14 47 47 14 60 14 14 60 14 14 47

g/GJ 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 40 14 50 14 14 50 14 12 40

g/GJ 2,5 2,5 2,5 2,5 2,5 2,5 2,5 35 14 40 14 14 40 14 10 10

030104 0101 010101 010102 010103 010104 010105 010202 010203 010205 0201 020103 020105 0202 020304

Gas turbines Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Plant size unknown Stationary engines

47 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

40 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

10 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

0301 030102 030103 030104 030105 030106 0201 0202 0203

Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Other stationary equipments (n) Plant size unknown Plant size unknown Plant size unknown

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO

TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO

0301

Plant size unknown

5

5

5

TNO

TNO

Reference 1) TSP

Reference 1) PM10 & PM2.5

Legislation TNO Legislation TNO Legislation TNO Legislation TNO Legislation TNO Legislation TNO Legislation TNO Legislation TNO Legislation all TNO TNO Legislation all Legislation all TNO TNO Legislation all Legislation TNO Legislation PM10: TNO distr. PM2.5: TNO Legislation TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO

67

Fuel Fuel id

Snap1 Snap 1 name

301

01

NATURAL GAS

02

303

LPG

Snap2 Snap 2 name

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND 0101 TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

0102

District heating plants

0103 0104 0105

Petroleum refining plants Solid fuel transformation plants Coal mining, oil / gas extraction, pipeline compressors

0201

Commercial and institutional plants (t)

0202

Residential plants

0203

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture

03

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

0301

Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

01

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

0102

District heating plants

0201 0202 0301 0103

Commercial and institutional plants (t) Residential plants Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines Petroleum refining plants

0101

Public power

0102 0104 0105

District heating plants Solid fuel transformation plants Coal mining, oil / gas extraction, pipeline compressors Commercial and institutional plants (t)

02 03 308

REFINERY GAS

01

309

BIOGAS

01

02

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

0201

0203 03

1. 2.

68

Public power

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

0301

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

Snap3

Snap 3 name

TSP

PM10

PM2.5

Reference 1) TSP

Reference 1) PM10 & PM2.5

0101 010102 010103 010104 010105 010202 010203 010304 010405 010502 010504 010505 0201 020103 020104 020105 0202 020202 020204 0203 020303 020304 0301 030103 030104 030105 030106 010203

Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary gas turbines Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Plant size unknown Stationary gas turbines Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Other stationary equipments (n) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers)

g/GJ 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,2

g/GJ 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,2

g/GJ 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,2

TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO

TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO

0201 0202 0301

Plant size unknown Plant size unknown Plant size unknown

0,2 0,2 0,2

0,2 0,2 0,2

0,2 0,2 0,2

TNO TNO TNO

TNO TNO TNO

010303 010304 010102 010103 010105 010203 010405 010505

Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Stationary engines

0,1 0,1 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5

0,1 0,1 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5

0,1 0,1 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5

TNO TNO Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation

TNO TNO all all all all all all

0201 020103 020105 0203 020304 0301 030102 030105

Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Plant size unknown Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Stationary engines

1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5

1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5

1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5

Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation

all all all all all all all all

Legislation: Luftvejledningen (Miljøstyrelsen, 2001) and Bekendtgørelse 698 1990, (Miljøministeriet, 1990) - TNO: NO (TNO CEPMEIP database, 2001) - LPS2000: Emission factor calculated as average of municipal waste combustion plants 2000 (point sources) - TNO dist.: Calculation based on particle size distribution stated by TNO - all.: TSP is assumed <2,5µm Emission factors for iron and steel sector have been used. TNO also states emission factors for ”Other industrial sectors”.

Table A1-25 Emission factors for area sources, improved emission inventory Fuel Fuel id

Snap1 Snap 1 name

102

01

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND 0101 TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 0102

Public power District heating plants

02

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

0202 0203

03

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

0301

Residential plants Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines Commercial and institutional plants (t) Residential plants Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines Public power

110

STEAM COAL

PETROLEUM COKE

02

03 111

114

WOOD AND SIMIL.

MUNICIP. WASTES

01

AGRICUL. WASTES

0201 0202 0203

COMBUSTION IN MANUFAC0301 TURING INDUSTRY COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND 0101 TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 0102

District heating plants

Commercial and institutional plants (t) Residential plants Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

02

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

0201 0202 0203

03

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

0301

01

02 117

Snap2 Snap 2 name

01

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND 0101 TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

Public power

0102 NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUS0201 TION PLANTS COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND 0101 TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY 0102

District heating plants Commercial and institutional plants (t)

02

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

0201 0202 0203

03

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

0301

Public power District heating plants Commercial and institutional plants (t) Residential plants Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

Snap3

Snap 3 name

TSP

PM10

PM2.5

Reference 1) TSP

Reference 1) PM10 & PM2.5

010103 010202 010203 0202 0203

Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Plant size unknown Plant size unknown

g/GJ 3 6 6 17 17

g/GJ 2,6 6 6 12 12

g/GJ 2,1 5 5 7 7

NR TNO TNO Legislation Legislation

NR TNO TNO TNO distr. TNO distr.

0301

Plant size unknown

17

12

7

Legislation

TNO distr.

0201 0202 0203

Plant size unknown Plant size unknown Plant size unknown

100 100 100

60 60 60

30 30 30

TNO TNO TNO

TNO TNO TNO

0301

Plant size unknown

10

7

3

TNO

Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Plant size unknown Plant size unknown Plant size unknown

8 8 8 19 19 19 143 150 143

6 6 6 13 13 13 143 143 143

4 4 4 10 10 10 135 135 135

NR NR NR Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation TNO Legislation

TNO 2) TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO TNO TNO

010102 010103 010105 010202 010203 010205 0201 0202 0203 0301 030102 030103 010102 010103 010104 010105 010203 0201 020103 010102 010103 010202 010203 0201 0202 0203 020302 030102 030105

Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Plant size unknown Plant size unknown Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW Stationary engines

19 19 19 6 6 6 6 6 100 100 8 8 21 21 21 234 21 21 21 21

13 13 13 5 5 5 5 5 95 95 6 6 15 15 15 222 15 15 15 15

10 10 10 4 4 4 4 4 90 90 4 4 12 12 12 211 12 12 12 12

Legislation Legislation Legislation LPS2000 LPS2000 LPS2000 LPS2000 LPS2000 TNO TNO NR NR Legislation Legislation Legislation NR Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation

TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO TNO TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. NR TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr.

(boilers) (boilers)

(boilers) (boilers)

(boilers)

69

Fuel Fuel id

Snap1 Snap 1 name

203

01

RESIDUAL OIL

02

03

204

GAS OIL

01

02

206

70

KEROSENE

Snap2 Snap 2 name

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND 0101 TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

0102

District heating plants

0103 0201

Petroleum refining plants Commercial and institutional plants (t)

0202 0203

Residential plants Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

0301

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND 0101 TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

Public power

Public power

0102

District heating plants

0201

Commercial and institutional plants (t)

0202 0203

Residential plants Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

03

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

0301

02

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

0201 0202 0203

03

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

0301

Commercial and institutional plants (t) Residential plants Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

Snap3

Snap 3 name

TSP

PM10

PM2.5

0101 010101 010102 010103 010104 010202 010203 010303 0201 020105 0202 0203 020304 0301 030102 030103 030104 0101 010101 010102 010103 010104 010105 010202 010203 010205 0201 020103 020105 0202 020304

Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Plant size unknown Stationary engines Plant size unknown Plant size unknown Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Plant size unknown Stationary engines

g/GJ 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 50 14 60 14 14 60 14 14 14 14 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

g/GJ 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 40 10,5 50 10,5 10,5 50 10,5 10,5 10,5 10,5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

0301 030102 030103 030104 030105 030106 0201 0202 0203

Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Other stationary equipments (n) Plant size unknown Plant size unknown Plant size unknown

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

0301

Plant size unknown

5

(boilers)

(boilers)

(boilers)

(boilers)

(boilers)

Reference 1) TSP

Reference 1) PM10 & PM2.5

g/GJ 2,5 2,5 2,5 2,5 2,5 2,5 2,5 35 7 40 7 7 40 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO Legislation TNO Legislation Legislation TNO Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO

TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO distr. TNO TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO distr. TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO

TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO

5

5

TNO

TNO

Fuel id

Fuel

Snap1 Snap 1 name

301

NATURAL GAS

01

02

303

LPG

309

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

Public power

0102

District heating plants

0103 0104 0105

Petroleum refining plants Solid fuel transformation plants Coal mining, oil / gas extraction, pipeline compressors

0201

Commercial and institutional plants (t)

0202

Residential plants

0203

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

0301

Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

01

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

0102

District heating plants

0201 0202 0301 0103

Commercial and institutional plants (t) Residential plants Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines Petroleum refining plants

0101

Public power

0102 0104 0105

District heating plants Solid fuel transformation plants Coal mining, oil / gas extraction, pipeline compressors Commercial and institutional plants (t)

03 REFINERY GAS BIOGAS

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND 0101 TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

03

02

308

Snap2 Snap 2 name

01 01

02

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

0201

0203 03

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

0301

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

1)

TSP g/GJ 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,2

PM10 g/GJ 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,2

PM2.5 g/GJ 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,2

Reference 1) TSP TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO

Plant size unknown Plant size unknown Plant size unknown

0,2 0,2 0,2

0,2 0,2 0,2

0,2 0,2 0,2

TNO TNO TNO

TNO TNO TNO

010303 010304 010102 010103 010105 010203 010405 010505

Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Stationary engines

5 5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5

5 5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5

5 5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5

TNO TNO Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation

TNO TNO all all all all all all

0201 020103 020105 0203 020304 0301 030102 030105

Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Plant size unknown Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Stationary engines

1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5

1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5

1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5

Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation Legislation

all all all all all all all all

Snap3

Snap 3 name

0101 010102 010103 010104 010105 010202 010203 010304 010405 010502 010504 010505 0201 020103 020104 020105 0202 020202 020204 0203 020303 020304 0301 030103 030104 030105 030106 010203

Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary gas turbines Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Plant size unknown Stationary gas turbines Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Other stationary equipments (n) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers)

0201 0202 0301

Reference PM10 & PM2.5

TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO TNO

1. Legislation: Luftvejledningen (Miljøstyrelsen, 2001) and Bekendtgørelse 698 1990, (Miljøministeriet, 1990) - TNO : TNO (TNO CEPMEIP database, 2001), TNO distr. : Calculation based on particle size distribution stated by TNO - LPS2000: Emission factor calculated as average of municipal waste combustion plants 2000 (point sources) - all.: TSP is assumed <2, 5 ∝m NR: National reference, measurements on Danish plants 2. Emission factors for iron and steel sector have been used. TNO also states emission factors for ”Other industrial sectors”

71

[Blank page]

72

Appendix 1.2

Detailed emission inventory

73

Table A1-26 Detailed emission inventory, provisional inventory snap1 snap1 name

snap2 snap2 name

snap3

01

0101

0101 Plant size unknown 010101 Combustion plants >= 300 MW (boilers) 010102 Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) 010103 Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) 010104 Gas turbines 010105 Stationary engines 010202 Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) 010203 Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) 010205 Stationary engines 010303 Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) 010304 Gas turbines 010405 Stationary engines 010502 Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) 010504 Gas turbines 010505 Stationary engines 0201 Plant size unknown 020103 Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) 020104 Stationary gas turbines 020105 Stationary engines 0202 Plant size unknown 020202 Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) 020204 Stationary engines 0203 Plant size unknown 020302 Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) 020303 Stationary gas turbines 020304 Stationary engines 0301 Plant size unknown 030102 Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) 030103 Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) 030104 Gas turbines 030105 Stationary engines 030106 Other stationary equipments (n) 030303 Gray iron foundries 030307 Secondary lead production 030311 Cement (f) 030315 Container glass (f)

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

0102

02

03

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

District heating plants

0103

Petroleum refining plants

0104 0105

Solid fuel transformation plants Coal mining, oil / gas extraction, pipeline compressors

0201

Commercial and institutional plants (t)

0202

Residential plants

0203

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING 0301 INDUSTRY

0303

74

Public power

Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

Processes with contact

snap3 name

TSP Tonnes

PM10 Tonnes

PM2.5 Tonnes

0 640 142

0 634 136

0 526 105

111 11 5 9

79 5 5 8

64 5 5 8

659 8 0 0 0 3

349 4 0 0 0 3

289 3 0 0 0 3

0 0 118 59 0 1 2017 0 0 134 0 0 1 816 36

0 0 118 59 0 1 1933 0 0 134 0 0 1 434 35

0 0 112 49 0 1 1837 0 0 129 0 0 1 355 34

70 1 0 0 0 0 294 0

37 1 0 0

26 1 0 0

294

244

snap1 snap1 name

snap2 snap2 name

snap3

snap3_name

07

0701

Passenger cars (r)

0702

Light duty vehicles < 3.5 t (r)

0703

Heavy-duty vehicles > 3.5 t and buses (r)

Highway driving Rural driving Urban driving Highway driving Rural driving Urban driving Highway driving Rural driving Urban driving

0704 0705

Mopeds and Motorcycles < 50 cm3 Motorcycles > 50 cm3

0707 0801 0802 0803 0804

Automobile tyre and brake wear Military Railways Inland waterways Maritime activities

0805

Air traffic

070101 070102 070103 070201 070202 070203 070301 070302 070303 0704 070501 070502 070503 0707 0801 0802 0803 080402 080403 080501

0806 0807 0808 0809 0902

Agriculture Forestry Industry Household and gardening Waste incineration

08

09 Total

ROAD TRANSPORT

OTHER MOBILE SOURCES AND MACHINERY

WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

Highway driving Rural driving Urban driving

National sea traffic within EMEP area National fishing Domestic airport traffic (LTO cycles <1000 m) 080503 Domestic cruise traffic (>1000 m) 0806 0807 0808 0809 090206 Flaring in gas and oil extraction

TSP PM10 PM2.5 Tonnes Tonnes Tonnes 123 123 123 225 225 225 374 374 374 232 232 232 695 695 695 835 835 835 319 319 319 600 600 600 498 498 498 21 21 21 1 1 1 9 9 9 11 11 11 14703 14703 402 21 21 21 162 162 162 72 69 66 352 335 318 398 378 359 2 2 2 1 2174 2 1145 27 1 28140

1 2066 2 1090 27 1 27070

1 1963 2 1037 27 1 12104

75

Table A1-27 Detailed emission inventory, improves inventory of snap 01- 03 snap1 snap1 name

snap2 snap2 name

snap3

snap3 name

01

0101

0101 010101 010102 010103 010104 010105 010202 010203 010205 010303 010304 010306 010405 010502 010504 010505 0201 020103 020104 020105 0202 020202 020204 0203 020302 020303 020304 0301 030102 030103 030104 030105 030106 030303 030307 030311 030315

Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Process furnaces Stationary engines Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW Gas turbines Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary gas turbines Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary gas turbines Stationary engines Plant size unknown Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Other stationary equipments (n) Gray iron foundries Secondary lead production Cement (f) Container glass (f)

02

03

COMBUSTION IN ENERGY AND TRANSFORMATION INDUSTRY

NON-INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION PLANTS

0102

District heating plants

0103

Petroleum refining plants

0104 0105

Solid fuel transformation plants Coal mining, oil / gas extraction, pipeline compressors

0201

Commercial and institutional plants (t)

0202

Residential plants

0203

Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture

COMBUSTION IN MANUFACTURING 0301 INDUSTRY

0303

76

Public power

Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines

Processes with contact

TSP Tonnes

(boilers)

