Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

National Environmental Research Institute Ministry of the Environment . Denmark Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants Inventori...

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National Environmental Research Institute Ministry of the Environment . Denmark

Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants Inventories until year 2002 Research Notes from NERI No. 200

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National Environmental Research Institute Ministry of the Environment . Denmark

Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants Inventories until year 2002 Research Notes from NERI No. 200 2004 Malene Nielsen Jytte Boll Illerup

Data sheet Title: Subtitle:

Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants Inventories until year 2002

Authors: Department:

Malene Nielsen and Jytte Boll Illerup Department of Policy Analysis

Serial title and no.:

Research Notes from NERI No. 200

Publisher: URL:

National Environmental Research Institute  Ministry of the Environment http://www.dmu.dk

Date of publication: Editing complete:

December 2004 November 2004

Referee:

Jan Erik Johnsson, Technical University of Denmark. Hanne Bach, National Environmental Research Institute, Carey Smith, National Environmental Research Institute

Financial support:

No financial support.

Please cite as:

Nielsen, M. & Illerup, J.B. 2004: Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants. Inventories until year 2002. National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark. 127pp. – Research Notes from NERI no. 200. http://research-notes.dmu.dk Reproduction is permitted, provided the source is explicitly acknowledged.

Abstract:

Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOX, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. Since 1990 the fuel consumption in stationary combustion has increased by 14% - the fossil fuel consumption however only by 8%. Despite the increased fuel consumption the emission of several pollutants has decreased due to the improved flue gas cleaning technology, improved burner technology and the change of fuel type used. A considerable decrease of the SO2, NOX and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The greenhouse gas emission has decreased 1,3% since 1990. The emission of CH4, however, has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in CHP plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated.

Keywords:

Emission, combustion, power plants, district heating, CHP, co-generation, incineration, MSW, SO2, NOX, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, PM, heavy metals, dioxin, PAH, greenhouse gas

Layout:

Ann-Katrine Holme Christoffersen

ISSN (electronic):

1399-9346

Number of pages:

127

Internet-version:

For sale at:

The report is available only in electronic format from NERI’s homepage http://www2.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Publikationer/3_arbejdsrapporter/rapporter/AR200.pdf Ministry of the Environment Frontlinien Rentemestervej 8 DK-2400 Copenhagen NV Tel. +45 70 12 02 11 [email protected]

Contents Preface 5 Sammendrag 6 Summary 8 1

Introduction 10

2

Total Danish emissions, international conventions and reduction targets 11 2.1 2.2

3

Total Danish emissions 11 International conventions and reduction targets 12

Methodology and references 14 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Emission source categories 14 Large point sources 16 Area sources 17 Activity rates, fuel consumption 17 Emission factors 18 3.5.1 CO2 18 3.5.2 CH4 23 3.5.3 N2O 26 3.5.4 SO2, NOX, NMVOC and CO 27 3.5.5 Particulate matter (PM) 28 3.5.6 Heavy metals 28 3.5.7 PAH 29

4

Fuel consumption data 30

5

Greenhouse gas emission 33 5.1 5.2 5.3

6

CO2 35 CH4 39 N2O 41

SO2, NOX, NMVOC and CO 43 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

SO2 43 NOX 45 NMVOC 47 CO 50

7

Particulate matter (PM) 52

8

Heavy metals 55

9

PAH and dioxin 60

10

QA/QC and validation 64 10.1 Reference approach 64 10.2 External review 65

11

Uncertainty 66 11.1 Methodology 66 11.1.1 Greenhouse gases 66 11.1.2 Other pollutants 67 11.2 Results 67

12

Geographical distribution of the emissions 69

13

Improvements/recalculations since reporting in 2003 70

14

Future improvements 72

15

Conclusion 73 References 75 Appendix 1 The Danish emission inventory for the year 2002 reported to the Climate Convention 79 Appendix 2 Emission inventory for the year 2002 reported to the LRTAP Convention in 2004 81 Appendix 3 IPCC/SNAP source correspondence list 87 Appendix 4 Fuel rate 89 Appendix 5 Emission factors 94 Appendix 6 Implied emission factors for municipal waste incineration plants and power plants combustion coal 104 Appendix 7 Large point sources 105 Appendix 8 Uncertainty estimates 109 Appendix 9 Lower Calorific Value (LCV) of fuels 119 Appendix 10 Adjustment of CO2 emission 121 Appendix 11 Reference approach 122 Appendix 12 Emission inventory 2002 based on SNAP sectors 125

Preface The Danish National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) prepares the Danish atmospheric emission inventories and reports the results on an annual basis to the Climate Convention and to the UNECE Convention on LongRange Transboundary Air Pollution. This report forms part of the documentation for the inventories and covers emissions from stationary combustion plants. The results of inventories up to 2002 are included. The report updates a similar report published in 2003. This year the report has been externally reviewed by Jan Erik Johnsson from the Technical University of Denmark. The changes of emission factors suggested by Jan Erik Johnsson will not be included until the 2005 reporting, because the review was performed after the 2004 reporting to the Climate Convention and the LRTAP Convention.

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Sammendrag Opgørelser over de samlede danske luftemissioner rapporteres årligt til Klimakonventionen (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC) og til UNECE Konventionen om langtransporteret grænseoverskridende luftforurening (UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution der forkortes LRTAP Convention). Endvidere rapporteres drivhusgasemissionen til EU fordi EU – såvel som de enkelte medlemslande – har ratificeret klimakonventionen. De danske emissioner opgøres og rapporteres af Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser (DMU). Emissionsopgørelserne omfatter følgende stoffer af relevans for stationær forbrænding: CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOX, NMVOC, CO, partikler, tungmetaller, dioxin og PAH. Foruden de årlige opgørelser over total emission rapporteres også sektoropdelt emission og usikkerhed på opgørelserne. Hvert femte år rapporteres endvidere geografisk fordeling af emissionerne, fremskrivning af emissionerne samt de aktivitetsdata – fx brændselsforbrug – der ligger til grund for opgørelserne. Emissionsopgørelserne for stationære forbrændingsanlæg (ikke mobile kilder) er baseret på den danske energistatistik og på et sæt af emissionsfaktorer for forskellige sektorer, teknologier og brændsler. Anlægsspecifikke emissionsdata for store anlæg, som fx kraftværker, indarbejdes i opgørelserne. Denne rapport giver detaljeret baggrundsinformation om den anvendte metode samt referencer for de data der ligger til grund for opgørelsen – energistatistikken og emissionsfaktorerne. Emissionsfaktorerne stammer enten fra danske referencer eller fra internationale guidebøger (EMEP/Corinair 2003 og IPCC 1996) udarbejdet til brug for denne type emissionsopgørelser. De danske referencer omfatter miljølovgivning, danske rapporter samt middelværdier baseret på anlægsspecifikke emissionsdata fra et betydeligt antal større værker. Anlægsspecifikke emissionsfaktorer oplyses af anlægsejere, bl.a. i grønne regnskaber. I emissionsopgørelsen for 2002 er 63 stationære forbrændingsanlæg defineret som punktkilder. Punktkilderne omfatter: kraftværker, decentrale kraftvarmeværker, affaldsforbrændingsanlæg, industrielle forbrændingsanlæg samt raffinaderier. Brændselsforbruget for disse anlæg svarer til 57% af det samlede brændselsforbrug for alle stationære forbrændingsanlæg. Variationen i årlig import/eksport af strøm medfører at det totale danske brændselsforbrug varierer. Siden 1990 er brændselsforbruget steget med 14%, mens forbruget af fossile brændsler er steget med 8%. Forbruget af kul er faldet, mens forbruget af naturgas og af biobrændsler er steget. For følgende stoffer udgør emissionen fra stationær forbrænding over 50% af den samlede danske emission: SO2, CO2, tungmetaller og PAH. Endvidere udgør emissionen over 10% for NOX, CO, NMVOC og partikler. Stationær forbrænding bidrager med mindre end 10% af den samlede danske emission af CH4 og N2O. Indenfor de stationære forbrændingsanlæg er kraftværker og decentrale kraftvarmeværker den betydeligste emissionskilde for SO2, CO2, NOX, og tungmetaller. Gasmotorer installeret på decentrale kraftvarmeværker er den største

6

CH4 emissionskilde. Endvidere har gasmotorer en betydelig emission af NMVOC. Emissioner fra kedler, brændeovne mv. i forbindelse med beboelse er den betydeligste emissionskilde for CO, NMVOC, partikler og PAH. Det er især forbrænding af træ, som bidrager til disse emissioner. I rapporten vises tidsserier for emissioner fra stationær forbrænding. Udviklingen i emissionen af drivhusgasser følger udviklingen i CO2emissionen ganske tæt. Både CO2-emissionen og den samlede drivhusgasemission fra stationær forbrænding er faldet lidt fra 1990 til 2002 – CO2 med 2,3% og drivhusgasemissionen med 1,3%. Emissionerne fluktuerer dog betydeligt pga. variationerne i import/eksport af strøm samt varierende udetemperatur. CH4-emissionen fra stationær forbrænding er steget med en faktor 4,5 siden 1990. Denne stigning skyldes, at der i perioden er installeret et betydeligt antal gasmotorer på decentrale kraftvarmeværker. SO2-emissionen fra stationær forbrænding er faldet med 95% siden 1980 og 83% siden 1995. Den store reduktion skyldes primært, at emissionen fra el- og fjernvarmeproducerende anlæg er faldet, som følge af installering af afsvovlningsanlæg samt brug af brændsler med lavere svovlindhold. NOX-emissionen fra stationær forbrænding er faldet med 50% siden 1985 og 34% siden 1995. Reduktionen skyldes primært at emissionen fra el og fjernvarmeproducerende anlæg er faldet som følge af at der benyttes lav-NOXbrændere på flere anlæg og at der er idriftsat NOX-røggasrensning på flere store kraftværker. Variationen i NOX-emissionen følger variationen i import/eksport af strøm. Forbrænding af træ i villakedler og brændeovne er forøget med 65% siden 1990 og dette har medført en stigning i CO-emissionen. Stigningen i COemissionen er dog ikke helt så stor, idet CO-emissionen fra halmfyrede gårdanlæg samtidig er faldet betydeligt. Emissionen af NMVOC fra stationær forbrænding er øget med 40% siden 1985 og 14% siden 1995. Stigningen skyldes primært idriftsættelsen af gasmotorer på decentrale kraftvarmeværker. Tungmetalemissionerne er faldet betydeligt siden 1990. Emissionen af de enkelte tungmetaller er reduceret mellem 8% og 84%. Faldet skyldes den forbedrede røggasrensing på affaldsforbrændingsanlæg og på kraftværker. Emissionen af de forskellige PAH’er er steget 30-60% siden 1990, hvilket hænger sammen med den øgede mængde træ, der forbrændes i brændeovne eller små villakedler.