(boilers)

(boilers)

(boilers)

0 634 122 59 6 5 9 151 1 6 12 124 0 3 0 0 118 17 0 1 2793 0 0 128 0 0 1 287 148 11 1 0 0 0 0 294 0

PM2.5 PM10 Tonnes Tonnes 0 0 541 462 101 83 49 40 5 5 5 5 7 6 108 85 1 1 6 6 12 12 111 105 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 116 110 15 12 0 0 1 1 2665 2529 0 0 0 0 102 81 0 0 0 0 1 1 210 144 121 103 8 6 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 235 194 0 0

Appendix 1.3

Detailed fuel specific emission inventory

77

Table A1-28 Detailed fuel specific emission inventory, provisional inventory snap_id

010101

010102

010103 010104

010105 010203

010502 020103

030102

030104 030311

0101 0101 0101 010102 010102 010103 010103 010103 010103 010103 010103 010104 010104 010104 010105 010105 010105 010105 010202 010202 010202 010202 010202 010202 010203 010203 010203 010203 010203 010203 010203 010203

78

fuel_id

fuel

fuel_rate [GJ]

102 114 117 203 204 225 301 102 111 114 117 203 204 301 309 114 301 114 204 301 204

STEAM COAL MUNICIP. WASTES AGRICUL. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL OTHER LIQ. FUEL NATURAL GAS STEAM COAL WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES AGRICUL. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS BIOGAS MUNICIP. WASTES NATURAL GAS MUNICIP. WASTES GAS OIL NATURAL GAS GAS OIL

146911420 1230861 1119600 4045724 135602,22 34148181 23541558,1 6224846 720713 18305717,7 1826796 513002 278595 1456749 619 8361289 39989 416975 74447 19924570,54 763

111 114 203 301

WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL NATURAL GAS

36841 1395589 7803 340513,76

114 204 309 102 203 301 309 301

MUNICIP. WASTES GAS OIL BIOGAS STEAM COAL RESIDUAL OIL NATURAL GAS BIOGAS NATURAL GAS

13770 71306 86680 874519 93085 2690206 13802 2162962

102 110 114 118 203 203 204 301 111 309 102 111 117 203 301 309 203 204 301 111 204 301 309 102 111 117 203 204 301 102 111 117 203 204 301 303 309

STEAM COAL PETROLEUM COKE MUNICIP. WASTES SEWAGE SLUDGE RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS WOOD AND SIMIL. BIOGAS STEAM COAL WOOD AND SIMIL. AGRICUL. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL NATURAL GAS BIOGAS RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS WOOD AND SIMIL. GAS OIL NATURAL GAS BIOGAS STEAM COAL WOOD AND SIMIL. AGRICUL. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS STEAM COAL WOOD AND SIMIL. AGRICUL. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS LPG BIOGAS

5708047 6474742,8 505233 40162 858853,2 17206 6427 14558 369618 25152 35480 297612 640340 82101 640635 134968 117319 16935 3049107 428 73486 25826778 1548734 371 179937 150510 58729 399458 217700 3551 3845382 3290636 642590 230214 1416762 246 21733

Emission factor [g/GJ]

EMISSION Tonnes

TSP

PM10

PM2.5

TSP

PM10

PM2.5

(point sources)

(point sources)

(point sources)

640,258

634,086

526,266

(point sources)

(point sources)

(point sources)

135,774

129,278

97,940

(point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources)

50,470

43,900

33,810

4,825

4,408

3,991

(point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources)

0,000

0,000

0,000

8,750

7,680

5,950

(point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources)

0,034

0,034

0,034

59,300

59,300

49,220

(point sources)

(point sources)

(point sources)

0,128

0,128

0,128

(point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources)

0,216

0,216

0,216

294,000

294,000

244,020

14 5 0,1 18 1,5 6 143 21 47 0,1 1,5 47 5 0,1 143 5 0,1 1,5 6 18 19 14 5 0,1 6 143 21 47 5 0,1 0,2 1,5

3 5 0,1 18 1,5 6 70 21 3 0,1 1,5 3 5 0,1 70 5 0,1 1,5 6 18 19 3 5 0,1 6 70 21 3 5 0,1 0,2 1,5

2,5 5 0,1 18 1,5 5 55 21 2,5 0,1 1,5 2,5 5 0,1 55 5 0,1 1,5 5 18 19 2,5 5 0,1 5 55 21 2,5 5 0,1 0,2 1,5

0,241 0,032 0,001 6,653 0,038 0,213 42,559 13,447 3,859 0,064 0,202 5,514 0,085 0,305 0,061 0,367 2,583 2,323 0,002 3,239 2,860 0,822 1,997 0,022 0,021 549,890 69,103 30,202 1,151 0,142 0,000 0,033

0,052 0,032 0,001 6,653 0,038 0,213 20,833 13,447 0,246 0,064 0,202 0,352 0,085 0,305 0,030 0,367 2,583 2,323 0,002 3,239 2,860 0,176 1,997 0,022 0,021 269,177 69,103 1,928 1,151 0,142 0,000 0,033

0,043 0,032 0,001 6,653 0,038 0,177 16,369 13,447 0,205 0,064 0,202 0,293 0,085 0,305 0,024 0,367 2,583 2,323 0,002 3,239 2,860 0,147 1,997 0,022 0,018 211,496 69,103 1,606 1,151 0,142 0,000 0,033

010205 010205 010303 010502 010504 010505 010505 0201 0201 0201 0201 0201 0201 0201 0201 0201 020103 020104 020105 020105 020105 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 020202 020204 0203 0203 0203 0203 0203 0203 0203 0203 020302 020303 020304 020304 020304 020304 0301 0301 0301 0301 0301 0301 0301 0301 030102 030102 030102 030102 030103 030103 030103 030103 030104 030104 030105 030105 030105 030105 030106 030106 Total

111 204 308 301 301 301 309 110 111 114 203 204 206 301 303 309 301 301 204 301 309 102 110 111 117 203 204 206 301 303 301 301 102 110 111 117 203 206 301 309 117 301 203 204 301 309 102 110 111 203 204 206 301 309 111 203 204 309 111 203 204 301 204 301 117 204 301 309 204 301

WOOD AND SIMIL. GAS OIL REFINERY GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS BIOGAS PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL KEROSENE NATURAL GAS LPG BIOGAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS GAS OIL NATURAL GAS BIOGAS STEAM COAL PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. AGRICUL. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL KEROSENE NATURAL GAS LPG NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS STEAM COAL PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. AGRICUL. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL KEROSENE NATURAL GAS BIOGAS AGRICUL. WASTES NATURAL GAS RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS BIOGAS STEAM COAL PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL KEROSENE NATURAL GAS BIOGAS WOOD AND SIMIL. RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL BIOGAS WOOD AND SIMIL. RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS GAS OIL NATURAL GAS AGRICUL. WASTES GAS OIL NATURAL GAS BIOGAS GAS OIL NATURAL GAS

53040 190 1170793 24685860 164410 13250 32507 12070 575926 35615 342842 4957566 63008 5854391 121621 423606 43211 23335 859 967874 504895 45201 10790 11936295 3611833 35611 30275667 91190 27562772 986141 55319 1439173 1079213 6154 230030 2407889 1782543 8213 3467279 64084 5800 61906 4017 4774 3032714 65452 5038216 285426 3836511 8241264 2026017 7552 28746747 55682 1557075 555468 3138 1029 439542 139691 82107 116411 51 4593377 386 103 1556394 1487 8070,3 50809,4

143 5 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 1,5 100 143 100 14 5 5 0,1 0,2 1,5 0,1 0,1 5 0,1 1,5 27 100 150 19 14 5 5 0,1 0,2 0,1 0,1 27 100 143 19 14 5 0,1 1,5 19 0,1 60 5 0,1 1,5 27 10 143 14 5 5 0,1 1,5 18 14 5 1,5 143 47 5 0,1 5 0,1 19 5 0,1 1,5 5 0,1

70 5 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 1,5 60 143 95 14 5 5 0,1 0,2 1,5 0,1 0,1 5 0,1 1,5 27 60 143 19 14 5 5 0,1 0,2 0,1 0,1 27 60 143 19 14 5 0,1 1,5 19 0,1 50 5 0,1 1,5 7 7 70 14 5 5 0,1 1,5 18 12 5 1,5 70 40 5 0,1 5 0,1 19 5 0,1 1,5 5 0,1

55 5 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 1,5 30 135 90 14 5 5 0,1 0,2 1,5 0,1 0,1 5 0,1 1,5 25 30 135 19 14 5 5 0,1 0,2 0,1 0,1 25 30 135 19 14 5 0,1 1,5 19 0,1 40 5 0,1 1,5 3 3 55 14 5 5 0,1 1,5 18 10 5 1,5 55 10 5 0,1 5 0,1 19 5 0,1 1,5 5 0,1

7,585 0,001 0,117 2,469 0,016 0,001 0,049 1,207 82,357 3,562 4,800 24,788 0,315 0,585 0,024 0,635 0,004 0,002 0,004 0,097 0,757 1,220 1,079 1790,444 68,625 0,499 151,378 0,456 2,756 0,197 0,006 0,144 29,139 0,615 32,894 45,750 24,956 0,041 0,347 0,096 0,110 0,006 0,241 0,024 0,303 0,098 136,032 2,854 548,621 115,378 10,130 0,038 2,875 0,084 28,027 7,777 0,016 0,002 62,855 6,565 0,411 0,012 0,000 0,459 0,007 0,001 0,156 0,002 0,040 0,005 5135

3,713 0,001 0,117 2,469 0,016 0,001 0,049 0,724 82,357 3,383 4,800 24,788 0,315 0,585 0,024 0,635 0,004 0,002 0,004 0,097 0,757 1,220 0,647 1706,890 68,625 0,499 151,378 0,456 2,756 0,197 0,006 0,144 29,139 0,369 32,894 45,750 24,956 0,041 0,347 0,096 0,110 0,006 0,201 0,024 0,303 0,098 35,268 1,998 268,556 115,378 10,130 0,038 2,875 0,084 28,027 6,666 0,016 0,002 30,768 5,588 0,411 0,012 0,000 0,459 0,007 0,001 0,156 0,002 0,040 0,005 4269

2,917 0,001 0,117 2,469 0,016 0,001 0,049 0,362 77,750 3,205 4,800 24,788 0,315 0,585 0,024 0,635 0,004 0,002 0,004 0,097 0,757 1,130 0,324 1611,400 68,625 0,499 151,378 0,456 2,756 0,197 0,006 0,144 26,980 0,185 31,054 45,750 24,956 0,041 0,347 0,096 0,110 0,006 0,161 0,024 0,303 0,098 15,115 0,856 211,008 115,378 10,130 0,038 2,875 0,084 28,027 5,555 0,016 0,002 24,175 1,397 0,411 0,012 0,000 0,459 0,007 0,001 0,156 0,002 0,040 0,005 3798

79

Table A1-29 Detailed fuel specific emission inventory, improved inventory snap_id

fuel_id

fuel

fuel_rate [GJ]

010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010103 010103 010104 010104 010104 010105

102 114 117 203 204 225 301 102 111 114 117 203 204 301 309 114 301 114 204 301 204

STEAM COAL MUNICIP. WASTES AGRICUL. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL OTHER LIQ. FUEL NATURAL GAS STEAM COAL WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES AGRICUL. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS BIOGAS MUNICIP. WASTES NATURAL GAS MUNICIP. WASTES GAS OIL NATURAL GAS GAS OIL

146911420 1230861 1119600 4045724 135602,22 34148181 23541558,1 6224846 720713 18305717,7 1826796 513002 278595 1456749 619 8361289 39989 416975 74447 19924570,54 763

010203 010203 010203 010304

111 114 203 308

WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL REFINERY GAS

36841 1395589 7803 2400233

010306 010306 010502

203 308 301

RESIDUAL OIL REFINERY GAS NATURAL GAS

1322995 11648701 340513,76

020103 020103 020103 030102 030102 030102 030102 030104

114 204 309 102 203 301 309 301

MUNICIP. WASTES GAS OIL BIOGAS STEAM COAL RESIDUAL OIL NATURAL GAS BIOGAS NATURAL GAS

13770 71306 86680 1063375 284834,55 2690206 15755 2162962

030311 030311 030311 030311 030311 0101 0101 0101 010102 010102 010103 010103 010103 010103 010103 010103 010104 010104 010104 010105 010105 010105 010105 010202 010202 010202 010202 010202 010202 010203 010203 010203 010203 010203

102 110 114 118 203 203 204 301 111 309 102 111 117 203 301 309 203 204 301 111 204 301 309 102 111 117 203 204 301 102 111 117 203 204

STEAM COAL PETROLEUM COKE MUNICIP. WASTES SEWAGE SLUDGE RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS WOOD AND SIMIL. BIOGAS STEAM COAL WOOD AND SIMIL. AGRICUL. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL NATURAL GAS BIOGAS RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS WOOD AND SIMIL. GAS OIL NATURAL GAS BIOGAS STEAM COAL WOOD AND SIMIL. AGRICUL. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS STEAM COAL WOOD AND SIMIL. AGRICUL. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL

5708047 6474742,8 505233 40162 858853,2 17206 6427 14558 369618 25152 35480 297612 640340 82101 640635 134968 117319 16935 3049107 428 73486 25826778 1548734 371 179937 150510 58729 399458 217700 3551 3845382 3290636 642590 230214

80

Emission factor [g/GJ] TSP PM10

PM2.5

EMISSION Tonnes TSP PM10

PM2.5

(point sources)

(point sources)

(point sources)

634,086

540,876

461,796

(point sources)

(point sources)

(point sources)

118,995

99,093

81,172

(point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources)

50,470

42,910

35,330

4,825

4,408

3,991

(point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources)

0,000

0,000

0,000

5,740

4,890

4,020

(point sources) (point sources) (point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources) (point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources) (point sources) (point sources)

12,001

12,001

12,001

124,393

111,163

104,548

0,034

0,034

0,034

17,300

14,710

12,110

(point sources)

(point sources)

(point sources)

113,667

97,188

84,789

(point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources)

(point sources) (point sources)

0,216

0,216

0,216

294,000

235,200

194,040

3 5 0,1 8 1,5 3 8 8 3 0,1 1,5 3 5 0,1 8 5 0,1 1,5 6 19 21 3 5 0,1 6 19 21 3 5

3 5 0,1 6 1,5 2,6 6 6 3 0,1 1,5 3 5 0,1 6 5 0,1 1,5 6 13 15 3 5 0,1 6 13 15 3 5

2,5 5 0,1 4 1,5 2,1 4 4 2,5 0,1 1,5 2,5 5 0,1 4 5 0,1 1,5 5 10 12 2,5 5 0,1 5 10 12 2,5 5

0,052 0,032 0,001 2,957 0,038 0,106 2,381 5,123 0,246 0,064 0,202 0,352 0,085 0,305 0,003 0,367 2,583 2,323 0,002 3,419 3,161 0,176 1,997 0,022 0,021 73,062 69,103 1,928 1,151

0,052 0,032 0,001 2,218 0,038 0,092 1,786 3,842 0,246 0,064 0,202 0,352 0,085 0,305 0,003 0,367 2,583 2,323 0,002 2,339 2,258 0,176 1,997 0,022 0,021 49,990 49,360 1,928 1,151

0,043 0,032 0,001 1,478 0,038 0,075 1,190 2,561 0,205 0,064 0,202 0,293 0,085 0,305 0,002 0,367 2,583 2,323 0,002 1,799 1,806 0,147 1,997 0,022 0,018 38,454 39,488 1,606 1,151

010203 010203 010203 010205 010205 010303 010502 010504 010505 010505 0201 0201 0201 0201 0201 0201 0201 0201 0201 020103 020104 020105 020105 020105 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 020202 020204 0203 0203 0203 0203 0203 0203 0203 0203 020302 020303 020304 020304 020304 020304 0301 0301 0301 0301 0301 0301 0301 0301 030102 030102 030102 030103 030103 030103 030103 030104 030104 030105 030105 030105 030105 030106 030106 Total

301 303 309 111 204 308 301 301 301 309 110 111 114 203 204 206 301 303 309 301 301 204 301 309 102 110 111 117 203 204 206 301 303 301 301 102 110 111 117 203 206 301 309 117 301 203 204 301 309 102 110 111 203 204 206 301 309 111 203 204 111 203 204 301 204 301 117 204 301 309 204 301

NATURAL GAS LPG BIOGAS WOOD AND SIMIL. GAS OIL REFINERY GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS BIOGAS PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL KEROSENE NATURAL GAS LPG BIOGAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS GAS OIL NATURAL GAS BIOGAS STEAM COAL PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. AGRICUL. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL KEROSENE NATURAL GAS LPG NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS STEAM COAL PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. AGRICUL. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL KEROSENE NATURAL GAS BIOGAS AGRICUL. WASTES NATURAL GAS RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS BIOGAS STEAM COAL PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL KEROSENE NATURAL GAS BIOGAS WOOD AND SIMIL. RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL WOOD AND SIMIL. RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS GAS OIL NATURAL GAS AGRICUL. WASTES GAS OIL NATURAL GAS BIOGAS GAS OIL NATURAL GAS

1416762 246 21733 53040 190 1170793 24685860 164410 13250 32507 12070 575926 35615 342842 4957566 63008 5854391 121621 423606 43211 23335 859 967874 504895 45201 10790 11936295 3611833 35611 30275667 91190 27562772 986141 55319 1439173 1079213 6154 230030 2407889 1782543 8213 3467279 64084 5800 61906 4017 4774 3032714 65452 4849360 285426 3836511 8241264 2026017 7552 28746747 54758 1557075 363718 3138 439542 139691 82107 116411 51 4593377 386 103 1556394 1487 8070,3 50809,4

0,1 0,2 1,5 19 5 5 0,1 0,1 0,1 1,5 100 143 100 14 5 5 0,1 0,2 1,5 0,1 0,1 5 0,1 1,5 17 100 150 234 14 5 5 0,1 0,2 0,1 0,1 17 100 143 21 14 5 0,1 1,5 21 0,1 60 5 0,1 1,5 17 10 19 14 5 5 0,1 1,5 19 14 5 19 14 5 0,1 5 0,1 21 5 0,1 1,5 5 0,1

0,1 0,2 1,5 13 5 5 0,1 0,1 0,1 1,5 60 143 95 10,5 5 5 0,1 0,2 1,5 0,1 0,1 5 0,1 1,5 12 60 143 222 10,5 5 5 0,1 0,2 0,1 0,1 12 60 143 15 10,5 5 0,1 1,5 15 0,1 50 5 0,1 1,5 12 7 13 10,5 5 5 0,1 1,5 13 10,5 5 13 10,5 5 0,1 5 0,1 15 5 0,1 1,5 5 0,1

0,1 0,2 1,5 10 5 5 0,1 0,1 0,1 1,5 30 135 90 7 5 5 0,1 0,2 1,5 0,1 0,1 5 0,1 1,5 7 30 135 211 7 5 5 0,1 0,2 0,1 0,1 7 30 135 12 7 5 0,1 1,5 12 0,1 40 5 0,1 1,5 7 3 10 7 5 5 0,1 1,5 10 7 5 10 7 5 0,1 5 0,1 12 5 0,1 1,5 5 0,1

0,142 0,000 0,033 1,008 0,001 5,854 2,469 0,016 0,001 0,049 1,207 82,357 3,562 4,800 24,788 0,315 0,585 0,024 0,635 0,004 0,002 0,004 0,097 0,757 0,768 1,079 1790,444 845,169 0,499 151,378 0,456 2,756 0,197 0,006 0,144 18,347 0,615 32,894 50,566 24,956 0,041 0,347 0,096 0,122 0,006 0,241 0,024 0,303 0,098 82,439 2,854 72,894 115,378 10,130 0,038 2,875 0,082 29,584 5,092 0,016 8,351 1,956 0,411 0,012 0,000 0,459 0,008 0,001 0,156 0,002 0,040 0,005 4930

0,142 0,000 0,033 0,690 0,001 5,854 2,469 0,016 0,001 0,049 0,724 82,357 3,383 3,600 24,788 0,315 0,585 0,024 0,635 0,004 0,002 0,004 0,097 0,757 0,542 0,647 1706,890 801,827 0,374 151,378 0,456 2,756 0,197 0,006 0,144 12,951 0,369 32,894 36,118 18,717 0,041 0,347 0,096 0,087 0,006 0,201 0,024 0,303 0,098 58,192 1,998 49,875 86,533 10,130 0,038 2,875 0,082 20,242 3,819 0,016 5,714 1,467 0,411 0,012 0,000 0,459 0,006 0,001 0,156 0,002 0,040 0,005 4423

0,142 0,000 0,033 0,530 0,001 5,854 2,469 0,016 0,001 0,049 0,362 77,750 3,205 2,400 24,788 0,315 0,585 0,024 0,635 0,004 0,002 0,004 0,097 0,757 0,316 0,324 1611,400 762,097 0,249 151,378 0,456 2,756 0,197 0,006 0,144 7,554 0,185 31,054 28,895 12,478 0,041 0,347 0,096 0,070 0,006 0,161 0,024 0,303 0,098 33,946 0,856 38,365 57,689 10,130 0,038 2,875 0,082 15,571 2,546 0,016 4,395 0,978 0,411 0,012 0,000 0,459 0,005 0,001 0,156 0,002 0,040 0,005 3992

81

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82

Appendix 1.4

Large point source emission

83

Table A1-30 Large point source emission (snap 01-03), provisional inventory Large point source

part

snap

TSP Tonnes

PM10 Tonnes

PM2.5 Tonnes

TSP ref 4)

Amagerværket

01 02 03 05 07 03 07 21 22 26 28 41 51 52 12 31 01 02 01 03 04 05 01 03 07

010101 010101 010101 010101 010104 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010105 010104 010104 010102 010104 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101

0,000 0,000 54,000 0,202 0,733 2,206 3,715 8,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 10,564 0,025 0,000 46,000 2,655 0,000 0,000 240,000 16,000 0,000 71,000

0,000 0,000 54,000 0,202 0,733 0,638 1,196 8,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 10,564 0,025 0,000 46,000 0,569 0,000 0,000 240,000 16,000 0,000 71,000

0,000 0,000 44,820 0,202 0,733 0,567 1,082 6,640 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 1,580 0,025 0,000 38,180 0,474 0,000 0,000 199,200 13,280 0,000 58,930

E2

PM10 / PM2.5 ref 4) TNO frac.

EMF EMF EMF EMF E2

EMF EMF EMF EMF TNO frac.

EMF EMF E2

EMF1) EMF TNO frac.

EMF E2

EMF TNO frac.

E2 AER

TNO frac. TNO frac.

08

010101

0,800

0,800

0,660

AER

TNO frac.

Studstrupværket

03 04

010101 010101

0,000 57,500

0,000 57,500

0,000 47,730

AER

TNO frac.

Vendsysselværket Skærbækværket

03 01 03

010101 010101 010101

54,170 0,000 2,000

54,170 0,000 2,000

44,960 0,000 1,660

AER AER

TNO frac. TNO frac.

Enstedværket

03 04 03 06 01

010101 010101 010101 010102 010502

50,430 1,580 30,000 4,973 0,034

50,430 1,580 30,000 4,556 0,034

41,860 1,120 24,900 3,816 0,034

AER AER AER EMF EMF

TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. EMF TNO frac.

01

010102

8,850

7,700

5,930

AER

TNO frac.

02 01 01 02 01 01 02 01 01 01 01 01 01 02 02 01

010104 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010104 010104 030102 030102 010103 010103 010102 010102

0,080 20,000 1,000 8,000 16,790 16,098 1,010 21,900 0,332 0,184 0,108 0,021 2,440 3,400 12,000 1,680

0,080 20,000 1,000 6,960 14,610 16,098 1,010 21,900 0,332 0,184 0,108 0,021 2,120 2,960 12,000 1,460

0,080 16,600 0,830 5,360 11,250 13,415 1,010 18,180 0,332 0,184 0,108 0,021 1,630 2,280 9,960 1,130

EMF AER AER AER AER EMF EMF AER EMF EMF EMF EMF 2) AER AER AER AER

EMF TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. EMF EMF TNO frac. EMF EMF EMF EMF 2) TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac.

02 01

010104 010102

0,104 1,340

0,104 1,170

0,104 0,900

EMF AER

EMF TNO frac.

01

010104

0,226

0,226

0,226

EMF

EMF

Svanemølleværket H.C.Ørstedsværket Kyndbyværket

Masnedøværket Stigsnæsværket Asnæsværket

Avedøreværket Fynsværket

Esbjergværket Østkraft Dansk Naturgas Behandlingsanlæg Horsens Kraftvarmeværk

Herningværket Vestforbrændingen Amagerforbrændingen Randersværket Grenåværket Hillerødværket Helsingørværket Stora Dalum Assens Sukkerfabrik 2) Kolding Kraftvarmeværk Måbjergværket Sønderborg Kraftvarmeværk

Kara Affaldsforbrændingsanlæg Viborg Kraftvarmeværk

84

Comments

All emissions included in unit 3

All emissions included in unit 21

MKV77 MAV31

All emissions included in unit 5 All emissions included in unit 7 Municipal waste All emissions included in unit 4 All emissions included in unit 3 EV3 Biomass ØKR6 (combustion) Municipal waste Gas turbine Unit 5 (new) Unit 1-4 coal + biogas gas oil

Unit 2 Unit 3-4 Municipal waste Gas turbine

Large point source

part

snap

TSP Tonnes

PM10 Tonnes

PM2.5 Tonnes

TSP ref

Nordforbrændingen Aalborg Portland Århus Nord

01 01 01 02

010102 030311 010102 010102

3,040 294,000 6,420 0,000

2,640 294,000 5,590 0,000

2,040 244,020 4,300 0,000

AER AER AER

PM10 / PM2.5 ref 4) TNO frac. TNO frac. 3) TNO frac.

Reno Nord Silkeborg Kraftvarmeværk Rensningsanlægget Lynetten AVV Forbrændingsanlæg I/S REFA Kraftvarmeværk Svendborg Kraftvarmeværk Kommunekemi

01 01 01

010103 010104 020103

12,080 0,338 59,300

10,510 0,338 59,300

8,090 0,338 49,220

AER EMF AER

TNO frac. EMF TNO frac. 3)

01 01 01 01 02 03 04 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01

010103 010103 010102 010102 010102 010102 010104 010203 010203 010103 010103 010103 010103 010203 010203

1,890 1,570 0,670 1,000 0,210 0,230 0,000 2,300 1,000 5,370 2,860 0,960 2,810 3,560 1,390

1,640 1,370 0,580 1,000 0,210 0,230 0,000 2,000 0,870 4,670 2,490 0,840 2,440 3,100 1,210

1,270 1,050 0,450 0,830 0,170 0,190 0,000 1,540 0,670 3,600 1,920 0,640 1,880 2,390 0,930

AER AER AER AER AER AER EMF AER AER AER AER AER AER AER AER

TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. EMF TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac.

010103 010103 010103

7,690 1,900 0,670

6,690 1,650 0,580

5,150 1,270 0,450

AER AER AER

TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac.

010103 010203 010104 010104 030104 010104

6,830 0,500 0,119 2,556 0,216 0,128 1194

5,940 0,500 0,119 2,139 0,216 0,128 1173

4,580 0,420 0,119 1,722 0,216 0,128 962

AER AER EMF EMF EMF EMF

TNO frac. TNO frac. EMF EMF EMF EMF

I/S Fælles Forbrænding Vestfyns Forbrænding I/S Reno Syd I/S Kraftvarmeværk Thisted Knudmoseværket Kavo I/S Energien VEGA Hadsund Bys Fjernvarmeværk Års Fjernvarmeforsyning 01 Haderslev Kraftvarmeværk 01 Frederikshavn Affaldskraft01 varmeværk Vejen Kraftvarmeværk 01 Bofa I/S 01 DTU 01 Næstved Kraftvarmeværk 01 Maricogen 01 Hjørring KVV 01 Total stationary combustion (LPS)

4)

Comments

All emissions included in unit 1

1. Emission factor of PM2.5, straw stated by Tech-wise (1 g/GJ) 2. Emission factor for coal and residual oil not included (error). Only emission from bio gas included 3. TNO size distribution of coal or fuel oil. 4. AER: annual environmental report 2000, EMF: emission factor, E2: data stated by plant owner Energi E2, TNO-frac.: TNO particle size distribution (TNO CEPMEIP database, 2001).

85

Table A1-31 Large point source emission (snap 01-03), improved inventory Large point source

part

snap

Amagerværket

01 02 03 05 07 03 07 21 22 26 28 41 51 52 12 31 01 02 01 03 04 05 01 01 03 07

Svanemølleværket H.C.Ørstedsværket Kyndbyværket

Masnedøværket Stigsnæsværket Asnæsværket

Statoil Raffinaderi Avedøreværket Fynsværket

Studstrupværket

Vendsysselværket Shell Raffinaderi Skærbækværket

Enstedværket Esbjergværket Østkraft Danisco Ingredients Dansk Naturgas Behandlingsanlæg Horsens Kraftvarmeværk

Herningværket Vestforbrændingen Amagerforbrændingen Randersværket Grenåværket Hillerødværket Helsingørværket Stålvalseværket Stora Dalum Assens Sukkerfabrik Kolding Kraftvarmeværk Måbjergværket Sønderborg Kraftvarmeværk

Kara Affaldsforbrændingsanlæg Viborg Kraftvarmeværk

86

010101 010101 010101 010101 010104 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010105 010104 010104 010102 010104 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010306 010101 010101 010101

TSP Tonnes 0,000 0,000 54,000 0,202 0,733 0,638 1,196 8,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 4,477 0,025 0,000 46,000 0,569 0,000 0,000 240,000 66,640 16,000 0,000 71,000

PM10 Tonnes 0,000 0,000 43,200 0,202 0,733 0,638 1,196 8,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 3,360 0,025 0,000 36,800 0,569 0,000 0,000 223,200 60,151 12,800 0,000 56,800

PM2.5 Tonnes 0,000 0,000 35,640 0,202 0,733 0,567 1,082 6,640 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 2,242 0,025 0,000 30,360 0,474 0,000 0,000 199,200 56,907 10,560 0,000 46,860

TSP ref 1) E2

PM10 / PM2.5 ref 1) TNO frac.

EMF EMF EMF EMF E2

EMF EMF EMF EMF TNO frac.

EMF EMF E2

EMF EMF TNO frac.

EMF E2

EMF TNO frac.

E2 AER

TNO frac. TNO frac.