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Summary Danish emission inventories are prepared on an annual basis and are reported to the UNECE Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or Climate Convention) and to the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention). Furthermore, a greenhouse gas emission inventory is reported to the EU, due to the EU – as well as the individual member states – being party to the Climate Convention. The annual Danish emission inventories are prepared by the Danish National Environmental Research Institute (NERI). The inventories include the pollutants: CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOX, NMVOC, CO, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. In addition to annual total emissions, the report includes sector specific emissions and uncertainty estimates. Every 5 years the reporting includes data on the geographical distribution of the emissions, a projection of emissions data and details of the activity data – e.g. fuel consumption – on which the inventories are based. The inventories are based on the Danish energy statistics and on a set of emission factors for various sectors, technologies and fuels. Plant specific emissions for large combustion sources are incorporated into the inventories. This report provides detailed background information on the methodology and references for the input data in the inventory - energy statistics and emission factors. The emission factors are based either on national references or on international guidebooks (EMEP/Corinair 2003 and IPCC 1996). The majority of the country-specific emission factors refer to: Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on plant-specific emissions from a considerable number of large point sources. The plant-specific emission factors are provided by plant operators, e.g. in annual environmental reports. In the inventory for the year 2002, 63 stationary combustion plants are specified as large point sources. The point sources include large power plants, municipal waste incineration plants, industrial combustion plants and petroleum refining plants. The fuel consumption of these large point sources corresponds to 57% of the overall fuel consumption of stationary combustion. The Danish fuel consumption rate fluctuates due to the import/export of electricity. Since 1990 fuel consumption has increased by 14%, fossil fuel consumption, however, only increasing by 8%. The use of coal has decreased whereas the use of natural gas and renewable fuels has increased. Stationary combustion plants account for more than 50% of the total Danish emission for the following pollutants: SO2, CO2, heavy metals and PAH. Furthermore, emissions from stationary combustion plants account for more than 10% of the total Danish emission for the following pollutants: NOX, CO, NMVOC and particulate matter. Stationary combustion plants account for less than 10% of the total Danish CH4 and N2O emission. Public power plants represent the most important stationary combustion emission source for SO2, CO2, NOX and heavy metals.

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Lean-burn gas engines installed in decentralised CHP plants are the largest emission source for CH4. Furthermore, these plants also represent a considerable emission source for NMVOC. Residential plants are the most important stationary combustion source for CO, NMVOC, particulate matter and PAH. Wood combustion in residential plants is the predominant emission source. The report in hand includes time-series for stationary combustion plants for the range of pollutants. The development in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission follows that of CO2 emission very closely. Both CO2 and the total GHG emission decreased slightly from 1990 to 2002, CO2 by 2,3% and GHG by 1,3%. However, fluctuations in the GHG emission level are significant, the fluctuations in the timeseries arising from electricity import/export and outdoor temperature variations from year to year. The CH4 emission from stationary combustion has increased by a factor of 4,5 since 1990. This is a result of the considerable number of lean-burn gas engines installed in CHP plants in Denmark during this period. SO2 emission from stationary combustion plants has decreased by 95% from 1980 and 83% from 1995. The large emission decrease is mainly a result of the reduced emission from electricity and district heat production made possible by installation of desulphurisation plants and due to the use of fuels with lower sulphur content. The NOX emission from stationary combustion plants has decreased by 50% since 1985 and 34% since 1995. The reduced emission is mainly a result of the reduced emission from electricity and district heat production plants in which the use of low NOX burners has increased. Also, de-NOX flue gas cleaning units have been put into operation in a greater number of the larger power plants. The fluctuations in the time-series follow fluctuations in fuel consumption in power plants, these occurring due to electricity import/export. Wood consumption in residential plants has increased by 65% since 1990 causing an increase in the CO emission. The increase in CO from residential plants is less steep than the increase in wood consumption as the CO emission from straw-fired farmhouse boilers has decreased considerably. The NMVOC emission from stationary combustion plants has increased by 40% from 1985 and 14% from 1995. The increased NMVOC emission results mainly from the increased use of lean-burn gas engines. All heavy metal emissions have decreased considerably since 1990 – between 8% and 84%. The decreases result from improvements in flue gas cleaning systems installed in municipal waste incineration plants and in power plants. The PAH emission has increased since 1990 due to increased combustion of wood in residential plants.

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1

Introduction

The Danish atmospheric emission inventories are prepared on an annual basis and the results are reported to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or Climate Convention) and to the UNECE Convention on LongRange Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention). Furthermore, a greenhouse gas emission inventory is reported to the EU, due to the EU – as well as the individual member states – being party to the Climate Convention. The Danish atmospheric emission inventories are calculated by the Danish National Environmental Research Institute (NERI). This report provides a summary of the emission inventories for stationary combustion and background documentation for the estimates. Stationary combustion plants include power plants, district heating plants, nonindustrial and industrial combustion plants, industrial process burners, petroleum-refining plants, as well as combustion in oil/gas extraction and in pipeline compressors. Emissions from flaring in oil/gas production and from flaring carried out in refineries are not covered by this report. This report presents detailed emission inventories and time-series for emissions from stationary combustion plants. Furthermore, emissions from stationary combustion plants are compared with total Danish emissions. The methodology and references for the emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are described. Furthermore, uncertainty estimates are provided.

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2

Total Danish emissions, international conventions and reduction targets

2.1 Total Danish emissions An overview of the Danish emission inventories for 2002 including all sectors is shown in Table 1-Table 4. The emission inventories reported to the LRTAP Convention and to the Climate Convention are organised in 6 main source categories and a number of sub categories. The emission source 1 Energy covers combustion in stationary and mobile sources as well as fugitive emissions from the energy sector. Emissions from incineration of municipal waste in power plants or district heating plants are included in the source category 1 Energy, rather than in the source category 6 Waste. Links to the latest emission inventories can be found on the NERI home page: http://www2.dmu.dk/1_Viden/2_Miljoe-tilstand/3_luft/4_adaei/default_en.asp or via www.dmu.dk. Surveys of the latest inventories and the updated emission factors are also available on the NERI homepage. Note that according to convention decisions emissions from certain specific sources are not included in the inventory totals. These emissions are reported as memo items and are thus estimated, but not included in the totals. The data for the total Danish emission included in this report does not include memo items. • CO2 emission from renewable fuels is not included in national totals, but reported as a memo item. • Emissions from international bunkers and from international aviation are not included in national totals. Further emission data for stationary combustion plants are provided in Chapters 5-9. Table 1 Greenhouse gas emission for the year 2002 (Illerup et al. 2004a).

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1) Not including Land-Use Change and Forestry 2) Including Land-Use Change and Forestry

11

Table 2 Emissions 2002 reported to the LRTAP Convention (Illerup et al. 2004b).

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1. Energy

200

577

2. Industrial Processes

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5. Land-Use Change and Forestry 6. Waste

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16653

7495

1665

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Table 3 Emissions 2002 reported to the LRTAP Convention (Illerup et al. 2004b).

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1. Energy

5,19

0,66

1,19

0,77

1,64

2. Industrial Processes

0,07 0,005

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0,04

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0,63

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8,64 13,38

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1,88 22,91

4. Agriculture

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5. Land-Use Change and Forestry

-

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Table 4 Emissions 2002 reported to the LRTAP Convention (Illerup et al. 2004b).

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13,25

4. Agriculture

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7. Other

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1) Dioxin emission inventories are estimated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency

2.2 International conventions and reduction targets Denmark is a party to two international conventions relevant with regard to emissions from stationary combustion plants: • The UNECE Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention or the Geneva Convention) • The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The convention is also called UNFCCC or the Climate Convention. The LRTAP Convention is a framework convention and has expanded to cover 8 protocols: 12

• • • • • • • •

EMEP Protocol, 1984 (Geneva). Protocol on Reduction of Sulphur Emissions, 1985 (Helsinki). Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides, 1988 (Sofia). Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds, 1991 (Geneva). Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions, 1994 (Oslo). Protocol on Heavy Metals, 1988 (Aarhus). Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), 1998 (Aarhus). Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone, 1999 (Gothenburg).

The reduction targets/emission ceilings included in the protocols of the LRTAP Convention are stated in Table 5. Table 5 Danish reduction targets / emission ceiling, LRTAP Convention.

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SO2

55 Gg in 2010

NOX

127 Gg in 2010

NMVOC

85 Gg in 2010

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Gothenburg protocol Gothenburg protocol Gothenburg protocol

The ceiling equals 218% of the 2002 emission The ceiling equals 63% of the 2002 emission The ceiling equals 69% of the 2002 emission

The Climate Convention is a framework convention from 1992. The Kyoto protocol is a protocol to the Climate Convention. The Kyoto protocol sets legally-binding emission targets and timetables for 6 greenhouse gases: CO2, CH4, N2O, HFC, PFC and SF6. The greenhouse gas emission of each of the 6 pollutants is translated to CO2 equivalents, which can be totalled to produce total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in CO2 equivalent. Denmark is obliged to reduce the average 2008-2010 GHG emission by 21% compared to the 1990 emission level. EU is a party to the Climate Convention and, thereby, EU countries are obliged to submit emission data to the EU Monitoring Mechanism for CO2 and other Greenhouse Gases.

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3

Methodology and references

The Danish emission inventory is based on the CORINAIR (CORe INventory on AIR emissions) system, which is a European program for air emission inventories. CORINAIR includes methodology structure and software for inventories. The methodology is described in the EMEP/Corinair Emission Inventory Guidebook 3rd edition, prepared by the UNECE/EMEP Task Force on Emissions Inventories and Projections (EMEP/Corinair 2003). Emission data are stored in an Access database, from which data are transferred to the reporting formats. The emission inventory for stationary combustion is based on activity rates from the Danish energy statistics. General emission factors for various fuels, plants and sectors have been determined. Some large plants, such as power plants, are registered individually as large point sources and plant-specific emission data are used. The emission inventory for dioxin is reported by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Hansen & Hansen 2003). Dioxin emission data are presented, but not further discussed in this report.

3.1 Emission source categories In the Danish emission database all activity rates and emissions are defined in SNAP sector categories (Selected Nomenclature for Air Pollution) according the CORINAIR system. The emission inventories are prepared from a complete emission database based on the SNAP sectors. Aggregation to the sector codes used for both the Climate Convention and the LRTAP Convention is based on a correspondence list between SNAP and IPCC enclosed in Appendix 3. The sector codes applied in the reporting activity will be referred to as IPCC sectors. The IPCC sectors define 6 main source categories, listed in Table 6, and a number of subcategories. Stationary combustion is part of the IPCC sector 1, Energy. Table 7 presents subsectors in the IPCC energy sector. The table also presents the sector in which the NERI documentation is included. Stationary combustion is defined as combustion activities in the SNAP sectors 01-03. Table 6 IPCC main sectors. 1. Energy 2. Industrial Processes 3. Solvent and Other Product Use 4. Agriculture 5. Land-Use Change and Forestry 6. Waste

14

Table 7 IPCC source categories for the energy sector.

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1A1 1A1a 1A1b 1A1c 1A2 1A2a 1A2b 1A2c 1A2d 1A2e 1A2f 1A3 1A3a 1A3b 1A3c 1A3d 1A3e 1A4 1A4a 1A4b 1A4c 1A5 1A5a 1A5b

Energy Industries Electricity and Heat Production Petroleum Refining Solid Fuel Transf./Other Energy Industries Fuel Combustion Activities/Industry (ISIC) Iron and Steel Non-Ferrous Metals Chemicals Pulp, Paper and Print Food Processing, Beverages and Tobacco Other (please specify) Transport Civil Aviation Road Transportation Railways Navigation Other (please specify) Other Sectors Commercial/Institutional Residential Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing Other (please specify) Stationary Mobile

1B1 1B1a 1B1a1 1B1a2 1B1b 1B1c 1B2 1B2a 1B2a2 1B2a3 1B2a4 1B2a5 1B2a6 1B2b 1B2b1 1B2b2 1B2c 1B2c1 1B2c2 1B2d

Solid Fuels Coal Mining Underground Mines Surface Mines Solid Fuel Transformation Other (please specify) Oil and Natural Gas Oil Production Transport Refining/Storage Distribution of oil products Other Natural Gas Production/processing Transmission/distribution Venting and Flaring Venting and Flaring Oil Venting and Flaring Gas Other

%

Stationary combustion Stationary combustion Stationary combustion Stationary combustion Stationary combustion, Transport, Industry Stationary combustion, Industry Stationary combustion, Industry Stationary combustion Stationary combustion Stationary combustion Stationary combustion, Transport, Industry Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Stationary combustion, Transport Stationary combustion Stationary combustion, Transport Stationary combustion, Transport Stationary combustion, Transport Stationary combustion Transport

Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive Fugitive

Stationary combustion plants are included in the emission source subcategories: • 1A1 Energy, Fuel consumption, Energy Industries • 1A2 Energy, Fuel consumption, Manufacturing Industries and Construction • 1A4 Energy, Fuel consumption, Other Sectors The emission sources 1A2 and 1A4, however also include emission from transport subsectors. The emission source 1A2 includes emissions from some off-road machinery in the industry. The emission source 1A4 includes off-road machinery in agriculture, forestry and household/gardening. Further emissions from national fishing are included in subsector 1A4. The emission and fuel consumption data included in tables and figures in this report only include emissions originating from stationary combustion plants of a given IPCC sector. The IPCC sector codes have been applied unchanged,

15

but some sector names have been changed to reflect the stationary combustion element of the source. The CO2 from calcination is not part of the energy sector. This emission is included in the IPCC sector 2 Industrial processes.

3.2 Large point sources Large emission sources such as power plants, industrial plants and refineries are included as large point sources in the Danish emission database. Each point source may consist of more than one part, e.g. a power plant with several units. By registering the plants as point sources in the database it is possible to use plant-specific emission factors. In the inventory for the year 2002, 63 stationary combustion plants are specified as large point sources. These point sources include: • Power plants and decentralised CHP plants (combined heat and power plants) • Municipal waste incineration plants • A few large industrial combustion plants • Petroleum refining plants The fuel consumption of stationary combustion plants registered as large point sources is 326 PJ (2002). This corresponds to 57% of the overall fuel consumption for stationary combustion. A list of the large point sources for 2002 and the fuel consumption rates is provided in Appendix 7. The number of large point sources registered in the databases increased from 1990 to 2002. In the emission database for the years before 1990 no large point sources have been registered. The emissions from a point source are based either on plant specific emission data or, if plant specific data are not available, on fuel consumption data and the general Danish emission factors. Appendix 7 shows which of the emission data for large point sources are plant-specific and which are based on emission factors. SO2 and NOX emissions from large point sources are often plant-specific based on emission measurements. Emissions of CO, NMVOC, PM and metals are also plant-specific for some plants. Plant-specific emission data are obtained from: • Annual environmental reports • Annual plant-specific reporting of SO2 and NOX from power plants >25MWe prepared for the Danish Energy Authority due to Danish legislatory requirement • Emission data reported by Elsam and E2, the two major electricity suppliers • Emission data reported from industrial plants Annual environmental reports for the plants include a considerable number of emission data sets. Emission data from annual environmental reports are, in

16

general, based on emission measurements, but some emissions have potentially been calculated from general emission factors. If plant-specific emission factors are not available, general area source emission factors are used. Emissions of the greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) from the large point sources are all based on the area source emission factors.

3.3 Area sources Fuels not combusted in large point sources are included as sector specific area sources in the emission database. Plants such as residential boilers, small district heating plants, small CHP plants and some industrial boilers are defined as area sources. Emissions from area sources are based on fuel consumption data and emission factors. Further information on emission factors is provided below.

3.4 Activity rates, fuel consumption The fuel consumption rates are based on the official Danish energy statistics prepared by the Danish Energy Authority. The Danish Energy Authority aggregates fuel consumption rates to SNAP sector categories (DEA 2003a). Some fuel types in the official Danish energy statistics are added to obtain a less detailed fuel aggregation level, see Appendix 9. The calorific values on which the energy statistics are based are also enclosed in Appendix 9. The fuel consumption of the IPCC sector 1A2 Manufacturing industries and construction (corresponding to SNAP sector 03 Combustion in manufacturing industries) has not yet been disaggregated into specific industries. In Climate Convention reporting, the emissions are included in sector 1A2f Industry, Other as, technically, it is not possible to report the emission in the aggregated source category, 1A2 Manufacturing industries and construction. However, NERI and the Danish Energy Authority have initiated work that should ensure that fuel consumption rates in each industrial subsector will be able to be reported in the year to come. Both traded and non-traded fuels are included in the Danish energy statistics. Thus, for example, estimation of the annual consumption of non-traded wood is included. Petroleum coke purchased abroad and combusted in Danish residential plants (border trade of 251 TJ) is added to the apparent consumption of petroleum coke and the emissions are included in the inventory. The Danish Energy Authority compiles a database for the fuel consumption of each district heating and power-producing plant, based on data reported by plant operators. The fuel consumption of large point sources specified in the Danish emission databases refers to this database (DEA 2003c). The fuel consumption of area sources is calculated as total fuel consumption minus fuel consumption of large point sources. Emissions from non-energy use of fuels have not been included in the Danish inventory, to date, but the non-energy use of fuels is, however, included in the reference approach for Climate Convention reporting. The Danish energy statistics include three fuels used for non-energy purposes: Bitumen, white spirit 17

and lube oil. The fuels used for non-energy purposes add up to less than 2% of the total fuel consumption in Denmark. In Denmark all municipal waste incineration is utilised for heat and power production. Thus, incineration of waste is included as stationary combustion in the IPCC Energy sector (source categories 1A1, 1A2 and 1A4). Fuel consumption data are presented in Chapter 4.

3.5 Emission factors For each fuel and SNAP category (sector and e.g. type of plant) a set of general area source emission factors has been determined. The emission factors are either nationally referenced or based on the international guidebooks: EMEP/Corinair Guidebook (EMEP/Corinair 2003) and IPCC Reference Manual (IPCC 1996). A complete list of emission factors including time-series and references is provided in Appendix 5. A considerable part of the emission data for municipal waste incineration plants and large power plants are plant-specific. The area source emission factors do not, therefore, necessarily represent average values for these plant categories. To attain a set of emission factors that expresses the average emission for power plants combusting coal and for municipal waste incineration plants, implied emission factors have been calculated for these two plant categories. The implied emission factors are presented in appendix 6. The implied emission factors are calculated as total emission divided by total fuel consumption. 3.5.1 CO2 The CO2 emission factors applied for 2002 are presented in Table 8. For municipal waste and natural gas, time-series have been estimated. For all other fuels the same emission factor is applied for 1990-2002. In reporting for the Climate Convention, the CO2 emission is aggregated to five fuel types: Solid fuel, Liquid fuel, Gas, Biomass and Other fuels. The correspondence list between the NERI fuel categories and the IPCC fuel categories is also provided in Table 8. Only emissions from fossil fuels are included in the national total CO2 emission. The biomass emission factors are also included in the table, because emissions from biomass are reported to the Climate Convention as a memo item. The CO2 emission from incineration of municipal waste (94,5 + 17,6 kg/GJ) is divided into two parts: The emission from combustion of the plastic content of the waste, which is included in the national total, and the emission from combustion of the rest of the waste – the biomass part, which is reported as a memo item. In the IPCC reporting, the CO2 emission from combustion of the plastic content of the waste is reported in the fuel category, Other fuels. However, this split is not applied in either fuel consumption or other emissions, because it is only relevant for CO2. Thus, the full consumption of municipal waste is included in the fuel category, Biomass, and the full amount of non-CO2 18

emissions from municipal waste combustion is also included in the Biomasscategory. The CO2 emission factors have been confirmed by the two major power plant operators, both directly (Christiansen, 1996 and Andersen, 1996) and indirectly, by applying the NERI emission factors in the annual environmental reports for the large power plants and by accepting use of the NERI factors in Danish legislation. Danish legislation concerning CO2 emission from power plants (Lov nr. 376 1999) has been based on standard CO2 emission factors for each fuel. Thus, power plant operators have not been encouraged to estimate CO2 emission factors based on their own fuel analysis. In future legislation (Lov om CO2kvoter, høringsudgave 2004) operators of large power plants are obliged to verify the applied emission factors, which will lead to the availability of improved emission factors for national emission inventories in future. Table 8 CO2 emission factors 2002.