08 03 04

010101 010101 010101

0,800 0,000 57,500

0,680 0,000 46,000

0,560 0,000 37,950

AER AER

TNO frac. TNO frac.

03 01 05 01 03

010101 010306 010304 010101 010101

54,170 57,753 12,001 0,000 2,000

43,340 51,012 12,001 0,000 2,000

35,750 47,641 12,001 0,000 2,000

AER

TNO frac.

AER

TNO frac.

03 04 03 06 01 01

010101 010101 010101 010102 030102 010502

50,430 1,580 30,000 2,329 9,789 0,034

40,340 1,110 24,000 2,028 6,910 0,034

33,280 0,870 19,800 1,635 4,031 0,034

AER AER AER EMF EMF EMF

TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. EMF EMF TNO frac.

01

010102

8,850

7,520

6,200

AER

TNO frac.

02 01 01 02 01 01 02 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 02 02 01

010104 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010104 010104 030102 030102 030102 010103 010103 010102 010102

0,080 20,000 1,000 8,000 16,790 8,049 1,010 21,900 0,332 0,184 35,770 0,108 68,000 2,440 3,400 12,000 1,680

0,080 16,000 0,850 6,800 14,270 6,976 1,010 17,520 0,332 0,184 35,770 0,108 54,400 2,070 2,890 10,200 1,430

0,080 13,200 0,700 5,600 11,750 5,635 1,010 14,450 0,332 0,184 35,770 0,108 44,880 1,710 2,380 8,400 1,180

EMF AER AER AER AER EMF EMF AER EMF EMF AER EMF AER AER AER AER AER

EMF TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. EMF EMF TNO frac. EMF EMF All EMF TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac.

02 01

010104 010102

0,104 1,340

0,104 1,140

0,104 0,940

EMF AER

EMF TNO frac.

01

010104

0,226

0,226

0,226

EMF

EMF

Comments All emissions included in unit 3

All emissions included in unit 21

MKV77 MAV31

All emission included in unit 5

All emission included in unit 7 Affaldsanlæg All emission included in unit 4

All emission included in unit 3 EV3 Biomass ØKR6 combustion Municipal waste Gas turbine Unit 5 (new) Unit 1-4 coal + biogas gas oil

Unit 2 Unit 3-4 Municipal waste Gas turbine

Large point source

part

snap

TSP Tonnes

PM10 Tonnes

PM2.5 Tonnes

TSP ref

Nordforbrændingen Aalborg Portland Århus Nord

01 01 01 02

010102 030311 010102 010102

3,040 294,000 6,420 0,000

2,580 235,200 5,460 0,000

2,130 194,040 4,490 0,000

AER AER AER

PM10 / PM2.5 ref 1) TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac.

Reno Nord Silkeborg Kraftvarmeværk Rensningsanlægget Lynetten AVV Forbrændingsanlæg I/S REFA Kraftvarmeværk Svendborg Kraftvarmeværk Kommunekemi

01 01 01

010103 010104 020103

12,080 0,338 17,300

10,270 0,338 14,710

8,460 0,338 12,110

AER EMF AER

TNO frac. EMF TNO frac.

01 01 01 01 02 03 04 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01

010103 010103 010102 010102 010102 010102 010104 010203 010203 010103 010103 010103 010103 010203 010203

1,890 1,570 0,670 1,000 0,210 0,230 0,000 2,300 1,000 5,370 2,860 0,960 2,810 0,550 1,390

1,610 1,330 0,570 1,000 0,180 0,200 0,000 1,960 0,850 4,560 2,430 0,820 2,390 0,470 1,180

1,320 1,100 0,470 0,830 0,150 0,160 0,000 1,610 0,700 3,760 2,000 0,670 1,970 0,390 0,970

AER AER AER AER AER AER EMF AER AER AER AER AER AER AER AER

TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. EMF TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac.

010103 010103 010103

7,690 1,900 0,670

6,540 1,620 0,570

5,380 1,330 0,470

AER AER AER

TNO frac. TNO frac. TNO frac.

010103 010203 010104 010104 030104 010104

6,830 0,500 0,119 2,556 0,216 0,128 1376

5,810 0,430 0,119 2,139 0,216 0,128 1163

4,780 0,350 0,119 1,722 0,216 0,128 994

AER AER EMF EMF EMF EMF

TNO frac. TNO frac. EMF EMF EMF EMF

I/S Fælles Forbrænding Vestfyns Forbrænding I/S Reno Syd I/S Kraftvarmeværk Thisted Knudmoseværket Kavo I/S Energien VEGA Hadsund Bys Fjernvarmeværk Års Fjernvarmeforsyning 01 Haderslev Kraftvarmeværk 01 Frederikshavn Affaldskraft01 varmeværk Vejen Kraftvarmeværk 01 Bofa I/S 01 DTU 01 Næstved Kraftvarmeværk 01 Maricogen 01 Hjørring KVV 01 Total of stationary combustion (LPS)

1)

Comments

All emission included in unit 1

1. AER: annual environmental report 2000, EMF: general emission factor, E2: data stated by plant owner Energi E2, TNO-frac.: TNO particle size distribution (fraction) (TNO CEPMEIP database, 2001).

87

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88

Appendix 2 Emission inventory for particulate matter – Road transport and other mobile sources

Morten Winther NERI September 2003

89

Contents 1 Introduction

91

2 Road Transport

92

2.1 Activity data 2.2 Emission factors 2.2.1 Exhaust emission factors 2.2.2 Non exhaust emission factors 2.3 Emission calculation method 2.4 Results

3 Other mobile sources 3.1 Activity data 3.2 Emission factors 3.3 Results

92 94 94 97 98 99

102 102 102 103

4 Total emissions

105

5 Emission projections

106

6 Conclusion

108

References

109

Appendix Appendix 2.1 Appendix 2.2 Appendix 2.3 Appendix 2.4 Appendix 2.5

90

112 114 115 117 118

1

Introduction

Traditionally the emissions of particulate matter from transportation vehicles have been referred to by their total mass. However, more recently an increased attention has been given to the adverse health effects on humans that particulates can cause depending on their numbers, sizes and chemical compositions and now particulates are subject to large research activities in many countries. The increased research efforts have lead the attention to the non-exhaust sources such as tyre and brake wear, road abrasion and the resuspension of road dust recognising them as well to be important contributors to the overall emission total. This report serves as a documentation of the Danish inventory for the transport emissions of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 from exhaust as well as the non-exhaust sources tyre and brake wear and road abrasion according to the new UNECE convention guidelines. Another aim of the present work is to identify the weak parts of the inventory where better data should become available in order to improve the accuracy of the emissions estimates.

91

2

Road Transport

The particulate emissions from road transport that contribute directly to ambient air concentrations come from various sources. These are the exhaust from vehicles in the street (only PM2.5 ), tyre and brake/clutch wear, road abrasion and the resuspension of particles already emitted. Until recently the annual Danish particulate emissions estimates only comprised the exhaust emissions from diesel vehicles. However this limitation is not expedient since also exhaust emissions from gasoline vehicles and not least the emissions from the non-exhaust emission sources contribute significantly to the particulate emissions load. The focus on the “new” sources of particulate emissions has also influenced national obligations in terms of emission information: From 2000 and onwards countries which are parties to the UNECE convention are obliged to produce national estimates including both exhaust emission totals and non-exhaust figures for tyre and brake wear. For consistency reasons the UNFCCC emission estimation approach has been adopted by the UNECE guidelines. Now the total statistical fuel sale figures are used in the simulations instead of previously where the statistical fuel sales related to the mileage driven on Danish roads were used.

2.1

Activity data

The Danish particulate exhaust emissions from diesel road transportation vehicles are calculated with the European COPERT model (Ntziachristos et al. 2000) both for operationally hot engines and during cold start. In the model all present vehicle types are grouped into vehicle layers. This is a sub-division of all vehicle classes into groups of vehicles with the same average fuel use and emission behaviour. No PM emission data are available in the model for gasoline vehicles. For the latter vehicles, the COPERT model principle is used instead in a new database developed at NERI. An overview of the different COPERT layers with years of implementation is given in appendix 2.1. Table A2-1 Vehicle numbers and annual mileage given in vehicle sub-classes, 2000. Vehicle classe

Fuel type

Engine size/weight

PC PC PC PC PC LDV LDV Trucks Trucks Trucks Trucks Urban buses Coaches Mopeds Motorcycles Motorcycles Motorcycles

Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Diesel Diesel Gasoline Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel

< 1.4 l. 1.4 – 2 l. > 2 l. < 2 l. > 2 l.

Motorcycles

Gasoline

92

Diesel Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline

3.5 – 7.5 tonnes 7.5 – 16 tonnes 16 – 32 tonnes > 32 tonnes

2 stroke < 250 cc 4 stroke 250 – 750 cc 4 stroke > 750 cc 4 stroke

Vehicle No

Annual mileage

861438 843902 89262 116235 6104 53766 218355 5166 10920 17035 15806 4516

17678 18979 18371 34995 35047 18101 32789 34246 37550 64092 64092 95765

5304 160000 11054 12529 34453

77850 1614 6029 6029 6029

15660

6029

Table A2-2 Model vehicle classes, trip speeds and mileage split. Vehicle class PC LDV Trucks < 16 tonnes Trucks > 16 tonnes Urban buses Coaches Mopeds Motorcycles

Urban 40 40 35 35 30 35 30 40

Trip speed Rural Highway 70 100 65 80 60 80 60 80 50 70 60 80 30 70 100

Urban 35 35 32 19 51 32 81 47

Mileage [%] Rural Highway 46 19 50 15 47 21 45 36 41 8 47 21 19 0 39 14

From the Danish Road Directorate information of the vehicle stock and annual mileage is obtained. This covers data for the number of vehicles, annual mileage, mileage split between urban, rural and highway driving and the respective average speeds. The number of vehicles and annual mileage per layer is shown in appendix 2.1. However the annual mileages are not the original figures from the Danish Road Directorate. The figures shown are modified as a result of the COPERT model fuel balance as explained in the following.

Gasoline Passenger cars

PRE ECE 0%

ECE 15/00-01 2%

Diesel Passenger cars

Euro II 29%

ECE 15/02 1%

Conventional 37%

ECE 15/03 11% Euro II 29%

ECE 15/04 23%

Euro I 34%

Euro I 34%

Light Duty vehicles

Trucks and Buses

Euro II 17%

Euro I 30%

Euro II 32%

Conventional 48%

Conventional 53%

Euro I 20%

Figure A2-1 Layer distribution of vehicle numbers per vehicle type in 2000

Even though fleet and mileage data are available on an adequate level for COPERT III model simulations the background data can still be improved in certain areas to obtain more accurate road traffic emission estimates. In terms of vehicle numbers a more precise distribution is desired of vehicle categories into subcategories. This relates to the engine size distribution for diesel passenger cars and the gross vehicle weight distribution for heavy-duty vehicles. Better information is also sought for reflecting the vehicle fleet distribution and annual mileage per first registration year for light and heavy-duty vehicles.

93

The Danish Road Directorate foresees a considerable improvement of their statistical figures from 2003. Relevant vehicle fleet and mileage information comprising designation of vehicle category, fuel type, engine size and gross vehicle weight, and odometer readings for all individual Danish road transportation vehicles will be provided by the Danish Motor Vehicle Inspection Office. Here vehicle specific data has been gathered since 1998 in the Danish inspection and maintenance programme and will be available in a usable format starting from 1999. With proper assumptions the latter data can be used as a tool to improve earlier year’s traffic data. By all means the Danish Road Directorate is going to carry out a separate project to determine the total mileage figure driven abroad by Danish vehicles. An important question, which still remains unsolved, is the amount of mileage on Danish roads driven by vehicles from foreign countries.

Diesel Passenger cars

Gasoline Passenger cars 50000

30000

45000

25000

40000 35000

20000

30000 25000

15000

20000

10000

15000 10000

5000

5000 0

0 PRE ECE

ECE 15/00-01

ECE 15/02

ECE 15/03

ECE 15/04

Euro I

Conventional

Euro II

Euro I

Euro II

Trucks and Buses

Light Duty vehicles 35000

120000

30000

100000

25000

80000

20000

60000

15000

40000

10000

20000

5000

0

0

3.5-7.5 t. Gasoline

7.5-16 t.

Diesel

16-32 t.

> 32 t.

Urban buses

Coaches

Figure A2-2 Annual mileage in layers per vehicle type in 2000

2.2

Emission factors

2.2.1 Exhaust emission factors Trip speed dependent fuel use and emission factors (only for diesel vehicles) are taken from the COPERT model using trip speeds as shown in Table A2-2. For gasoline vehicles relevant emission factors, see TNO (2001), are derived from Dutch measurements (Klein et al., 2002). All emission factors are listed in appendix 2.1 and the hot and cold aggregated emission factors per vehicle class and fuel type are shown in Table A2-3.

94

Table A2-3 Emission factors (hot and cold aggregated) used in the Danish inventory Vehicle class

Fuel type

Engine/weight

PC PC PC PC PC LDV LDV Trucks Trucks Trucks Trucks Urban buses Coaches Mopeds Motorcycles Motorcycles Motorcycles Motorcycles

Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Diesel Diesel Gasoline Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline

< 1.4 l. 1.4 – 2 l. > 2 l. < 2 l. > 2 l.

3.5 – 7.5 tonnes 7.5 – 16 tonnes 16 – 32 tonnes > 32 tonnes

2 stroke < 250 cc 4 stroke 250 – 750 cc 4 stroke > 750 cc 4 stroke

Urban (g/km) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.17 0.17 0.02 0.33 0.27 0.53 0.59 0.63 0.49 0.48 0.12 0.12 0.04 0.04 0.04

Rural (g/km) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.06 0.06 0.02 0.19 0.18 0.36 0.40 0.43 0.33 0.32 0.12 0.12 0.04 0.04 0.04

Highway (g/km) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.10 0.02 0.21 0.15 0.29 0.33 0.36 0.26 0.26 0.12 0.04 0.04 0.04

In Germany, Austria and Switzerland the DACH model is used to give national estimates of road traffic emissions. The underlying emission factors come from the “Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport version 1.2”. In the present project hot emission factors for standard traffic situations are taken from the latter model and are subsequently fitted to trip speed dependent regression curves. The final emission factors are calculated using the urban, rural and highway speeds for comparison and given in Table A2-2. The Swedish road traffic emission calculations are made with the EMV model (Hammarström & Karlsson, 1998). A fine agreement between modelled and measured figures for air quality is achieved by SMHI (the Swedish Meteorological and Hydraulic Institute) in Sweden using the EMV data as a basis for dispersion modelling in urban streets. For the present project the EMV emission factors are provided by VTI (Väg- och transportforskningsinstitutet), given as urban factors and factors for driving conditions outside urban areas. A light duty vehicle type A (Swedish classification) and an urban bus (capacity: 30-59 passengers) is selected to represent vans and buses, respectively. For heavy-duty vehicles the EMV model distinguish between < 16 tonnes and > 16 tonnes vehicle weights, in both cases the emission factors are given with and without trailer (Hammarström & Henriksson, 1997). To reflect Danish fleet conditions the < 16 tonnes truck without trailer and the 16 tonnes truck with trailer should represent the < 16 tonnes and > 16 tonnes truck categories respectively. The transformation from Swedish emission data to Danish emission formats has been made as follows. For a Danish vehicle with a given first registration year EMV emission data must be selected corresponding to the Danish EURO standard. If EMV give varying emission data for a specific EURO level according to different first registration years, emission factors should be used which correspond to the same first registration year for the Danish vehicle in question. In cases where no EMV data are available for a given first registration year emission data should be used for the latest first registration year present in the EMV database. The comparison between EMV and COPERT data is made only for hot engines.