)XHO

(PLVVLRQIDFWRU 8QLW %LRPDVV )RVVLOIXHO

Coal

95 kg/GJ

5HIHUHQFHW\SH

,3&&IXHO &DWHJRU\

Country specific

Solid

Brown coal briquettes

94,6 kg/GJ

IPCC reference manual

Solid

Coke oven coke

108 kg/GJ

IPCC reference manual

Solid

Petroleum coke

92 kg/GJ

Wood

102

kg/GJ

Municipal waste

94,5

17,6 kg/GJ

Straw

102

Country specific

Liquid

Corinair

Biomass

Country specific Country specific

Biomass / Other fuels Biomass

Residual oil

78 kg/GJ

Corinair

Liquid

Gas oil

74 kg/GJ

Corinair

Liquid

72 kg/GJ

Corinair

Liquid

kg/GJ

Corinair

Biomass

80 kg/GJ

Country specific

Liquid

57,28 kg/GJ

Country specific

Gas

Corinair

Liquid

Kerosene Fish & rape oil

102

Orimulsion Natural gas LPG

65 kg/GJ

Refinery gas Biogas

kg/GJ

83,6

56,9 kg/GJ

Country specific

Liquid

kg/GJ

Country specific

Biomass

Coal The emission factor 95 kg/GJ is based on Fenhann & Kilde 1994. The CO2 emission factors have been confirmed by the two major power plant operators in 1996 (Christiansen 1996 and Andersen 1996). Elsam reconfirmed the factor in 2001 (Christiansen 2001). The same emission factor is applied for 1990-2002. Brown coal briquettes The emission factor 94,6 kg/GJ is based on a default value from the IPCC guidelines assuming full oxidation. The default value in the IPCC guidelines is 25,8 t C/TJ, corresponding to 25,8·(12+2·16)/12 = 94,6 kg CO2/GJ assuming full oxidation. In the inventories for 1990-2001 brown coal briquettes have been included in the fuel category, coal.

19

Coke oven coke The emission factor 108 kg/GJ is based on a default value from the IPCC guidelines assuming full oxidation. The default value in the IPCC guidelines is 29,5 t C/TJ, corresponding to 29,5·(12+2·16)/12 = 108 kg CO2/GJ assuming full oxidation. In the inventories for 1990-2001 coke has been included in the fuel category, coal. Petroleum coke The emission factor 92 kg/GJ has been estimated by SK Energy (a former major power plant operator in eastern Denmark) in 1999 based on a fuel analysis carried out by dk-Teknik in 1993 (Bech 1999). The emission factor level was confirmed by a new fuel analysis, which, however, is considered confidential. The same emission factor is applied for 1990-2002. Wood The emission factor for wood, 102 kg/GJ, refers to Fenhann & Kilde 1994. The factor is based on the interval stated in a former edition of the EMEP/Corinair Guidebook and the actual value is the default value from the Collector database. The same emission factor is applied for 1990-2002. Municipal waste The CO2 emission from incineration of municipal waste is divided into two parts: The emission from combustion of the plastic content of the waste, which is included in the national total, and the emission from combustion of the rest of the waste – the biomass part, which is reported as a memo item. The plastic content of waste was estimated to be 6,6 w/w% in 2003 (Hulgaard 2003). The weight share, lower heating values and CO2 emission factors for different plastic types are estimated by Hulgaard in 2003 (Table 9). The total weight share for plastic and for the various plastic types is assumed to be the same for all years (NERI assumption). 1)2)

Table 9 Data for plastic waste in Danish municipal waste (Hulgaard 2003) .

3ODVWLFW\SH

0DVVVKDUHRISODVWLFLQ PXQLFLSDOZDVWHLQ'HQ PDUN kg plastic/ kg municipal waste 0,032 0,02 0,007 0,007

/RZHU KHDWLQJ YDOXHRI SODVWLF

% of plastic MJ/kg plastic

(QHUJ\ &2HPLV &2HPLV FRQWHQWRI VLRQIDFWRU VLRQIDFWRU SODVWLF IRUSODVWLF MJ/kg municipal waste 1,312 0,74 0,126 0,168

g/MJ plastic

g/kg municipal waste 95 64 10 16

PE 48 41 72,5 PS/EPS 30 37 86 PVC 11 18 79 Other 11 24 95 (PET, PUR, PC, POM, ABS, PA etc.) Total 0,066 100 35,5 2,346 78,7 185 Hulgaard 2003 refers to: 1) TNO report 2000/119, Eco-efficiency of recovery scenarios of plastic packaging, Appendices, July 2001 by P.G. Eggels, A.M.M. Ansems, B.L. van der Ven, for Association of Plastic Manufacturers in Europe 2) Kost, Thomas, Brennstofftechnische Charakterisierung von Haushaltabfällen, Technische Universität Dresden, Eigenverlag des Forums für Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten e.V., 2001

Based on emission measurements on 5 municipal waste incineration plants (Jørgensen & Johansen, 2002) the total CO2 emission factor for municipal waste incineration has been determined to be 112,1 kg/GJ. The CO2 emission from the biomass part is the total CO2 emission minus the CO2 emission from the plastic part. 20

Thus, in 2003 the CO2 emission factor for the plastic content of waste was estimated to be 185g/kg municipal waste (Table 9). The CO2 emission per GJ of waste is calculated based on the lower heating values for waste listed in Table 10 (DEA 2003b). It has been assumed that the plastic content in weight per cent is constant, resulting in a decreasing energy per cent since the lower heating value (LHV) is increasing. However, the increasing LHV may be a result of increasing plastic content in the municipal waste and this will be investigated in future work. Time-series for the CO2 emission factor for plastic content in waste are included in Table 10. Emission data from four waste incineration plants (Jørgensen & Johansen 2002) demonstrate the fraction of the carbon content of the waste not oxidised to be approximately 0,3%. The unoxidised fraction of the carbon content is assumed to originate from the biomass content, and all carbon originating from plastic are assumed to be oxidised. Table 10 CO2 emission factor for municipal waste, plastic content and biomass content.

*-[email protected]

3ODVWLF FRQWHQW

&2HPLVVLRQ &2HPLVVLRQ &2HPLVVLRQ &2HPLVVLRQ IDFWRUIRU IDFWRUIRU IDFWRUIRUPX IDFWRUIRUELR SODVWLF SODVWLF QLFLSDOZDVWH PDVVFRQWHQW WRWDO RIZDVWH

>RIHQHUJ\@ >JNJ[email protected] >NJ*-[email protected] >NJ*-[email protected] >NJ*-[email protected]

1990 8,20 28,6 1991 8,20 28,6 1992 9,00 26,1 1993 9,40 25,0 1994 9,40 25,0 1995 10,00 23,5 1996 10,50 22,3 1997 10,50 22,3 1998 10,50 22,3 1999 10,50 22,3 2000 10,50 22,3 2001 10,50 22,3 2002 10,50 22,3 1) DEA 2003b 2) Based on data from Jørgensen & Johansen 2002 3) From Table 9

185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185

22,5 22,5 20,5 19,6 19,6 18,5 17,6 17,6 17,6 17,6 17,6 17,6 17,6

112,1 112,1 112,1 112,1 112,1 112,1 112,1 112,1 112,1 112,1 112,1 112,1 112,1

89,6 89,6 91,6 92,5 92,5 93,6 94,5 94,5 94,5 94,5 94,5 94,5 94,5

Straw The emission factor for straw, 102 kg/GJ refers to Fenhann & Kilde 1994. The factor is based on the interval stated in the EMEP/Corinair Guidebook (EMEP/Corinair 2003) and the actual value is the default value from the Collecter database. The same emission factor is applied for 1990-2002. Residual oil The emission factor 78 kg/GJ refers to Fenhann & Kilde 1994. The factor is based on the interval stated in the EMEP/Corinair Guidebook (EMEP/Corinair 2003). The factor is slightly higher than the IPCC default emission factor for residual fuel oil (77,4 kg/GJ assuming full oxidation). The CO2 emission factors have been confirmed by the two major power plant operators in 1996 (Christiansen 1996 and Andersen 1996). The same emission factor is applied for 1990-2002. Gas oil The emission factor 74 kg/GJ refers to Fenhann & Kilde 1994. The factor is based on the interval stated in the EMEP/Corinair Guidebook (EMEP/Corinair 2003). The factor agrees with the IPCC default emission fac21

tor for gas oil (74,1 kg/GJ assuming full oxidation). The CO2 emission factors have been confirmed by the two major power plant operators in 1996 (Christiansen 1996 and Andersen 1996). The same emission factor is applied for 1990-2002. Kerosene The emission factor 72 kg/GJ refers to Fenhann & Kilde 1994. The factor agrees with the IPCC default emission factor for other kerosene (71,9 kg/GJ assuming full oxidation). The same emission factor is applied for 1990-2002. Fish & rape oil The emission factor is assumed to be the same as for straw – 102 kg/GJ. In the period 1990-2000 fish and rape oil have been included in the fuel category, straw. The consumption of fish and rape oil is relatively low. Orimulsion The emission factor 80 kg/GJ refers to the Danish Energy Authority (DEA 2004). The IPCC default emission factor is almost the same: 80,7 kg/GJ assuming full oxidation. The CO2 emission factors have been confirmed by the only major power plant operator using orimulsion (Andersen 1996). The same emission factor is applied for 1990-2002. Natural gas The emission factor for natural gas is estimated by the Danish gas transmission company, DONG (Lindgren 2003). Only natural gas from the Danish gas fields is utilised in Denmark. The calculation is based on gas analysis carried out daily by DONG. DONG and the Danish Gas Technology Centre have calculated emission factors for 2000-2002. The emission factor applied for 19901999 refers to Fenhann & Kilde 1994. This emission factor was confirmed by the two major power plant operators in 1996 (Christiansen 1996 and Andersen 1996). Time-series for the CO2 emission factors is provided in Table 11. Table 11 CO2 emission factor for natural gas. Year 1990-1999 2000 2001 2002

CO2 emission factor 56,9 kg/GJ 57,1 kg/GJ 57,25 kg/GJ 57,28 kg/GJ

LPG The emission factor 65 kg/GJ refers to Fenhann & Kilde 1994. The emission factor is based on the EMEP/Corinair Guidebook (EMEP/Corinair 2003). The emission factor is somewhat higher than the IPCC default emission factor (63 kg/GJ assuming full oxidation). The same emission factor is applied for 19902002. Refinery gas The emission factor applied for refinery gas is the same as the emission factor for natural gas 1990-1999. The emission factor is within the interval of the emission factor for refinery gas stated in the EMEP/Corinair Guidebook (EMEP/Corinair 2003). The same emission factor is applied for 1990-2002.

22

Biogas The emission factor 83,6 kg/GJ is based on a biogas with 65% (vol.) CH4 and 35% (vol.) CO2. Danish Gas Technology Centre has stated that this is a typical manure-based biogas as utilised in stationary combustion plants (Kristensen 2001). 3.5.2 CH4 The CH4 emission factors applied for 2002 are presented in Table 12. In general, the same emission factors have been applied for 1990-2002. However, a time-series has been estimated for gas engines. Emission factors for gas engines, gas turbines and CHP plants combusting wood, straw or municipal waste all refer to emission measurements carried out on Danish plants (Nielsen & Illerup 2003). Other emission factors refer to the EMEP/Corinair Guidebook (EMEP/Corinair 2003). Gas engines combusting natural gas or biogas contribute much more to the total CH4 emission than other stationary combustion plants. The relatively high emission factor for gas engines is well-documented and further discussed below. Table 12 CH4 emission factors 1990-2002. )XHO

LSFFBLG

61$3BLG

(PLVVLRQ IDFWRU >J*[email protected]

5HIHUHQFH

COAL COAL BROWN COAL BRI.

1A1a 1A1a, 1A2f, 1A4b, 1A4c all

010101, 010102, 010103 010202, 010203, 0301, 0202, 0203 all

1,5 15 15

all

all

15

PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES STRAW STRAW STRAW RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL KEROSENE FISH & RAPE OIL

all 1A1a 1A4b 1A1a, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c 1A1a 1A1a, 1A2f, 1A4a 1A1a 1A1a, 1A2f 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c all all all 1A1a

all 010102, 010103, 010104 0202 all other 010102, 010103, 010104, 010105 all other 010102, 010103 010202, 010203, 030102, 030105 0201, 0202, 0203, 020302 all all all 010203

FISH & RAPE OIL

1A2f

030105

32

FISH & RAPE OIL

1A4c

020304

200

ORIMULSION

1A1a

010101

3

EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as for coal EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as for coal EMEP/Corinair 2003 Nielsen & Illerup 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 Nielsen & Illerup 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 Nielsen & Illerup 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as straw EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as straw EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as straw EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as residual oil DGC 2001 Gruijthuijsen & Jensen 2000 Nielsen & Illerup 2003

COKE OVEN COKE

NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS

1A1a 1A1a 1A1a, 1Ab, 1Ac, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c NATURAL GAS 1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c NATURAL GAS 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c NATURAL GAS 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4b LPG all REFINERY GAS 1A1b BIOGAS 1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c BIOGAS 1A1a, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c 1) 2002 emission factor. Time-series is shown below

0101, 010101, 010102, 010202 010103, 010203 Gas turbines: 010104, 010304, 010504, 030104, 020104, 020303 Gas engines: 010105, 010405, 010505, 030105, 020105, 020204, 020304 010502, 0301, 0201, 0202, 0203 030103, 030106, 020103, 020202 all 010303, 010304 Gas engines: 010105, 010405, 010505, 030105, 020105, 020304 all other

15 2 200 32 0,59 6 0,5 32 200 3 1,5 7 32

6 15 1,5 1) 520 6

Nielsen & Illerup 2003

15 1 2 323

Gruijthuijsen & Jensen 2000 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 Nielsen & Illerup 2003

4

EMEP/Corinair 2003

DGC 2001

23

3.5.2.1 CHP plants A considerable portion of the electricity production in Denmark is based on decentralised CHP plants, and well-documented emission factors for these plants are, therefore, of importance. In a project carried out for the electricity transmission company in Western Denmark, Eltra, emission factors for CHP plants <25MWe have been estimated. The work was reported in 2003 (Nielsen & Illerup 2003) and the results have been fully implemented in the inventory reported in 2004. The work included municipal waste incineration plants, CHP plants combusting wood and straw, natural gas and biogas-fuelled (reciprocating) engines, and natural gas fuelled gas turbines. CH4 emission factors for these plants all refer to Nielsen & Illerup 2003. The estimated emission factors were based on existing emission measurements as well as on emission measurements carried out within the project. The number of emission data sets was comprehensive. Emission factors for subgroups of each plant type were estimated, e.g. the CH4 emission factor for different gas engine types have been determined. Gas engines, natural gas SNAP 010105, 010405, 010505, 020105, 020204, 020304 and 030105 The emission factor for natural gas engines was determined as 520 g/GJ in 2000 and the same emission factor has been applied for 2001 and 2002. The emission factor for natural gas engines was based on 291 emission measurements on 114 different plants. The plants from which emission measurements were available represent 44% of the total gas consumption in gas engines. The emission factor was estimated based on fuel consumption of each gas engine type and the emission factor for each engine type. The majority of emission measurements that were not performed within the project related solely to emission of total unburned hydrocarbon (CH4 + NMVOC). A constant disaggregation factor was estimated based on a number of emission measurements including both CH4 and NMVOC. The emission factor for lean-burn gas engines is relatively high, especially for prechamber engines, which account for more than half the gas consumption in Danish gas engines. However, the emission factors for different prechamber engine types differ considerably. The installation of natural gas engines in decentralised CHP plants in Denmark has taken place since 1990. The first engines installed were relatively small open-chamber engines and in later years prechamber engines were mainly installed. As mentioned above, prechamber engines have a higher emission factor than open-chamber engines, therefore, the emission factor has changed during the period 1990-2002. A time-series for the emission factor has been estimated and is presented below (Nielsen & Illerup 2003). The timeseries was based on: • Emission factors for different engine types • Data for year of installation for each engine and fuel consumption of each engine 1994-2002 from the Danish Energy Authority (DEA 2003c) • Research concerning the CH4 emission from gas engines carried out in 1997 (Nielsen & Wit 1997)

24

Table 13 Time-series for the CH4 emission factor for natural gas fuelled engines.


(PLVVLRQIDFWRU >J*[email protected]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

257 299 347 545 604 612 596 534 525 524 520 520 520

Gas engines, biogas SNAP 010105, 010405, 010505, 020105, 020304 and 030105 The emission factor for biogas engines was estimated to 323 g/GJ in 2000 and the same emission factor has been applied for 2001 and 2002. The emission factor for biogas engines was based on 18 emission measurements on 13 different plants. The plants from which emission measurements were available represent 18% of the total gas consumption in gas engines. The emission factor is lower than the factor for natural gas, mainly because most engines are lean-burn open-chamber engines - not prechamber engines. A time-series for the emission factor has been estimated. Danish energy statistics only specify biogas consumption in gas engines from 1998, the emission factor time-series for 1998-2002 being presented below. Despite that biogas consumption in gas engines actually started before 1998, the error is considered acceptable due to the consumption being very low. Table 14 Time-series for the CH4 emission factor for biogas fuelled engines.


(PLVVLRQIDFWRU >J*[email protected]

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

314 318 323 323 323

Gas turbines, natural gas SNAP 010104, 010304, 010504, 020104, 020303 and 030104 The emission factor for gas turbines was estimated to be below 1,5g/GJ and the emission factor 1,5 g/GJ has been applied for all years. The emission factor was based on emission measurements on 9 plants. CHP, wood SNAP 010102 and, 010103 and 010104 The emission factor for CHP plants combusting wood was estimated to be below 2,1 g/GJ and the emission factor 2,1 g/GJ has been applied for all years. The emission factor was based on emission measurements on 3 plants.

25

CHP, straw SNAP 010102 and 010103 The emission factor for CHP plants combusting straw was estimated to be below 0,5g/GJ and the emission factor 0,5g/GJ has been applied for all years. The emission factor was based on emission measurements on 4 plants. CHP, municipal waste SNAP 010102, 010103, 010104 and 010105 The emission factor for CHP plants combusting municipal waste was estimated to be below 0,6g/GJ and the emission factor 0,6g/GJ has been applied for all years. The emission factor was based on emission measurements on 16 plants. 3.5.2.2 Other stationary combustion plants Emission factors for other plants refer to the EMEP/Corinair Guidebook (EMEP/Corinair 2003), the Danish Gas Technology Centre (DGC 2001) or Gruijthuijsen & Jensen 2000. The same emission factors are applied for 19902002. 3.5.3 N2O The N2O emission factors applied for the 2002 inventory are listed in Table 15. The same emission factors have been applied for 1990-2002. Emission factors for gas engines, gas turbines and CHP plants combusting wood, straw or municipal waste all refer to emission measurements carried out on Danish plants (Nielsen & Illerup 2003). Other emission factors refer to the EMEP/Corinair Guidebook (EMEP/Corinair 2003).