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Table A2-4 Diesel vehicle emission factors from COPERT III (Danish inventory), the Handbook version 1.2and EMV

Passenger cars Light duty vehicles Urban buses HDV < 16 tonnes HDV > 16 tonnes

COPERT III (g/km) Urban Rural Highway 0.10 0.06 0.10 0.18 0.19 0.21 0.49 0.33 0.26 0.45 0.31 0.25 0.61 0.42 0.34

Handbook (g/km) Urban Rural Highway 0.07 0.06 0.08 0.12 0.14 0.09

EMV (g/km) Urban Highway 0.18 0.11 0.29 0.17 0.14 0.19 0.13 0.17 0.39 0.25

In spite of the differences between the COPERT factors used in Denmark and the Swedish EMV factors in particular, no changes will be made at present to the Danish inventory. Several reasons explains this decision. The Swedish emission legislation is not fully consistent with the Danish (EU) rules and the EMV size classification of trucks does not fully correspond to the Danish fleet information. As regards the Handbook data an uncertainty is introduced into the derived emission factors by fitting a curve to the traffic situations available in the Handbook. However, the urban emission factors from the EMV model will be used in a parallel project as an input to a Danish street pollution model (OSPM). If a good relationship is obtained between modelled and measured air quality the further use of EMV data in Denmark will be considered. Table A2-5 Gasoline vehicle emission factors from CEPMEIP (used in Danish inventory) and EMV

Passenger cars Light duty vehicles

Conventional Catalyst Conventional Catalyst

CEPMEIP (g/km) Urban Rural 0.035 0.024 0.001 0.001 0.040 0.040 0.001 0.001

Highway 0.024 0.001 0.040 0.001

EMV (g/km) Urban Highway 0.021 0.008 0.005 0.004 0.032 0.012 0.005 0.004

Also for gasoline vehicles the decision is to maintain the emission factors (CEPMEIP) used so far in the Danish inventory. More measurements and a consistent evaluation of emission data are needed in order to produce reliable emission factors for these vehicles. Generally there is a need for more representative emission measurements for road traffic vehicles since the present exhaust emission factors in many cases are derived directly from measured or simulated factors for old vehicle technologies. For new technologies these factors are simply scaled according to ratios for relevant emission legislation standards. This imposes a problem since the emission behaviour during realworld driving is often very different from the emissions measured in laboratory tests. Moreover during real world driving modern engine emissions in some cases are higher than the emissions from older engine designs. This is a known fact especially for heavy-duty trucks for which modern engines are equipped with electronic engine control systems that can be optimised for low emissions in steady state conditions (type approval tests) and for fuel efficiency in the off cycle points (Hausberger et al., 2002). The lack of emission measurements for new vehicles will to some extent be overcome in the two clustered EU 5th framework research projects Particulates (2002) and Artemis (Assessment and Reliability of Transport Emissions, 2002). The derived emission factors are likely to improve the Danish inventory in areas where data are scarce and uncertain. An important goal for Artemis and Particulates is to obtain new sets of both exhaust and non-exhaust emission factors (only tyre and brake wear) for all road vehicle types by measurements. The purpose of Artemis is to obtain harmonised emission data and inventory models for all transport modes. In Particulates the focus is on establishing a harmonised protocol of measuring particulate emissions, see Ntziachristos et al. (2002). The relevant emission data are expected to be publically available in 2004. Relevant for the annual Danish road transport estimates is that Artemis is going to replace the COPERT model as a tool for estimating the emissions from road transport. 2.2.2 Non exhaust emission factors The non-exhaust emission sources treated in this study are tyre, brake and road asphalt wear. Different

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factors affect tyre wear such as tyre construction, composition and size, accumulated mileage, driving behaviour, vehicle type, vehicle settings and maintenance, road surface characteristics and weather. Brake wear only occurs during forced decelerations, and therefore most of the emissions should be observed near busy junctions, traffic lights, pedestrian crossings, and corners. The emission factors used until now in the Danish inventory come from TNO (2001) which has conducted a literature study targeted at proposing particulate emission factors of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 relevant for national inventories in the context of the UNECE convention. The non-exhaust particulate data originate from Dutch roadside measurements, as the only source of information (Brink 1996). The tyre and brake wear factors have been established from mass balance experiments for passenger cars, while for other vehicle types the tyre wear factors have been estimated using information from people employed in the tyre business and industry. Brake wear factors for the same vehicle types have been estimated using the same ratio between brake and tyre wear as for passenger cars. The road abrasion factors are taken from an emission inventory by RIZA (Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment) in the Netherlands in 1994. Here a total road abrasion mass was found to be 60% higher than the figure for total tyre abrasion mass. This factor (1.6) was then used to derive the road abrasion factors from the tyre wear factors. In the CEPMEIP database the factor is somewhat changed to be around 2.1. Table A2-6 Old and new emission factors (mg/km) per vehicle category in the Danish inventory Vehicle category Passenger cars Light duty veh. Heavy-duty veh. Buses Mopeds Motorcycles New factors Passenger cars Light duty veh. Heavy-duty veh. Buses Mopeds Motorcycles Old factors

Brake wear Tyre wear TSP PM10 PM2.5 TSP PM10 PM2.5 6 6 6 69 3.5 0 7.5 7.5 7.5 90 4.5 0 32.25 32.25 32.25 371.3 18.6 0 32.25 32.25 32.25 371.3 18.6 0 1.5 1.5 1.5 17.25 0.85 0 3 3 3 34.5 1.7 0 6 5.9 2.4 69 3.5 2.5 7.5 7.4 3.0 90 4.5 3.2 32.25 31.6 12.9 371.25 18.6 13.0 32.25 31.6 12.9 371.25 18.6 13.0 1.5 1.5 0.6 17.25 0.9 0.6 3 2.9 1.2 34.5 1.7 1.2

Road abrasion TSP PM10 PM2.5 145 7.3 0 190 9.5 0 783 39.2 0 783 39.2 0 36.5 1.85 0 73 3.7 0 145 7.3 0 190 9.5 0 783 39.2 0 783 39.2 0 36.5 1.85 0 73 3.7 0

Extensive literature surveys are made by Luhana et al (2002) and Gustafsson (2001) in order to summarise the current knowledge about particulate emissions arising from tyre, brake and asphalt road pavement wear. The work by Luhana et al (2002) is made as a part of the 5th framework project Particulates. Both surveys consider aspects of particulate chemical characteristics, emissions and health and environmental effects. The two surveys refer data for particulate size distribution and emission rates, which deviates largely. Luhana et al. (2002) and Gustafsson (2001) refer to some studies, which suggest that tyre, brake and road wear particles appear in all size ranges, see e.g. Fauser (1999). This conflicts with the particle data from CEPMEIP; here all brake wear particulates are reported as PM2.5 whereas for the same size range zero particulates are reported from tyre and road asphalt wear. The disagreement of particulate size fractions justifies some changes in the factors to be used in Denmark. For tyre wear the Danish TSP emission factor (CEPMEIP) remains unchanged. A variety of emission factors have been reported in the literature so far. The CEPMEIP factor of 69 mg/km is within this interval and is moreover supported by the findings of 97 mg/km in the experimental part of Particulates (Luhana

97

et al., 2002). On the basis of their literature review the latter source further suggests that between 1 and 10% of all emitted particles from tyres can be classed as PM10 . This is in accordance with the PM10 fraction of 5% used in CEPMEIP. However, USEPA (1995) and TNO (1997) suggest that 70% of PM10 is emitted as PM2.5 , a size fraction which is adapted to calculate new Danish PM2.5 factors for tyre wear. Also the Danish TSP factor for brake wear is maintained for the same reasons as for tyre wear. New PM10 and PM2.5 emission factors are calculated using the findings from USEPA (1995) and TNO (1997) where PM10 and PM2.5 shares of total TSP are reported to be 98 and 40% respectively. At present being it is not possible to determine road abrasion emission factors with some degree of certainty from the available literature. Road abrasion is typically included in the emission factor for total nonexhaust particulate matter; the sum of tyre and brake wear, road abrasion and resuspended material from the road surface. Due to missing data no changes will be made to the factors used in the Danish inventory (see also section 2.4). Generally the non-exhaust emission factors must be considered as preliminary and may be subject to revisions when new information becomes available.

2.3

Emissions calculation method

The total exhaust PM emissions are calculated separately for operationally hot engines and for engines driving under cold start conditions. The total fuel use is estimated in parallel and finally a fuel balance is made in order to remove the gap between the simulated fuel use with the national fuel sale statistics provided by the Danish Energy Authority. The non-exhaust emissions are simulated using the hot engine emission calculation method. Emissions and fuel use for hot engines Emissions and fuel use results for operationally hot engines are calculated for each layer, and urban, rural and highway driving. The procedure is to combine fuel use and emission factors, number of vehicles, annual mileage numbers and their urban, rural and highway shares given in Table A2-2. This yields:

E R , j = ∑ EFR , j ⋅ RS ⋅ N j ⋅ M j (1) R, j

Where E = Fuel use/emission results, R = road type, j = layer, EF = fuel use/emission factors, N = number of vehicles, M = annual mileage numbers, and RS = road type share. Extra emissions and fuel use for cold engines Extra particulate emissions from cold start are simulated separately in the COPERT model for diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles only. Due to lack of data no additional estimates are made outside the COPERT model to determine the cold extra emissions from gasoline vehicles. In COPERT each trip is associated with an amount of cold start emission and is assumed to take place under urban driving conditions. The number of trips is distributed evenly in months. At first cold emission factors are calculated as the hot emission factor times the cold:hot emission ratio. Secondly the extra emission factor during cold start is found by subtracting the hot emission factor from the cold emission factor. Lastly this extra factor is applied on the fraction of the total mileage driven with a cold engine (the β-factor) for all vehicles in the specific layer. The cold:hot ratios from COPERT depend on the average trip length and the monthly ambient temperature distribution, and are equivalent for diesel passenger cars and vans, respectively. The cold extra emissions become:

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CE j = ∑ β ⋅ N j ⋅ M j ⋅ EFU , j ⋅ (CEr − 1) (2) j

Where CE = Cold extra emissions or fuel use, j = layer, β= cold driven trip fraction, EFU = urban fuel use/emission factors, N = number of vehicles, M = annual mileage numbers, CEr = cold:hot fuel use or emission ratio. Fuel use balance The calculated fuel use in the model must equal the statistical fuel sale totals from the Danish Energy Authority according to the UNECE emissions reporting format. The standard approach to achieve a fuel balance in annual emission inventories is to multiply the annual mileage with a fuel balance factor derived as the ratio between simulated and statistical fuel figures for gasoline and diesel, respectively. This method is also used in the present model. For gasoline vehicles all mileage numbers are equally scaled in order to obtain a gasoline fuel equilibrium. For diesel fuel balance purposes the mileage for light and heavy-duty vehicles and buses are adjusted, given that the mileage and fuel consumption factors for these vehicles are regarded as the most uncertain parameters in the diesel model part.

2.4

Results

Table A2-7 Total exhaust PM2.5 emissions (tonnes) for Denmark in 2000 Category Passenger Cars Light Duty Vehicles Heavy-duty Vehicles Buses Mopeds Motorcycles Total

Urban [tonnes] 381 837 326 171 25 11 1750

Rural [tonnes] 228 697 478 122 6 9 1539

Highway [tonnes] 124 232 289 32 0 3 680

Total [tonnes] 733 1766 1092 324 31 23 3969

In 2000 the urban, rural and highway shares of total road traffic exhaust PM emissions (all emissions are PM2.5) was 44, 39 and 17%, respectively. The total PM exhaust emissions have decreased substantially since the mid-1990s due to the stepwise strengthening of emission standards for all vehicle types (except 2wheelers). This decrease will continue in the future as new low emitting vehicles complying with future emission standards substitute older and more polluting vehicles. In absolute amounts the conventional types of diesel light duty and heavy-duty vehicles have the highest emissions and for these vehicles the future emission reductions will become most effective. Conventional passenger cars still contribute significantly to this vehicle type’s PM total. However the conventional emission share will be negligible in the future following the penetration of catalyst vehicles into the Danish traffic.

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Light duty vehicles

Passenger cars 1600

300

1400

250

1200

[Tons]

[Tons]

200 150 100

1000 800 600 400

50

200 0

0 Conv. Gasoline

Cat. Gasoline

Euro Diesel

Gasoline

Conv. Diesel

Euro Diesel

Mopeds and Motorcycles

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

35 30 25

[Tons]

[Tons]

Trucks and Buses

Conv. Diesel

20 15 10 5 0

Conv. Buses

Euro Buses

Conv. Trucks

Euro Trucks

Mopeds

2-stroke MC

< 250 cc

250-750 cc

> 750 cc

Figure A2-3 Each vehicle category’s emissions divided into layers

In the Danish inventory a database has been constructed specificially to estimate the emissions from brake and tyre wear and road abrasion. The basic calculation principle is to multiply the total annual mileage per vehicle category with the correspondent average emission factors for each source type. Table A2-8 Non exhaust emissions per vehicle category in the Danish inventory Vehicle category Old estimate Passenger cars Light duty veh. Heavy-duty veh. Buses Mopeds Motorcycles Grand total New estimate Passenger cars Light duty veh. Heavy-duty veh. Buses Mopeds Motorcycles Grand total

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Brake wear (tonnes) TSP PM10 PM2.5

Tyre wear (tonnes) Road abrasion (tonnes) TSP PM10 PM2.5 TSP PM10 PM2.5

Total (tonnes) TSP PM10 PM2.5

223 61 87 27 0 1 400

223 61 87 27 0 1 400

223 61 87 27 0 1 400

2565 732 1001 314 4 15 4632

130 37 50 16 0 1 234

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5390 1545 2112 662 9 32 9751

271 77 106 33 0 2 490

0 8178 0 2338 0 3201 0 1003 0 14 0 49 0 14783

624 175 243 76 1 4 1123

223 61 87 27 0 1 400

223 61 87 27 0 1 400

219 60 85 27 0 1 392

89 24 35 11 0 1 160

2565 732 1001 314 4 15 4632

130 37 50 16 0 1 234

91 26 35 11 0 1 163

5390 1545 2112 662 9 32 9751

271 77 106 33 0 2 490

0 8178 0 2338 0 3201 0 1003 0 14 0 49 0 14783

620 174 241 76 1 4 1115

180 50 70 22 0 1 323

In terms of total emissions Gustafsson (2001) provides estimates for the Swedish TSP for tyre and brake wear. The estimates are around twice as high as the Danish estimates shown in Table A2-8. Taking into account the larger Swedish fleet and route network the Swedish and the present study’s results are comparable. For road abrasion Gustafsson (2001) suggests total emissions which are an order of magnitude higher than the Danish result. The large difference is due to the extensive use of studded tyres in Sweden. For brake emissions Salway et al. (1997) report an estimate of 3,900 tonnes in the UK for PM10 , which is comparable to the Danish total assuming that differences in country size give proportional emission changes. No consistence in tyre wear totals can be derived from the results for Germany (RauterbergWulff, 1999). the UK (Salway et al., 1997) and Denmark. The PM results show that around 80, 20 and 10% of total road traffic TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 come from nonexhaust sources. In urban areas the emissions in many cases are more harmful due to the relatively higher population density. Here the exhaust emission share is a little larger. In the future the non-exhaust share of total particulate emissions will increase due to the effect of the step-wise strengthening of exhaust emission standards. The Danish PM10 emissions for urban areas are markedly lower than 50% as suggested by Düring et al. (2002). In a total emissions perspective two main reasons explain why no changes are made to the CEPMEIP road abrasion factors in the Danish inventory. Primarily, annual emission calculations must be regarded as average results made to provide environmental information in emission trends. Consequently the national vehicle fleet and mileage data behind the estimations are not able to reflect real world fleet composition and traffic behaviour in single streets. Secondly, local conditions such as weather conditions, road material and road surface maintenance level also have a strong effect on the resulting road abrasion rates. This means that it is essential to have correspondent air quality measurements and traffic counts on a local street scale if more qualified reverse calculations of the road abrasion factors should be made. The feasibility of making such reverse calculation estimates must be investigated in future research. Urban areas