26

Table 15 N2O emission factors 1990-2002. )XHO

LSFFBLG

61$3BLG

COAL BROWN COAL BRI. COKE OVEN COKE PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL.

all all all all 1A1a 1A1a

WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES

1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c 1A1a

MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES STRAW STRAW STRAW RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL KEROSENE FISH & RAPE OIL

1A1a 1A2f, 1A4a 1A1a 1A1a 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c all all all all

all all all all 010102, 010103, 010104 010105, 010202, 010203, 010205 all 010102, 010103, 010104, 010105 010203 030102, 0201, 020103 010102, 010103 010202, 010203 all all all all all

ORIMULSION

1A1a

010101

NATURAL GAS

1A1a

NATURAL GAS

1A1a, 1Ab, 1Ac, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c

NATURAL GAS

1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c

NATURAL GAS

1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c

LPG REFINERY GAS BIOGAS BIOGAS

all all 1A1a 1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c

0101, 010101, 010102, 010103, 010202, 010203 Gas turbines: 010104, 010304, 010504, 030104, 020104, 020303 Gas engines: 010105, 010405, 010505, 030105, 020105, 020204, 020304 010502, 0301, 030103, 030106, 0201, 020103, 0202, 020202, 0203 all all 010102, 010103, 010203 010105, 010405, 010505, 030105, 020105, 020304 0301, 030102, 0201, 020103, 0203

BIOGAS

(PLVVLRQ IDFWRU>J*[email protected]

5HIHUHQFH

3 3 3 3 0,8 4

EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 Nielsen & Illerup 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003

4 1,2

EMEP/Corinair 2003 Nielsen & Illerup 2003

4 4 1,4 4 4 2 2 2 4

EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 Nielsen & Illerup 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as municipal waste 2 EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as residual oil 1 EMEP/Corinair 2003

2,2

Nielsen & Illerup 2003

1,3

Nielsen & Illerup 2003

1

EMEP/Corinair 2003

2 2 2 0,5

EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 Nielsen & Illerup 2003

2

EMEP/Corinair 2003

3.5.4 SO2, NOX, NMVOC and CO Emission factors for SO2, NOX, NMVOC and CO are listed in Appendix 5. The appendix includes references and time-series. The emission factors refer to: • The EMEP/Corinair Guidebook (EMEP/CorinAir 2003) • The IPCC Guidelines, Reference Manual (IPCC 1996) • Danish legislation: ° Miljøstyrelsen 2001 (Danish Environmental Protection Agency) ° Miljøstyrelsen 1990 (Danish Environmental Protection Agency) ° Miljøstyrelsen 1998 (Danish Environmental Protection Agency) • Danish research reports including: ° An emission measurement program for decentralised CHP plants (Nielsen & Illerup 2003) ° Research and emission measurements programs for biomass fuels: − Nikolaisen et al., 1998 − Jensen & Nielsen, 1990 − Dyrnum et al., 1990 − Hansen et al., 1994 27

• • • •

− Serup et al., 1999 ° Research and environmental data from the gas sector: − Gruijthuijsen & Jensen 2000 − Danish Gas Technology Centre 2001 Calculations based on plant-specific emissions from a considerable number of power plants (Nielsen 2003). Calculations based on plant-specific emission data from a considerable number of municipal waste incineration plants. These data refer to annual environmental reports published by plant operators. Sulphur content data from oil companies and the Danish gas transmission company. Additional personal communication.

Emission factor time-series have been estimated for a considerable number of the emission factors. These are provided in Appendix 5. 3.5.5 Particulate matter (PM) Emission factors for PM are listed in Appendix 5. The appendix includes references. The emission factors are based on: • The TNO/CEPMEIP emission factor database (TNO CEPMEIP 2001), and; a considerable number of country-specific factors (Nielsen et al. 2003) referring to: • Danish legislation: − Miljøstyrelsen 2001 (Danish Environmental Protection Agency). − Miljøstyrelsen 1990 (Danish Environmental Protection Agency). • Calculations based on plant-specific emission data from a considerable number of municipal waste incineration plants. • Danish research reports including: ° An emission measurement program for decentralised CHP plants (Nielsen & Illerup 2003). ° An emission measurement program for large power plants (Livbjerg et al. 2001). • Additional personal communication concerning wood and straw combustion in residential plants. The same emission factors are applied for 2000-2002.

3.5.6 Heavy metals Emission factors for 2002 for heavy metals (HM) are presented in Appendix 5. The appendix includes references and time-series. The emission factors refer to: • Research concerning heavy metal emission factors representative for Denmark (Illerup et al. 1999). • Emission measurement program carried out on Danish decentralised CHP plants (Nielsen & Illerup 2003). Time-series have been estimated for municipal waste incineration. For all other sources the same emission factors have been applied for 1990-2002. 28

3.5.7 PAH Emission factors 2002 for PAHs are shown in Appendix 5. The appendix includes references. The PAH emission factors refer to: • Research carried out by TNO (Berdowski et al. 1995). • Research carried out by Statistics Norway (Finstad et al. 2001). • An emission measurement program performed on biomass fuelled plants. The project was carried out for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Jensen & Nielsen 1996). • An emission measurement program carried out on Danish decentralised CHP plants (Nielsen & Illerup 2003). • Additional information from the gas sector and the electricity production sector (Sander 2002 and Jensen 2001). The same emission factors are applied for all years. In general, emission factors for PAH are uncertain.

29

4

Fuel consumption data

In 2002 total fuel consumption for stationary combustion plants was 568 PJ of which 490 PJ was fossil fuels. The fuel consumption rates are shown in Appendix 4. Fuel consumption distributed on the stationary combustion subsectors is shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. The majority - 59% - of all fuels is combusted in the sector, Electricity and heat production. Other sectors with high fuel consumption are Residential and Industry. Fuel consumption including renewable fuels

1A4a Commercial/ Institutional 3%

1A4b Residential 14%

1A4c Agriculture/ Forestry/Fishing 2%

1A2f Industry 14% 1A1c Solid Fuel Transf./Other Energy Industries 5%

1A1a Electricity and Heat Production 59%

1A1b Petroleum Refining 3%

Fuel consumption, fossil fuels

1A4a Commercial/ Institutional 3%

1A4b Residential 12%

1A4c Agriculture/ Forestry/Fishing 2%

1A2f Industry 14% 1A1c Solid Fuel Transf./Other Energy Industries 5%

1A1a Electricity and Heat Production 61%

1A1b Petroleum Refining 3%

Figure 1 Fuel consumption rate of stationary combustion, 2002 (based on DEA 2003a).

Coal and natural gas are the most utilised fuels for stationary combustion plants. Coal is mainly used in power plants and natural gas is used in power plants and decentralised CHP plants, as well as in industry, district heating and households. 30

250 1A4c Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing

@- 200 >3 Q LRW 150 S P XV QR 100 FO HX ) 50

1A4b Residential

1A4a Commercial/Institutional 1A2f Industry

BIOGAS

REFINERY GAS

LPG

ORIMULSION

NATURAL GAS

RAPE & FISH OIL

GAS OIL

KEROSENE

RESIDUAL OIL

STRAW

SEWAGE SLUDGE

WASTE, BIOMASS PART

WOOD AND SIMIL.

WASTE, PLASTIC PART

PETROLEUM COKE

COKE OVEN COKE

COAL

BROWN COAL BRI.

0

1A1c Solid Fuel Transf./Other Energy Industries 1A1b Petroleum Refining

1A1a Electricity and Heat Production

Figure 2 Fuel consumption of stationary combustion plants 2002 (based on DEA 2003a).

Fuel consumption time-series for stationary combustion plants are presented in Figure 3. The total fuel consumption has increased by 14% from 1990 to 2002, while the fossil fuel consumption has only increased by 8%. The consumption of natural gas and renewable fuels has increased since 1990 whereas coal consumption has decreased. 800

Other biomass

Fuel consumption [PJ]

700 Waste, biomass part 600 Other fossil fuels

500 400

Gas oil

300

Residual oil

200

Natural gas

100

Coal, brown coal and coke 2002

2000

1998

1996

1994

1992

1990

0

Figure 3 Fuel consumption time-series, stationary combustion (based on DEA 2003a).

The fluctuations in the time-series for fuel consumption are a result mainly of electricity import/export activity, but also of outdoor temperature variations from year to year. This, in turn, leads to fluctuations in emission levels. The fluctuations in electricity trade, fuel consumption and NOX emission are illustrated and compared in Figure 4. In 1990 the Danish electricity import was large causing relatively low fuel consumption, whereas the fuel consumption was high in 1996 due to a large electricity export. In 2002 the net electricity export was 7453 TJ.

31

To be able to follow the national energy consumption as well as for statistical and reporting purposes, the Danish Energy Authority produces a correction of the actual fuel consumption without random variations in electricity imports/exports and ambient temperature. This fuel consumption trend is also illustrated in Figure 4. The corrections are included here to explain the fluctuations in the emission time-series. Degree days

Fuel consumption adjusted for electricity trade

4500

800

4000

700 Fuel consumption [PJ]

3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500

Waste, biomass part 600

400

Gas oil

300

Residual oil

200

Natural gas

100

Coal, brown coal and coke

800

30 000

700

2001

1999

1997

1995

1993

80 Fossil fuel consumption [PJ]

2 001

2 002

2000

2 000

1 999

1 998

1 997

1 996

1 995

1 994

1 993

1 992

- 60 1 991

- 40

0 1 990

100

1999

Fuel consumption adjustment as a result of electricity trade

- 20

Coal consumption [PJ]

1 989

-60 000

20 -

1 985

-50 000

40 Electricity export [PJ]

1 988

-40 000

60

1 987

2 002

2 001

2 000

1 999

1 998

1 997

1 996

1 995

1 994

1 993

1 992

1 991

1 990

1 989

1 988

1 987

1 986

100

[email protected] 600 3 >Q LRW 500 S P XV 400 RQF 300 OH X)200

20 000

1 985

1991

Fluctuations in electricity trade compared to fuel consumption

40 000

@7> 10 000 WU RS LP \ -10 000 LWF ULW -20 000 FH -30 000 O(

1989

1985

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

1988

1987

1986

1985

Electricity trade

1987

0

0

@>3 W UR S[ H \LW LFU WF OH (

NOX emission 180000

100

160000

7RWDO

140000 NOx [Mg]

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

100000 80000 1A1a Electricity and heat production

60000 40000 20000

2002

2001

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

1988

1987

- 150

1986

1985

1988

1987

1986

120000 1985

@>3W QH 50 WP VX MG 0 D QR WLS - 50 P XV QR FO - 100 HX )

Other fossil fuels

500

1 986

Degree days

3500

Other biomass

Figure 4 Comparison of time-series fluctuations for electricity trade, fuel consumption and NOX emission (DEA 2003b).

32

5

Greenhouse gas emission

The total Danish greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in the year 2002 was 68.491 Gg CO2 equivalent not including land-use change and forestry or 64.678 Gg CO2 equivalent including land-use change and forestry. The greenhouse gas pollutants HFCs, PFCs and SF6 are not emitted from combustion plants and, as such, only the pollutants CO2, CH4 and N2O are considered below. The global warming potentials of CH4 and N2O applied in greenhouse gas inventories refer to the second IPCC assessment report (IPCC 1995): • 1 g CH4 equals 21 g CO2 • 1 g N2O equals 310 g CO2 The GHG emissions from stationary combustion are listed in Table 16. The emission from stationary combustion accounts for 55% of the total Danish GHG emission. The CO2 emission from stationary combustion plants accounts for 68% of the total Danish CO2 emission (not including land-use change and forestry). CH4 accounts for 9% of the total Danish CH4 emission and N2O for only 5% of the total Danish N2O emission. 1)

Table 16 Greenhouse gas emission for the year 2002 .