All areas 100% 90% 80% 70%

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30%

Exhaust Non Exhaust

60% 50% 40%

Exhaust Non Exhaust

30% 20%

20% 10% 0%

10% 0%

TSP

PM10

PM2.5

TSP

PM10

PM2.5

Figure A2-4 Road traffic exhaust/non-exhaust PM emission share in 2000 for total mileage and urban areas

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3

Other mobile sources

3.1

Activity data

The activity data for other mobile sources consist of fuel use information provided by the DEA. The sectors: Inland waterways (small boats and pleasure crafts), agriculture, forestry, industry and household and gardening consist of off road working machines and equipment. For all sectors fuel use figures are given in appendix 2.2. Table A2-10 Danish fuel use for other mobile sources in 2000 Category Military Railways Inland waterways National fishing National sea traffic Domestic aviation Agriculture Forestry Industry Household and gardening Grand Total

3.2

GJ 1.52 3.09 0.90 9.45 4.88 1.91 17.44 0.06 12.17 1.16 52.58

Emission factors

For military ground material and railways aggregated emission factors for diesel are derived from the road traffic emission simulations made by NERI. The diesel emission factors for the remaining sectors come from the EMEP/CORINAIR guidebook, see CORINAIR (1999), however size fractions are taken from CEPMEIP. The biggest emission factors are seen for agricultural machinery (in this sector the diesel fuel use is relatively big compared to gasoline), whereas the emission factors for household and gardening are small (here only gasoline is used). The emission factors for all other fuel types come from CEPMEIP. For all sectors emission factors are given in appendix 2.2. Table A2-11 Danish PM emission factors for other mobile sources in 2000 Military Railways Inland waterways National fishing National sea traffic Domestic aviation Agriculture Forestry Industry Household and gardening

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TSP [g/GJ] 13.63 52.40 80.62 42.12 72.24 1.63 124.67 32.36 94.14 23.25

PM10 [g/GJ] 13.63 52.40 77.28 40.02 68.63 1.63 118.47 31.82 89.57 23.25

PM2.5 [g/GJ] 13.63 52.40 74.10 38.03 65.20 1.63 112.58 31.30 85.22 23.25

3.3

Results

For military aircraft, railways, national sea traffic, fishing and aviation the emissions are calculated using fuel related emission factors and fuel use from the Danish Energy Authority. The air traffic estimations are made separately for Landing and Take Offs (LTOs < 3000 ft) and cruise (> 3000 ft). The overall calculation scheme is explained in e.g. Winther (2001). The emissions from off road working machines and equipment in the sectors: Inland waterways, agriculture, forestry, industry and household and gardening are calculated with a new model developed at NERI (Winther et al., 1999). The new model takes into account the implementation of two emission legislation directives; one for non-road machinery (97/68/EC) and one for agricultural tractors (2000/25/EC) depending on engine size. Each directive has two stages, which become effective for new machinery in use in 1999-2001 and 1999-2003 respectively. Table A2-12 Total Danish PM emissions from other mobile sources in 2000 Military Railways Inland waterways National fishing National sea traffic Domestic aviation Agriculture Forestry Industry Household and gardening Grand Total

TSP [tonnes] PM10 [tonnes] PM2.5 [tonnes] 21 21 21 162 162 162 72 69 66 398 378 359 352 335 318 3 3 3 2174 2066 1963 2 2 2 1145 1090 1037 27 27 27 4357 4153 3959

The fuel use and emissions in internal navigation comprise the contributions from small boats, pleasure crafts, fishing vessels and ships leaving Danish ports with domestic destinations. The working machinery category comprises the working equipment and machines in agriculture, forestry, industry, household and gardening.

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Other mobile sources Fuel use 2000 Domestic aviation

Other mobile sources TSP 2000

Domestic aviation Internal navigation

Internal navigation Military Railways

Working machinery

Military Railways

Other mobile sources PM10 2000

Domestic aviation

Working machinery

Internal navigation

Working machinery

Other mobile sources PM2.5 2000

Domestic aviation

Internal navigation

Military

Military

Railways

Railways

Working machinery

Figure A2-5 Fuel use and emissions for the most dominant other mobile sources in 2000

The emission shares for agriculture and industry are approximately one half and one fourth, respectively, of the total for other mobile sources. The two sector’s fuel use shares are somewhat lower. Due to the implementation of the two stage EU emission directive, a possible strengthening of this, and a future directive for gasoline fuelled working machinery (2000/0336), the emissions from agricultural and industrial machinery (and working machinery in general) will decline in both absolute and relative terms.

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4

Total emissions

Table A2-13 Particulate emission totals for all transport modes in 2000 Category Road traffic Brake wear Tyre wear Road abrasion Military Railways Inland waterways National sea traffic National fishing Domestic LTO Domestic cruise Agriculture Forestry Industry Household and gardening UNECE total International sea traffic International LTO International cruise

TSP [tonnes] 3969 400 4632 9751 19 162 72 352 398 2 2 2174 2 1145 27 23106 7618 4 34

PM10 [tonnes] 3969 392 234 490 19 162 69 335 378 2 2 2066 2 1090 27 9235 7237 4 34

PM2.5 [tonnes] 3969 160 163 0 19 162 66 318 359 2 2 1963 2 1037 27 8249 6875 4 34

The particulate emissions figure from road abrasion is not included in the UNECE total. Excluded are also the emissions from international sea and air traffic, meaning sea vessels and aircraft leaving Danish ports or airports with foreign destinations. The latter contributions are reported to the UNECE as memo items only.

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5

Emission projections

Emission projections are made using the Danish official energy use forecast (provided by the Danish Energy Authority) together with the emission projection models for road transport and other mobile sources explained in Illerup et al (2002) and Winther (2002). For road transport the projections are based on the COPERT III metho-dology and use the vehicle fleet and mileage projections provided by the Danish Road Traffic Directorate. For other mobile sources fuel related emission factors are used. In this category future emission reductions for diesel engines are taken into account for working machinery and equipment in the sectors agriculture, forestry, industry and household and gardening. For the remaining other mobile sources no real emission improvements are expected. The 2002-2010 emission results for road transport (exhaust PM: and non-exhaust PM) and the 2001-2010 emission results for other mobile sources are shown in appendix 2.3-2.5. Table A2-14 Projections of exhaust emissions (PM2.5 ) for road transport in 2010 and relative changes to 2000 Category

Urban

Passenger Cars Light Duty Vehicles Heavy-duty Vehicles Buses Mopeds Motorcycles Grand total

150 384 145 82 28 12 801

Rural 82 289 208 58 7 10 654

Highway 59 109 123 15 0 4 310

Total 291 782 477 155 34 27 1766

%-change 2000-2010 -60 -56 -56 -52 10 17 -56

From 2000 to 2010 the total exhaust emissions are expected to decrease substantially due to the stepwise strengthening of emission standards for all vehicle types (except 2-wheelers). Table A2-15 Projections of non-exhaust emissions for road transport in 2010 and relative changes to 2000 Vehicle category Passenger cars Light duty veh. Heavy-duty veh. Buses Mopeds Motorcycles Grand total

Brake wear (tonnes) TSP PM10 PM2.5 248 243 99 77 76 31 106 104 42 32 31 13 0 0 0 2 2 1 465 456 186

Tyre wear (tonnes) Road abrasion (tonnes) TSP PM10 PM2.5 TSP PM10 PM2.5 2850 145 101 5989 302 0 926 46 32 1954 98 0 1222 61 43 2577 129 0 364 18 13 768 38 0 5 0 0 10 1 0 19 1 1 40 2 0 5385 271 190 11338 569 0

Total (tonnes) %-change TSP PM10 PM2.5 2000-2010 9088 689 200 11 2956 220 63 26 3904 294 85 22 1163 88 25 16 16 1 0 11 61 5 1 24 17189 1296 376 16

The 16% increase in non-exhaust emissions from 2000 to 2010 is determined by the development in total mileage for road transportation vehicles, which in turn rely on the vehicle fleet numbers and corresponding annual mileages.

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Table A2-16 Projections of PM emissions for other mobile sources in 2010 and relative changes to 2000 Category Military Railways Inland waterways National sea National fishing Civil aviation Agriculture Forestry Industry Household Total

2010 18 83 83 221 393 3 1901 2 656 31 3390

TSP PM10 PM2.5 %-change 2010 %-change 2010 %-change 2000-2010 2000-2010 2000-2010 -14 18 -14 18 -14 -49 83 -49 83 -49 15 79 14 76 15 -44 209 -45 199 -45 12 373 11 355 12 0 3 0 3 0 -13 1807 -13 1718 -12 0 2 0 2 0 -43 625 -43 596 -43 15 31 15 31 15 -22 3231 -22 3081 -22

The development towards lower railway emissions in 2010 is caused by the increased use of electrical locomotives in this sector. For sea vessels, civil aviation and household the emissions in 2010 solely rely on this years fuel consumption, since no improvements in emission factors are taken into account in the calculations. For agricultural and industrial machinery the emissions are expected to decline with 12 and 43% from 2000 to 2010 due to the stepwise introduction of stricter emission standards for the vehicles in question.

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6

Conclusion

Even though the available fleet and mileage data are adequate for emissions calculations with the COPERT II model, a more precise classification of gross vehicle weights for heavy-duty vehicles and annual mileages given per first registration year for light and heavy-duty vehicles would improve the estimate of total exhaust emissions of particulate matter. Detailed Danish fleet and mileage data are gathered by the Danish Motor Vehicle Inspection Office in the Danish inspection and maintenance programme and could be made avail-able as input data for emission modelling in 2003 depending on external resources. In this study no change in particulate exhaust emission factors is proposed on the basis of comparisons with Handbook emission factors for diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles, and Swedish EMV emission factors for all vehicle types. Instead areas with poor or missing data should await the availability of new and COPERT consistent emission factors in 2004. However the use of the Swedish factors will be considered depending of the outcome of parallel dispersion studies at NERI. Modifications of the CEPMEIP emission factors behind the Danish inventory is made for brake wear using PM10 and PM2.5 fractions of 98 and 40% of total TSP derived from the findings in other studies. In the same way a new PM2.5 emission factor is estimated for tyre wear as 70% of the existing factor for PM10 . It is decided to maintain the factors for road abrasion and instead let the outcome of parallel research at NERI and other non-exhaust emission research activities be the basis for future emission factor improvements. The 2010 exhaust emissions of particulate matter for road transportation vehicles and working machinery in agriculture and industry are expected to be respectively 56, 12 and 43% less, than the emission figures for 2000. The expected emission decline is due to the step-wise strengthening of emission standards. For non-exhaust emissions there are an expected 16% increase in the same time period. In relative terms this means that the non-exhaust emissions will become more important in the years to come.

108

References ARTEMIS (2002): A 5FP Project of the European Commission in the Competitive and Sustainable Growth (GROWTH) Programme, sponsored by DG TREN Contract No: 2000-RD.10429. v.d. Brink, R. M. M. (1996): Particulate emissions from road traffic: emission factors, size distribution and chemical composition, RIVM Rapport 773002008, 57 pp. (in dutch). CORINAIR (1999): Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook Vol. 3, Second Edition, EMEP Task Force on Emission Inventories, European Environmental Agency, Copenhagen. Düring, I., Jacob, J., Lohmeyer, A., Lutz, M., Reichenbächer, W. (2002): Estimation of the “Non-Exhaust Pipe” PM10 Emissions of Streets for Practical Traffic Air Pollution Modelling. In: Sturm, P. J. (ed): 11th International Symposium Transport and Air Pollution. Report of the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics. Volume 81-1. Fauser P (1999). Particulate air pollution with emphasis on traffic generated aerosols. Risø National Laboratory, Denmark, Risø-R-1053(EN), pp 149. Gustafsson (2001): Icke-avgasrelaterede partiklar i vägmiljön. Litteraturöversikt, Väg- och transportforskningsinstitutet, Sweden, VTI meddelande 910, 52 pp. (in Swedish). Hausberger, S., Rodler, J., Sturm, P. (2002): Emission Factors for HDV and Validation by Tunnel Measurements. In: Sturm, P. J. (ed): 11th International Symposium Transport and Air Pollution. Report of the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics. Volume 81-1. Hammarström, U., Henriksson, P. (1997): Indata til EMV-modellen, ett datorprogram för beräkning av avgasemissioner från vägtrafik. Källredovisning, VTI notat Nr: 5-1997. Hammarström, U., Karlsson, B. (1998): EMV – a PC program for calculation exhaust emissions from road traffic. Program description and user guide, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden, VTI meddelande 849A, 62 pp. Illerup J., Pedersen K.B., Mikkelsen M.H., Winther M., Bruun H.G. (2002): Projection Models 2010. Danish Emissions of SO2, NOX, NMVOC and NH3. National Environmental Research Institute. 192 pp. NERI Technical Report No. 414. Jørgensen, K. (2001a): Fuel consumption of passenger cars. In: Lohmann-Hansen, A. & Nielsen, J. (red.): Trafikdage på Aalborg Universitet 2001. Supplementsrapport. Transportrådet og Aalborg Universitet. Trafikforskningsgruppen. - ISP's skriftserie 255:207-221. Jørgensen, K. (2001b): Personbilers brændstofforbrug – salg og bestand. Dokumentationsnotat. Forskningscenter Risø, Afdeling for Systemanalyse (in Danish: Available from the author upon re-quest). Klein, J., v.d. Brink, R., Hulskotte, J. Annema, J. A., v.d. Roovaart, J., Borst, M., Gense, R., v. d. Burgwal, E. (2002): Methoden voor de berekening van de emissies door mobiele bronnen in Nederland. Rapportagereeks MilieuMonitor Nr. 4 (in Dutch). Luhana, L., Sokhi, R., Warner, L., Mao, H., Boulter, P., McCrae, I., Wright, J., Reeves, N., Osborn, D. (2002): Characterisation of Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Vehicles (PARTICULATES). Deliverable no. 8. Non-exhaust particulate measurements: results, Version 1.0 – July 2002, 93 pp. Ntziachristos, L., Samaras, Z. (2000): COPERT III Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport - Methodology and Emission Factors (Version 2.1). Tehnical report No 49. European Environ109

ment Agency, November 2000, Copenhagen. Ntziachristos, L., Samaras, Z. (2002): Future Requirements for the Characterisation of Exhaust Particulate Emissions. In: Sturm, P.J. (ed): 11th International Symposium Transport and Air Pollution. Report of the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics. Volume 81-1. Particulates (2002): A 5FP Project of the European Commission in the Competitive and Sustainable Growth (GROWTH) Programme, sponsored by DG TREN Contract No: 2000-RD.10429. Rauterberg-Wulff A (1999). Determination of Emission Factors for Tyre Wear Particles up to 10µm by Tunnel Measurements. Proceedings of 8th International Symposium “Transport and Air Pollution”. Salway A G, Eggleston H S, Goodwin J W L, and Murrells T P (1997): National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). UK Emissions of Air Pollutants 1970-1995. National Environmental Technology Centre (NETCEN), Culham, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB. TNO (1997): Particulate Matter Emissions (PM10 , PM2.5 , PM0.1 ) in Europe in 1990 and 1993. TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation, Apeldoorn, The Netherlands. TNO (2001): TNO CEPMEIP database (www.air.sk/tno/cepmeip). USEPA (1995). Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, USEPA Report AP-42, Volume I, 5th Edition. Warner, L. R., Sokhi, R. S., Luhana, L., Boulter, P. G. (2000): Non-exhaust particle emissions from road transport: a literature review, unpublished report prepared for TRL and CEH under the European Commission’s 5th Framework PARTICULATES Project (Contract No. 2000-RD-11091), 48 pp. (only available at TRL at direct request). Warner, L. R., Sokhi, R. S., Luhana, L., Boulter, P. G., McCrae, I. (2002): Non-exhaust particle emissions from road transport. In: Sturm, P. J. (ed): 11th International Symposium Transport and Air Pollution. Report of the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics. Volume 81-1. Winther, M., Illerup, J., Fenhann, J., Kilde, N.A., (1999): The Danish CORINAIR Inventories – Timeseries 1975-1996 of Emissions to the Atmosphere. 83 pp. - NERI Technical Report no. 287. Winther, M. (2001): 1998 Fuel Use and Emissions for Danish IFR Flights. Environmental Project no. 628, 2001. 112 p. Danish EPA. Prepared by the National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark. Electronic report at homepage of Danish EPA http://www.mst.dk/udgiv/Publications/2001/87-7944-661-2/html/. Winther, M.(2002): Forecasting Road Traffic Emissions and Effects from New Technologies. I: Sturm, P. (ed): 11th International Symposium Transport and Air Pollution. Proceedings. Vol. II.

110

Appendix

111

Appendix 2.1 Fleet and mileage numbers, emission factors (g/km) and total exhaust emissions (tonnes) for road transport in 2000 Sector

Subsector

Tech

FYear LYear Popula- Mile- PMu_ PMr_EF PMh_ tion age EF EF 0 1969 1744 11507 0,063 0,044 0,041

PMu

PMr

PMh

Passenger Cars

Gasoline <1,4 l

PRE ECE

Passenger Cars

Gasoline <1,4 l

ECE 15/00-01

1970

1978

Passenger Cars

Gasoline <1,4 l

ECE 15/02

1979

1980

7348 11507

0,063

0,044

0,041

1,864

1,711

0,659

Passenger Cars

Gasoline <1,4 l

ECE 15/03

1981

1985

118929 12591

0,042

0,029

0,029

22,012

19,976

8,251

Passenger Cars

Gasoline <1,4 l

ECE 15/04

1986

1990

235890 14356

0,030

0,020

0,020

35,559

31,156

12,869

Passenger Cars

Gasoline <1,4 l

Euro I - 91/441/EEC

1991

1996

270268 18497

0,001

0,001

0,001

1,925

1,610

0,665

Passenger Cars

Gasoline <1,4 l

Euro II - 94/12/EC

1997

2000

209279 24054

0,001

0,001

0,001

1,938

1,621

0,670

Passenger Cars

Gasoline 1,4 - 2,0 l PRE ECE

0

1969

1356 11507

0,063

0,044

0,041

0,344

0,316

0,122

Passenger Cars

Gasoline 1,4 - 2,0 l ECE 15/00-01

1970

1978

12537 11507

0,063

0,044

0,041

3,181

2,920

1,124

Passenger Cars

Gasoline 1,4 - 2,0 l ECE 15/02

1979

1980

4642 11507

0,063

0,044

0,041

1,178

1,081

0,416

Passenger Cars

Gasoline 1,4 - 2,0 l ECE 15/03

1981

1985

67222 12591

0,042

0,029

0,029

12,442

11,291

4,664

Passenger Cars

Gasoline 1,4 - 2,0 l ECE 15/04

1986

1990

160800 14356

0,030

0,020

0,020

24,239

21,238

8,772

Passenger Cars

Gasoline 1,4 - 2,0 l Euro I - 91/441/EEC

1991

1996

309587 18497

0,001

0,001

0,001

2,205

1,844

0,762

Passenger Cars

Gasoline 1,4 - 2,0 l Euro II - 94/12/EC

1997

2000

287758 24054

0,001

0,001

0,001

2,665

2,229

0,921

Passenger Cars

Gasoline >2,0 l

PRE ECE

0

1969

129 11507

0,063

0,044

0,041

0,033

0,030

0,012

Passenger Cars

Gasoline >2,0 l

ECE 15/00-01

1970

1978

1110 11507

0,063

0,044

0,041

0,282

0,259

0,099

Passenger Cars

Gasoline >2,0 l

ECE 15/02

1979

1980

371 11507

0,063

0,044

0,041

0,094

0,086

0,033

Passenger Cars

Gasoline >2,0 l

ECE 15/03

1981

1985

9722 12591

0,042

0,029

0,029

1,799

1,633

0,674

Passenger Cars

Gasoline >2,0 l

ECE 15/04

1986

1990

21251 14356

0,030

0,020

0,020

3,203

2,807

1,159

Passenger Cars

Gasoline >2,0 l

Euro I - 91/441/EEC

1991

1996

30519 18497

0,001

0,001

0,001

0,217

0,182

0,075

Passenger Cars

Gasoline >2,0 l

Euro II - 94/12/EC

1997

2000

26160 24054

0,001

0,001

0,001

0,242

0,203

0,084

Passenger Cars

Diesel <2,0 l

Euro I - 91/441/EEC

1991

1996

39518 35677

0,103

0,035

0,072

50,746

22,388

19,260

1997

2000

33856 45221

0,103

0,035

0,072

55,106

24,311

20,915

0

1990

42861 26288

0,358

0,132

0,170 141,245

68,519

36,393

17980 11507

0,063

0,044

0,041

0,442

0,406

0,156

4,562

4,187

1,612

Passenger Cars

Diesel <2,0 l

Euro II - 94/12/EC

Passenger Cars

Diesel <2,0 l

Conventional

Passenger Cars

Diesel >2,0 l

Euro I - 91/441/EEC

1991

1996

2087 35677

0,103

0,035

0,072

2,680

1,182

1,017

Passenger Cars

Diesel >2,0 l

Euro II - 94/12/EC

1997

2000

1789 45221

0,103

0,035

0,072

2,912

1,285

1,105

Passenger Cars

Diesel >2,0 l

Conventional

0

1990

2228 26288

0,358

0,132

0,170

7,342

3,562

1,892

Passenger Cars

LPG

Conventional

0

1990

32 12591

0,040

0,030

0,025

0,006

0,006

0,002

Passenger Cars

2-Stroke

Conventional

0

9999

300 12591

0,120

0,120

0,120

0,159

0,209

0,086

Light Duty Vehicles

Gasoline <3,5t

Conventional

0

1994

28488 18101

0,040

0,040

0,040

7,219

10,313

3,094

Light Duty Vehicles

Gasoline <3,5t

Euro I - 93/59/EEC

1995

1998

15979 18101

0,001

0,001

0,001

0,091

0,101

0,030

Light Duty Vehicles

Gasoline <3,5t

Euro II - 96/69/EC

1999

2001

9299 18101

0,001

0,001

0,001

0,053

0,059

0,018

Light Duty Vehicles

Diesel <3,5 t

Conventional

0

1994

115695 32789

0,513

0,303

0,322 681,559 575,302 183,136

Light Duty Vehicles

Diesel <3,5 t

Euro I - 93/59/EEC

1995

1998

64894 32789

0,126

0,066

0,090

93,654

70,005

28,853

Light Duty Vehicles

Diesel <3,5 t

Euro II - 96/69/EC

1999

2001

37766 32789

0,126

0,066

0,090

54,503

40,740

16,791

Heavy-duty Vehicles

Gasoline >3,5 t

Conventional

0

9999

257 22009

0,400

0,400

0,400

0,724

1,063

0,475

Heavy-duty Vehicles

Diesel 3,5 - 7,5 t

Conventional

0

1993

2406 34246

0,369

0,252

0,206

9,728

9,760

3,558

Heavy-duty Vehicles

Diesel 3,5 - 7,5 t

1994

1996

1057 34246

0,240

0,164

0,134

2,778

2,787

1,016

Heavy-duty Vehicles

Diesel 3,5 - 7,5 t

1997

2001

1703 34246

0,148

0,101

0,082

2,754

2,763

1,007

Heavy-duty Vehicles

Diesel 7,5 - 16 t

Euro I - 91/542/EEC Stage I Euro II - 91/542/EEC Stage II Conventional

0

1993

5085 37550

0,727

0,492

0,399

44,427

44,124

15,999

Heavy-duty Vehicles

Diesel 7,5 - 16 t

1994

1996

2235 37550

0,473

0,320

0,259

12,692

12,606

4,571

Heavy-duty Vehicles

Diesel 7,5 - 16 t

Euro I - 91/542/EEC Stage I Euro II - 91/542/EEC Stage II

1997

2001

3600 37550

0,182

0,123

0,100

7,863

7,810

2,832

112

Heavy-duty Vehicles

Diesel 16 - 32 t

Conventional

Heavy-duty Vehicles

Diesel 16 - 32 t

Heavy-duty Vehicles

Diesel 16 - 32 t

Heavy-duty Vehicles

Diesel >32t

Heavy-duty Vehicles

Diesel >32t

Heavy-duty Vehicles

Diesel >32t

Buses

Urban Buses

Buses

Urban Buses

Buses

Urban Buses

Buses

Coaches

Buses

Coaches

Buses

Coaches

Mopeds Mopeds

0

1993

7933 64092

0,871

0,594

0,484

84,132 135,864

88,598

Euro I - 91/542/EEC Stage I Euro II - 91/542/EEC Stage II Conventional

1994

1996

3486 64092

0,566

0,386

0,315

24,031

38,807

25,306

1997

2001

5616 64092

0,218

0,148

0,121

14,890

24,046

15,680

0

1993

7361 64092

0,929

0,638

0,522

83,238 135,474

88,713

Euro I - 91/542/EEC Stage I Euro II - 91/542/EEC Stage II Conventional

1994

1996

3234 64092

0,604

0,415

0,340

23,770

38,688

25,334

1997

2001

5211 64092

0,232

0,160

0,131

14,731

23,976

15,701

0

1993

2319 95765

0,643

0,442

0,345

72,843

40,209

6,125

Euro I - 91/542/EEC Stage I Euro II - 91/542/EEC Stage II Conventional

1994

1996

852 95765

0,418

0,287

0,224

17,396

9,602

1,463

1997

2001

1345 95765

0,257

0,177

0,138

16,899

9,328

1,421

0

1993

2724 77850

0,676

0,454

0,367

45,851

45,259

16,357

1994

1996

1001 77850

0,439

0,295

0,239

10,952

10,810

3,907

1997

2001

1579 77850

0,169

0,114

0,092

6,644

6,559

2,370

<50 cm³

Euro I - 91/542/EEC Stage I Euro II - 91/542/EEC Stage II Conventional

0

1999

23,612

5,539

0,000

<50 cm³

97/24/EC Stage I

2000

Motorcycles

2-stroke >50 cm³

Conventional

0

Motorcycles

4-stroke <250 cm³

Conventional

Motorcycles

4-stroke <250 cm³

97/24/EC

Motorcycles

Conventional

Motorcycles

4-stroke 250 - 750 cm³ 4-stroke 250 - 750 cm³ 4-stroke >750 cm³

Motorcycles

4-stroke >750 cm³

97/24/EC

Motorcycles

97/24/EC Conventional

150522

1614

0,120

0,120

2002

9478

1614

0,120

0,120

1,487

0,349

0,000

1999

11054

6029

0,120

0,120

0,120

3,759

3,119

1,120

0

1999

11916

6029

0,040

0,040

0,040

1,351

1,121

0,402

2000

2003

613

6029

0,040

0,040

0,040

0,069

0,058

0,021

0

1999

32768

6029

0,040

0,040

0,040

3,714

3,082

1,106

2000

2003

1685

6029

0,040

0,040

0,040

0,191

0,158

0,057

0

1999

14894

6029

0,040

0,040

0,040

1,688

1,401

0,503

2000

2003

766

6029

0,040

0,040

0,040

0,087

0,072

0,026

113

Appendix 2.2

Fuel use, emission factors and total emissions for other mobile sources in 2000

Category

Fuel type

Military Military Military Military Military Railways Railways Inland waterways Inland waterways National sea traffic National sea traffic National sea traffic National sea traffic National fishing National fishing National fishing National fishing International sea traffic International sea traffic Domestic LTO Domestic LTO International LTO International LTO Domestic cruise International cruise Agriculture Agriculture Forestry Forestry Industry Industry Industry Household and gardening

DIESEL OIL MOTOR GASOLINE AVIAT. GASOLINE JET FUEL JET FUEL DIESEL OIL MOTOR GASOLINE MOTOR GASOLINE DIESEL OIL RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL KEROSENE LPG GAS OIL KEROSENE MOTOR GASOLINE LPG RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL JET FUEL AVIAT. GASOLINE JET FUEL AVIAT. GASOLINE JET FUEL JET FUEL DIESEL OIL MOTOR GASOLINE DIESEL OIL MOTOR GASOLINE DIESEL OIL MOTOR GASOLINE LPG MOTOR GASOLINE

114

Fuel use TSP PM: PM2.5 TSP PM10 PM2.5 [GJ] [g/GJ] [g/GJ] [g/GJ] [tonnes] [tonnes] [tonnes] 368508 46.6 46.6 46.6 17 17 17 887 4.4 4.4 4.4 0 0 0 8894 10.0 10.0 10.0 0 0 0 114645 1.2 1.2 1.2 0 0 0 1031806 1.2 1.2 1.2 1 1 1 3078730 52.5 52.5 52.5 162 162 162 7720 4.4 4.4 4.4 0 0 0 533361.7 23.3 23.3 23.3 12 12 12 363329.4 164.8 156.6 148.8 60 57 54 1508806 139.4 132.4 125.8 210 200 190 3367109 42.2 40.0 38.0 142 135 128 626 97.6 92.7 88.0 0 0 0 138 12.4 12.4 12.4 0 0 0 9346878 42.2 40.0 38.0 394 374 356 24708 97.6 92.7 88.0 2 2 2 66587 23.3 23.3 23.3 2 2 2 12742 12.4 12.4 12.4 0 0 0 33185389 200.5 190.5 181.0 6654 6321 6005 22872342 42.2 40.0 38.0 964 916 870 591311 1.2 1.2 1.2 2 2 2 101400.4 10.0 10.0 10.0 2 2 2 3299387 1.2 1.2 1.2 4 4 4 8705.594 10.0 10.0 10.0 0 0 0 1648114 1.2 1.2 1.2 1 1 1 29719188 1.2 1.2 1.2 34 34 34 16931053 127.7 121.3 115.3 2162 2054 1952 509036.1 23.3 23.3 23.3 12 12 12 4896.27 142.3 135.2 128.4 1 1 1 59089 23.3 23.3 23.3 1 1 1 9650646 115.3 109.5 104.0 1113 1057 1004 139893.5 23.3 23.3 23.3 3 3 3 2375942 12.4 12.4 12.4 30 30 30 1162275 23.3 23.3 23.3 27 27 27