&2 1A1 Fuel consumption, Energy industries 1A2 Fuel consumption, Manufacturing Industries and Construction1) 1A4 Fuel consumption, Other sectors 1)

&+ *J&2HTXLYDOHQW

1 2

26548

340

264

4815

34

53

5510

159

66

7RWDOHPLVVLRQIURPVWDWLRQDU\ FRPEXVWLRQSODQWV







Total Danish emission (gross)

54164

5635

7976

% Emission share for stationary 68 combustion 1) Only stationary combustion sources of the sector is included

9

5

CO2 is the most important GHG pollutant and accounts for 97,6% of the GHG emission (CO2 eq.). This is a much higher share than for the total Danish GHG emissions where CO2 only accounts for 80% of the GHG emission (CO2 eq.). Stationary combustion CH4 1,41%

Total Danish emission N2O 1,01%

N 2O 11,77% CH4 8,31%

CO2 97,58%

CO2 79,92%

Figure 5 GHG emission (CO2 equivalent), contribution from each pollutant.

33

Figure 6 depicts the time-series of GHG emission (CO2 eq.) from stationary combustion and it can be seen that the GHG emission development follows the CO2 emission development very closely. Both the CO2 and the total GHG emission have decreased slightly from 1990 to 2002, CO2 by 2,3% and GHG by 1,3%. However, fluctuations in the GHG emission level are large. 60000

GHG [Gg CO2 eq.]

50000 CO2

40000

Total

30000 20000 10000 N2O

CH4

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

0

Figure 6 GHG emission time-series for stationary combustion.

The fluctuations in the time-series are mainly a result of electricity import/export activity, but also of outdoor temperature variations from year to year. The fluctuations follow the fluctuations in fuel consumption discussed in Chapter 4. Figure 7 shows the corresponding time-series for degree days, electricity trade and CO2 emission. As mentioned in Chapter 4, the Danish Energy Authority estimates a correction of the actual emissions without random variations in electricity imports/exports and in ambient temperature. This emission trend, which is smoothly decreasing, is also illustrated in Figure 7. The corrections are included here to explain the fluctuations in the emission time-series. The GHG emission corrected for electricity import/export and ambient temperature has decreased by 20% since 1990, and the CO2 emission by 21%.

34

'HJUHHGD\V

60000 50000 GHG [Gg CO2 eq.]

4 500 4 000 3 500 V\ 3 000 DG HH 2 500 UJ 2 000 H 1 500 ' 1 000 500 -

Total

CO2

40000 30000 20000 10000

N2O

(OHFWULFLW\LPSRUW

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

2 002

2 001

2 000

1 999

1 998

1 997

1 996

1 995

1 994

1 993

1 992

1 991

1 990

CH4 0

800

100

700

80 Fossil fuel consumption [PJ]

30 000 600

60

RQWL S500 P XV QR400 FO HX300 )

40 Electricity export [PJ]

UWR S[ H W\L FL UW FH O (

2 002

2 001

2 000

1 999

1 998

1 997

1 995

1 994

- 60 1 993

0 1 992

- 40

1 991

-60 000

- 20

Coal consumption [PJ]

100

1 990

-50 000

20 -

200

1 996

2 002

2 001

2 000

1 999

1 998

1 997

1 996

1 995

1 994

1 993

1 992

1 991

1 990

20 000

@- 10 000 7 >W UR S -10 000 P L\ WL -20 000 FL UW -30 000 FH O (-40 000

Adjusted GHG emission of stationary combustion plants

&2HPLVVLRQDGMXVWPHQW 10 000

2 002

2 001

2 000

1 999

1 998

1 997

1 996

1 995

1 994

1 993

50000

GHG total

40000 CO2

30000 20000 10000

2002

2001

2000

1999

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1990

-20 000

CH4

N2O

0

1998

-15 000

1991

1 992

1 991

[email protected] * >W QH WP VX -5 000 MG D -10 000  2 &

1 990

5 000

GHG [Gg CO2 eq.]

60000

Figure 7 GHG emission time-series for stationary combustion, adjusted for electricity import/export and temperature variations (DEA 2003b).

5.1 CO2 The CO2 emission from stationary combustion plants is one of the most important GHG emission sources. Thus the CO2 emission from stationary combustion plants accounts for 68% of the total Danish CO2 emission. Table 17 lists the CO2 emission inventory for stationary combustion plants for 2002. Figure 8 reveals that Electricity and heat production accounts for 65% of the CO2 emission from stationary combustion. This share is somewhat higher than the fossil fuel consumption share for this sector, which is 61% (Figure 1). Other large CO2 emission sources are industrial plants and residential plants. These are the sectors, which also account for a considerable share of fuel consumption.

35

Table 17 CO2 emission from stationary combustion plants 2002

&2

1)



1A1a Electricity and heat production

24083

Gg

948

Gg

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries

1517

Gg

1A2f Industry

4815

Gg

800

Gg

3979

Gg

1A1b Petroleum refining

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 1A4b Residential 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing

7RWDO

731

Gg



*J

1) Only emission from stationary combustion plants in the sectors is included

1A4b Residential 11% 1A4a Commercial / Institutional 2%

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 2%

1A2f Industry 13%

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 4% 1A1b Petroleum refining 3%

1A1a Electricity and heat production 65%

Figure 8 CO2 emission sources, stationary combustion plants, 2002.

The sector Electricity and heat production consists of the SNAP source sectors: Public power and District heating. The CO2 emissions from each of these subsectors are listed in Table 18. The most important subsector is power plant boilers >50MW. Table 18 CO2 emission from subsectors to 1A1a Electricity and heat production.

61$3 VRXUFH

61$3QDPH

0101

Public power

010101

Combustion plants ≥ 300MW (boilers)

010102 010103 010104

 0

Gg

18823

Gg

Combustion plants ≥ 50MW and < 300 MW (boilers)

971

Gg

Combustion plants <50 MW (boilers)

172

Gg

Gas turbines

2247

Gg

010105

Stationary engines

1608

Gg

0102

District heating plants

-

Gg

010201

Combustion plants ≥ 300MW (boilers)

-

Gg

010202

Combustion plants ≥ 50MW and < 300 MW (boilers)

39

Gg

010203

Combustion plants <50 MW (boilers)

010204 010205

36

223

Gg

Gas turbines

-

Gg

Stationary engines

0

Gg

CO2 emission from combustion of biomass fuels is not included in the total CO2 emission data, because biomass fuels are considered CO2 neutral. The CO2 emission from biomass combustion is reported as a memo item in Climate Convention reporting. In 2002 the CO2 emission from biomass combustion was 8454 Gg. In Figure 9 the fuel consumption share (fossil fuels) is compared to the CO2 emission share disaggregated to fuel origin. Due to the higher CO2 emission factor for coal than oil and gas, the CO2 emission share from coal combustion is higher than the fuel consumption share. Coal accounts for 36% of the fossil fuel consumption and for 46% of the CO2 emission. Natural gas accounts for 39% of the fossil fuel consumption but only 30% of the CO2 emission. Fossil fuel consumption share LPG 0%

REFINERY GAS 3% COAL 36% BROWN COAL BRI. 0%

NATURAL GAS 39%

COKE OVEN COKE 0% PETROLEUM COKE 2%

ORIMULSION 5%

KEROSENE 0%

GAS OIL 8%

PLASTIC RESIDUAL OIL WASTE 2% 5%

CO2 emission share LPG 0%

REFINERY GAS 2%

NATURAL GAS 30% COAL 46%

ORIMULSION 5% KEROSENE 0%

BROWN COAL BRI. 0% GAS OIL 8%

RESIDUAL OIL 5%

PLASTIC WASTE 2%

PETROLEUM COKE 2%

COKE OVEN COKE 0%

Figure 9 CO2 emission, fuel origin.

Time-series for CO2 emission are provided in Figure 10. Despite an increase in fuel consumption of 14% since 1990, CO2 emission from stationary combustion has decreased by 2,3% due to of the change in fuel type used. The fluctuations in total CO2 emission follow the fluctuations in CO2 emission from Electricity and heat production (Figure 10) and in coal consumption (Figure 11). The fluctuations are a result of electricity import/export activity as discussed in Chapter 5. Figure 11 compares time-series for fossil fuel consumption and the CO2 emission. As mentioned above, the consumption of coal has decreased whereas the consumption of natural gas, with a lower CO2 emission factor, has increased. Total fossil fuel use increased by 8% between 1990 and 2002.

37

70000 1A1a Electricity and heat production 60000 1A1b Petroleum refining

Total 50000 CO2 [Gg]

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 40000 1A2f Industry 30000 1A4a Commercial / Institutional 20000 1A4b Residential 10000 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

-

Total

Figure 10 CO2 emission time-series for stationary combustion plants. Fuel consumption 800 700

REFINERY GAS LPG NATURAL GAS ORIMULSION KEROSENE GAS OIL RESIDUAL OIL PLASTIC WASTE PETROLEUM COKE COKE OVEN COKE BROWN COAL BRI. COAL

@- 600 3 > Q 500 RL W S P400 XV Q RF 300 O H X 200 ) 100

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

0

CO2 emission, fuel origin 70 REFINERY GAS LPG NATURAL GAS ORIMULSION KEROSENE GAS OIL RESIDUAL OIL PLASTIC WASTE PETROLEUM COKE COKE OVEN COKE BROWN COAL BRI. COAL

60

@ 50 J >*  Q 40 LRV VL P H 30  2 & 20 10

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

0

Figure 11 Fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission time-series for stationary combustion.

38

5.2 CH4 CH4 emission from stationary combustion plants accounts for 9% of the total Danish CH4 emission. Table 19 lists the CH4 emission inventory for stationary combustion plants in 2002. Figure 12 reveals that Electricity and heat production accounts for 63% of the CH4 emission from stationary combustion, this being closely aligned with fuel consumption share. 1)

Table 19 CH4 emission from stationary combustion plants 2002 .