Appendix 2.3

SectorID Passenger Cars Passenger Cars Passenger Cars Passenger Cars Passenger Cars Passenger Cars Passenger Cars Passenger Cars Passenger Cars Light Duty Vehicles Light Duty Vehicles Light Duty Vehicles Light Duty Vehicles Light Duty Vehicles Light Duty Vehicles Light Duty Vehicles Light Duty Vehicles Light Duty Vehicles Heavy-duty Vehicles Heavy-duty Vehicles Heavy-duty Vehicles Heavy-duty Vehicles Heavy-duty Vehicles Heavy-duty Vehicles Heavy-duty Vehicles Heavy-duty Vehicles Heavy-duty Vehicles Buses Buses Buses Buses Buses Buses Buses Buses Buses Mopeds Mopeds Mopeds Mopeds Mopeds Mopeds Mopeds Mopeds Mopeds Motorcycles Motorcycles

Emissions of exhaust particulate matter (tonnes) for road transport 2002-2010 Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2002 2003

Urban 267 248 230 215 197 183 170 159 150 810 754 699 646 595 536 481 430 384 308 288 269 250 232 208 186 165 145 162 153 144 135 127 115 103 92 82 24 24 25 26 26 27 27 28 28 11 11

Rural 182 164 148 133 118 107 97 89 82 643 596 549 504 461 413 368 326 289 448 419 390 363 336 301 268 237 208 115 109 102 96 89 81 73 65 58 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 9 9

Highway 104 97 90 84 77 71 66 62 59 218 204 190 177 164 149 134 121 109 270 252 234 217 201 180 159 141 123 30 28 26 25 23 21 19 17 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3

Total 553 509 468 432 392 361 333 310 291 1671 1554 1438 1327 1220 1097 983 877 782 1026 959 893 830 769 689 613 542 477 307 290 272 255 239 216 194 174 155 29 30 31 31 32 33 34 34 34 23 24

115

Motorcycles Motorcycles Motorcycles Motorcycles Motorcycles Motorcycles Motorcycles

116

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

11 12 12 12 12 12 12

9 10 10 10 10 10 10

3 3 4 4 4 4 4

24 25 25 26 26 26 27

Appendix 2.4

Total emissions of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 (tonnes) for other mobile sources

TSP Category Military Railways 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

39 41 38 34 32 29 26 23 21 18

150 84 84 83 83 83 83 83 83 83

Inland National National Civil Agriculture Forestry Industry Housewaterways sea fishing aviation hold 72 348 376 4 2.167 2 1.106 27 73 258 393 3 2.143 2 1.068 27 74 245 393 3 2.147 2 1.029 28 76 233 393 3 2.117 2 974 28 77 221 393 3 2.089 2 918 29 78 221 393 3 2.056 2 859 29 79 221 393 3 2.021 2 797 30 81 221 393 3 1.983 2 733 30 82 221 393 3 1.943 2 695 31 83 221 393 3 1.901 2 656 31

Total

Inland National National Civil Agriculture Forestry Industry Housewaterways sea fishing aviation hold 69 330 357 4 2.060 2 1.052 27 70 245 373 3 2.036 2 1.016 27 71 233 373 3 2.040 2 979 28 72 221 373 3 2.012 2 927 28 74 209 373 3 1.985 2 874 29 75 209 373 3 1.954 2 818 29 76 209 373 3 1.920 2 759 30 77 209 373 3 1.885 2 699 30 78 209 373 3 1.846 2 662 31 79 209 373 3 1.807 2 625 31

Total

Inland National National Civil Agriculture Forestry Industry Housewaterways sea fishing aviation hold 67 314 340 4 1.958 2 1.002 27 67 233 355 3 1.936 2 968 27 68 222 355 3 1.940 2 933 28 70 210 355 3 1.913 2 883 28 71 199 355 3 1.888 2 833 29 72 199 355 3 1.858 2 779 29 73 199 355 3 1.826 2 723 30 74 199 355 3 1.792 2 666 30 75 199 355 3 1.756 2 631 31 76 199 355 3 1.718 2 596 31

Total

4.291 4.091 4.042 3.943 3.846 3.752 3.654 3.552 3.472 3.390

PM10 Category Military Railways 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

39 41 38 34 32 29 26 23 21 18

150 84 84 83 83 83 83 83 83 83

4.091 3.897 3.851 3.757 3.664 3.575 3.482 3.384 3.309 3.231

PM2.5 Category Military Railways 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

39 41 38 34 32 29 26 23 21 18

150 84 84 83 83 83 83 83 83 83

3.902 3.715 3.671 3.581 3.493 3.409 3.320 3.227 3.155 3.081

117

Appendix 2.5 Category Passenger cars Passenger cars Passenger cars Passenger cars Passenger cars Passenger cars Passenger cars Passenger cars Passenger cars Light duty vehicles Light duty vehicles Light duty vehicles Light duty vehicles Light duty vehicles Light duty vehicles Light duty vehicles Light duty vehicles Light duty vehicles Heavy-duty vehicles Heavy-duty vehicles Heavy-duty vehicles Heavy-duty vehicles Heavy-duty vehicles Heavy-duty vehicles Heavy-duty vehicles Heavy-duty vehicles Heavy-duty vehicles Buses Buses Buses Buses Buses Buses Buses Buses Buses Mopeds Mopeds Mopeds Mopeds Mopeds Mopeds Mopeds Mopeds Mopeds Motorcycles Motorcycles Motorcycles

118

ForecastYear 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2002 2003 2004

Source

TSPU TSPR

TSPH PM10U PM10R PM10H PM2.5U PM2.5R

PM2.5H

Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion

1822 1868 1906 1948 1987 2022 2054 2081 2096 592 606 618 631 642 653 663 674 684 502 512 520 529 536 543 550 557 563 299 303 306 309 311 313 315 317 318 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 15 16 16

989 1014 1035 1057 1078 1098 1115 1130 1138 254 260 265 270 275 280 284 289 293 751 766 778 791 802 812 822 832 843 103 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 111 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2395 2454 2506 2560 2611 2658 2699 2735 2755 845 866 883 901 917 933 948 963 977 1044 1064 1081 1099 1114 1129 1143 1157 1171 316 320 323 326 329 331 334 336 338 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 13 13 14

92 94 96 98 100 102 103 105 106 30 30 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 25 26 26 26 27 27 28 28 28 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

121 124 126 129 131 134 136 138 139 42 43 44 45 46 47 47 48 49 52 53 54 55 56 57 57 58 59 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 57 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 15 38 38 39 40 40 41 41 42 42 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Motorcycles Motorcycles Motorcycles Motorcycles Motorcycles Motorcycles

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion Road abrasion

17 17 18 18 19 19

14 14 15 15 15 16

5 5 5 5 6 6

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

119

[Blank page]

120

Appendix 3

Emission of particulate matter from the agricultural sector

121

Contents 1 Methods and assumptions 2 References / sources of information 3 Emission 4 Uncertainties 5 Information of quality assurance&quality control (QA&QC) 6 Improvements

References

122

123 123 123 125 125 125

126

Emission of particulate matter from the agricultural sector Recently, there has been an increasing interest in evaluating the particulate emission from the agricultural sector. Investigations have shown that farmers as well as the livestock increase the chance of developing lung- and respiratory related diseases by this particulate emission (Hartung & Seedorf, 1999) since the particles are able to carry bacteria, viruses and other organic compounds. This is especially a problem in relation to the indoor working environment. This paper is the first approach to evaluate the particulate emission from the Danish agricultural sector.

1

Methods and assumptions

The calculation of this emission inventory is based on the CEPMEIP database established by TNO (http://www.air.sk/tno/cepmeip/). The data background for particulate emission is primarily based on investigations of North European stables (Takai et al., 1998). Due to the lack of data this inventory only includes emission from stables. Even these data are uncertain. Subsequently, it is planned to incorporate particulate emission from arable farming – i.e. harvesting and field preparation by machines. The particle emission includes primary particles in the form of dust from stables. Three main types of stables, cattle-, pigs- and poultry stable, are included in this inventory. Furthermore poultry is divided into two categories – “poultry, chickens” and “poultry, other”.

2

References – sources of information

The number of animals is based on Statistics Denmark, Agricultural Statistic (www.dst.dk). The emission factor for cattle, pigs and “poultry, chickens” is based on Takai et al. (1998), and for “poultry, other” the value from CEPMEIP database has been used.

3

Emission

The emission is calculated as the summary of activity (a) multiplied by the emission factor (ef) for each activity. The emission is estimated as Total Suspended Particulate (TSP): E total, TSP =

∑ a i • ef i

In Takai, et al. (1998), dust emission from stables is estimated as ”Inhalable dust”. This is defined as particles that can be transported into the body by the respiratory system. Approximately, “inhalable dust” is equal to TSP (Hinz, T., 2002 and ISO/CEN, 1993). For each source of emission, the proportion of PM2.5 and PM10 is estimated – i.e. particles with a diameter smaller than 2,5 µm and 10 µm, respectively. The distribution of particle size is based on CEPMEIP database. Here, PM2.5 constitute 10% of TSP and PM10 constitute 45% of TSP. This distribution is in accordance with measurements from an investigation made in Finland on 15 pig stables (Louhekainen et al., 1987a). In 2001 the particle emission from agricultural activities is estimated to 14.200 tonnes (ETSP- ) – see Table A31. The main part of the emission originates from pig stables, whereas emission from poultry and cattle are minor sources.

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Table A3-1. Emission factors used to estimate the PM emission from agricultural activities PM Emission from animal production 2001

No. of animal

1000 head Animal category 1) Poultry, chickens Poultry, other poultry Stock, cattle

3)

Livestock, pigs

4)

2)

Emission factor

PM10

Emission

PM2.5 TSP g/head/ year

PM10 Mg/year

PM2.5 Mg/year

TSP Mg/year

19329

47.3

10.5

105.1

914

203

2031

889

249.2

55.3

553.1

222

49

492

1907

433.6

96.4

963.6

827

184

1838

10110

437.6

97.2

972.4

4424

983

9831

6387

1419

14191

Emission, total 1Laying hens and broilers; 2Turkey, geese and duck; 3Dairy cattle and non-dairy (heifer, bulls, calves and suckling cattle); 4 Sows and slaughter pigs (Weaners under and over 50 kg)

In the period of 1990 to 2001, using the same method for consecutive years, it is seen that the total emission of particles (ETSP ) has increased with 13% (Figure A3-1). The increment is due to an increase in the livestock production – especially the pig production.

Emission of particual matter from the agricultural sector 20.000

Mg TSP

15.000

10.000

Total Pigs

5.000

Poultry Cattle

19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01

0

Figure A3-1. Particle emission from agricultural activities

The main part of the dust emission from stables originates from feeding and bedding. A smaller part originates from hair, skin, insects and grain pollen (Klimont et al., 2002). The amount of emission depends of the type of livestock, animal density and the age and activity of the animals. Furthermore, feeding strategy, the stable system and the physical conditions like ventilation, temperature, light and humidity has an effect on the amount of particle emission. Therefore, the emission from different types of stable systems can vary considerably (Takai et al., 1998, Klimont et al., 2002). For example, high humidity in pig- and cattle stables with deep litter reduces the dust emission. Therefore the emission from theses stable types is smaller than stables with tied-up systems. So far, the method to estimate the particle emission only depends of the number of animals. However, it is necessary to take into account the variation in emission from different stable systems. Nevertheless, at this

124

stage it is necessary to gain more knowledge on this issue before it is taken into account. Experiments have shown that the dust emission can be reduced markedly by adding lipids into the feed as well as by spraying the stables with an oil-water mixture. In this way, the emission can be reduced by up to 85% (Takai and Pedersen, 2000).

4

Uncertainties

The estimation of the particle emission is connected with high uncertainty in the order of several 100%. One reason is that the number of measurements of dust in stables is very limited and that the few existing measurements vary considerably. Likewise, the contribution of PM2.5 and PM10 is uncertain.

5

Information of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC)

In the preparation of this emission inventory the Danish Institute of Agricultural Science (DIAS) was consulted. They have been involved in the measurements of the dust emission from stables. DIAS has confirmed that the emission factors used in the inventory are the most reliable estimates. DIAS points out the necessity of including emission data from different stable system as soon as they are available. When using the CEPMEIP database, the total emission from the agricultural sector is estimated to a lower value than the Danish calculation. Unfortunately, it has not been possible to look into the basis of the emission factor estimates in CEPMEIP database. It is apparent that, there is a discrepancy in the aggregation of the number of animals for each category. However, considering the uncertainties this distinction is insignificant. Table A3-2. Emission of PM difference in use of methods Emission inventory

PM emission tonnes TPS 2001

CEPMEIP

13,800

DK

14,200

In a report prepared by TNO, the particulate emission from 15 European countries has been estimated (Berdowski et al. 1997). Here it appears that the emission from the agricultural sector con-tribute approximately 5% of the total emission. In Denmark the emission from agricultural activities makes up about 24% of the total emission. The higher emission is due to the fact that the agricultural production is relatively big compared with the size of the country.

6

Improvements

In future, it is planned to include dust emission from arable farming. Inventories from Finland show that dust emission from arable farming contributes approximately 25% of the total emission from the agricultural sector (Karvosenoja et al., 2001 and Louhekainen et al., 1987b). The particle emission from this source is substantial and it is therefore important to include this in future emission inventories.

125

References Hartung, J., and Seedorf, J., 1999. Characterisation of Airborne Dust in Livestock Housing and its Effects on Animal and Environment. International Symposium on Dust control in animal production facilities, June 1999. Hinz, T., 2002. PM in and from agriculture – introduction and overview. FAL Agricultural Research, Special Issue s. 1-6. Karvosenoja, N., Johansson, M., Kupiainen, K., 2001. The importance of primary particulate emissions from non-combustion sources in Finland. Draft. Klimont, Z., Cofala, J., Bertok, I., Amann, M., Heyes, C., Gyarfas, F., 2002. Moddeling Patriculate Emissions i Europe – A Framework to Estimate Reduction Potential and Control Costs. IIASA Interim Report IR-02076. Louhekainen, K., Vilhunen, P., Kangas, J., Terho, E.O., 1987a. Dust exposure in piggeries. European journal of respiratory diseases, supp. 152/1987, p. 80-90. Louhekainen, K., Kangas, J., Husman, K., Terho, E.O., 1987b. Total concentration of dust. European journal of respiratory diseases, supp. 152/1987, p. 73-79. Takai, H. and Pedersen, S., 2000. A Comparisson Study of Different Dust Control Methods in Pig Buildings. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, May 2000 Vol. 16(3): 269-277. Takai, H., Pedersen, S., Johnsen, J.O., Metz, J.H.M., Grott Koerkamp, P.W.G., Uenk, G.H., Phillips, V.R., Holden, M.R., Sneath, R.W., Short, J.L., White, R.P., Hartung, J., Seedorf, J., Schröder, M., Linkert, K.H., Wathers, C.M., 1998. Concentrations and Emissions of Airborne Dust in Livestock Buildings in Northen Europe. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, Volume 70 nr. 1, May 1998.

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