&+

2002

1A1a Electricity and heat production 1A1b Petroleum refining 1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries

16005

Mg

2

Mg

177

Mg

1635

Mg

974

Mg

1A4b Residential

4479

Mg

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing

2112

Mg

25384

Mg

1A2f Industry 1A4a Commercial / Institutional

Total

1) Only emission from stationary combustion plants in the sectors is included

1A4b Residential 18%

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 8%

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 4%

1A2f Industry 6%

1A1a Electricity and heat production 63%

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 1%

Figure 12 CH4 emission sources, stationary combustion plants, 2002.

The CH4 emission factor for reciprocating gas engines is much higher than for other combustion plants due to the continuous ignition/burn-out of the gas. Lean-burn gas engines have an especially high emission factor as discussed in Chapter 4.5.2. A considerable number of lean-burn gas engines are in operation in Denmark and these plants account for 75% of the CH4 emission from stationary combustion plants (Figure 13). The engines are installed in CHP plants and the fuel used is either natural gas or biogas.

39

Other stationary combustion plants 25%

Gas engines 75%

Figure 13 Gas engine CH4 emission share, 2002.

The CH4 emission from stationary combustion increased by a factor of 4,5 since 1990 (Figure 14). This results from the considerable number of lean-burn gas engines installed in CHP plants in Denmark in this period. Figure 15 provides time-series for the fuel consumption rate in gas engines and the corresponding increase of CH4 emission. 30000 1A1a Electricity and heat production

7RWDO

25000

1A1b Petroleum refining 1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries

CH4 [Mg]

20000

1A2f Industry

15000

1A4a Commercial / Institutional

10000

1A4b Residential 5000 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

-

Total

Figure 14 CH4 emission time-series for stationary combustion plants.

40

40 Fuel consumption [PJ]

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 2001

2002

2001

2002

2000

1999

1998

1997

Gas engines, Biogas

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

Gas engines, Natural gas

1992

1991

1990

0

30

CH4 emission [Gg]

25 20 15 10 5

Gas engines

2000

1999

1998

1996

1995

1994

1993

1991

1990

0

Other stationary combustion plants

Figure 15 Fuel consumption and CH4 emission from gas engines, time-series.

5.3 N2O The N2O emission from stationary combustion plants accounts for 5% of the total Danish N2O emission. Table 20 lists the N2O emission inventory for stationary combustion plants in the year 2002. Figure 16 reveals that Electricity and heat production accounts for 64% of the N2O emission from stationary combustion. This is only a little higher than the fuel consumption share. 1)

Table 20 N2O emission from stationary combustion plants 2002 .

1 2 1A1a Electricity and heat production

2002 793

Mg

1A1b Petroleum refining

32

Mg

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries

27

Mg

170

Mg

1A2f Industry 1A4a Commercial / Institutional 1A4b Residential 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing Total

23

Mg

163

Mg

26

Mg

1234

Mg

1) Only emission from stationary combustion plants in the sectors is included

41

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 2%

1A4b Residential 13%

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 2%

1A2f Industry 14% 1A1a Electricity and heat production 64%

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 2% 1A1b Petroleum refining 3%

Figure 16 N2O emission sources, stationary combustion plants, 2002.

Figure 17 shows time-series for N2O emission. The N2O emission from stationary combustion decreased by 3,6% from 1990 to 2002, but again fluctuations in emission level due to electricity import/export are considerable. 2000 1800

1A1a Electricity and heat production

7RWDO

1A1b Petroleum refining

1600

N2O [Mg]

1400

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries

1200

1A2f Industry

1000 800

1A4a Commercial / Institutional

600

1A4b Residential 400 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing

200

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

-

Total

Figure 17 N2O emission time-series for stationary combustion plants.

42

6

SO2, NOX, NMVOC and CO

The emissions of SO2, NOX, NMVOC and CO from Danish stationary combustion plants 2002 are presented in Table 21. The emission of these pollutants is reported to the LRTAP Convention and the pollutants are also included in the report to the Climate Convention. SO2 from stationary combustion plants accounts for 83% of the total Danish emission. NOX, CO and NMVOC account for 37%, 29% and 15% of total Danish emissions, respectively. 1)

Table 21 SO2, NOX, NMVOC and CO emission from stationary combustion 2002 .

12; *J

&2 *J

1092& *J

62 *J

1A1 Fuel consumption, Energy industries

53,1

1A2 Fuel consumption, Manufacturing Industries and Construction (Stationary combustion) 1A4 Fuel consumption, Other sectors (Stationary combustion)

14,4

12,5

4,3

10,9

5,2

0,9

6,6

7,4

149,4

13,4

3,6

7RWDOHPLVVLRQIURPVWDWLRQDU\FRPEXV WLRQSODQWV









Total Danish emission (gross)

200

577

124

25

15,0

83,3

3ROOXWDQW

% Emission share for stationary combustion

37,4

29,0

1) Only emissions from stationary combustion plants in the sectors are included

6.1 SO2 Stationary combustion is the most important emission source for SO2 accounting for 85% of the total Danish emission. Table 22 and Figure 18 present the SO2 emission inventory for the stationary combustion subsectors. Electricity and heat production is the largest emission source accounting for 48% of the emission, however, the SO2 emission share is somewhat smaller than the fuel consumption share for this sector, which is 59%. This is possibly due to effective flue gas desulphurisation equipment installed in power plants combusting coal. Figure 19 shows the SO2 emission from Electricity and heat production on a disaggregated level. Power plants >300MWth represent the main emission source, accounting for 73% of the emission. The fuel origin of the SO2 emission is shown in Figure 20. Disaggregation of total emissions from point sources using several fuels is based on emission factors. As expected the emission from natural gas is negligible and the emission from coal combustion is considerable (44%). Most remarkably is the emission share from residual oil combustion, which is 24%. This emission is very high compared to the fuel consumption share of 4%. The emission factor for residual oil combusted in the industrial sector is uncertain because knowledge of the applied flue gas cleaning technology in this sector is insufficient. Based on the apparent very large emission from residual oil the emission factors will be further analysed prior to the next emission reporting. The SO2 emission from Industry is 31%, a remarkably high emission share compared with fuel consumption. The main emission sources in the industrial 43

sector are combustion of coal and residual oil, but emissions from the cement industry and from industrial combustion of petroleum coke also constitute considerable emission sources. Some years ago, SO2 emission from the industrial sector only accounted for a small portion of the total emission, but as a result of reduced emissions from power plants the share has now increased. Time-series for SO2 emission from stationary combustion are shown in Figure 21. The SO2 emission from stationary combustion plants has decreased by 95% from 1980 and 83% from 1995. The large emission decrease is mainly a result of the reduced emission from Electricity and heat production, made possible due to installation of desulphurisation plants and due to the use of fuels with lower sulphur content. Despite the considerable reduction in emission from electricity and heat production plants, these still account for 48% of the total emission from stationary combustion, as mentioned above. The emission from other sectors also decreased considerably since 1980. 1)

Table 22 SO2 emission from stationary combustion plants 2002 .

62

2002

1A1a Electricity and heat production

9936

Mg

927

Mg

9

Mg

1A1b Petroleum refining 1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 1A2f Industry

6563

Mg

553

Mg

1787

Mg

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 1A4b Residential 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing Total

1284

Mg

21058

Mg

1) Only emission from stationary combustion plants in the sectors is included

1A4b Residential 8%

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 3%

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 6%

1A1a Electricity and heat production 48%

1A2f Industry 31%

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0%

1A1b Petroleum refining 4%

Figure 18 SO2 emission sources, stationary combustion plants, 2002.

44

District heating, boilers between 50MW and 300MW 1%

Public power, other 0%

Public power, stationary engines 0%

District heating, boilers < 50MW 9%

Public power, gas turbines 3% Public power, boilers < 50MW 5% Public power, boilers between 50MW and 300MW 9%

Public power, boilers > 300MW 73%

Figure 19 Disaggregated SO2 emissions from Energy and heat production.

Fuel consumption

SO2 emission, fuel origin

Other fuels (including natural gas) 34%

Coal 31%

Gas oil 5%

Refinery gas 3% Biogas 1% Orimulsion 4% Gas oil 7%

Orimulsion 1%

Petroleum coke 1%

Residual oil 4%

Coal 44%

Residual oil 24%

Wood 6% Municipal waste 6%

Straw 3%

Biogas Refinery gas 3% 1% Other fuels 0%

Straw 7% Municipal waste 6%

Wood 4%

Petroleum coke 5%

Figure 20 Fuel origin of the SO2 emission from stationary combustion plants.

500000 450000

1A1a Electricity and heat production

400000

1A1b Petroleum refining

SO2 [Mg]

350000

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries

7RWDO

300000

1A2f Industry

250000 200000

1A4a Commercial / Institutional

150000

1A4b Residential 100000 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing

50000

2002

2000

1998

1996

1994

1992

1990

1988

1986

1984

1982

1980

-

Total

Figure 21 SO2 emission time-series for stationary combustion.

6.2 NOX Stationary combustion accounts for 37% of the total Danish NOX emission. Table 23 and Figure 22 show the NOX emission inventory for stationary combustion subsectors. 45

Electricity and heat production is the largest emission source accounting for 60% of the emission from stationary combustion plants. Power plants >50MWth are the main emission source in this sector accounting for 68% of the emission. Figure 23 shows fuel origin of the NOX emission from sector 1A1a Electricity and heat production. The fuel origin of the NOX emission is almost the same as the fuel consumption in this plant category. The emission from coal combustion is, however, somewhat higher than the fuel consumption share. Industrial combustion plants are also an important emission source accounting for 19% of the emission. The main industrial emission source is cement production, accounting for 62% of the emission. Residential plants accounts for 7% of the NOX emission. The fuel origin of this emission is mainly wood, gas oil and natural gas accounting for 36%, 31% and 22% of the residential plant emission, respectively. Time-series for NOX emission from stationary combustion are shown in Figure 24. NOX emission from stationary combustion plants has decreased by 50% from 1985 and 34% from 1995. The reduced emission is mainly a result of the reduced emission from Electricity and heat production due to installation of low NOX burners and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units. The fluctuations in the time-series follow the fluctuations in Electricity and heat production, which, in turn, result from electricity trade fluctuations. The NOX emission from all subsectors has decreased since 1985. 1)

Table 23 NOX emission from stationary combustion plants 2002 . 2002 1A1a Electricity and heat production

44964

Mg

1A1b Petroleum refining

1554

Mg

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries

6555

Mg

14412

Mg

1A4a Commercial / Institutional

1077

Mg

1A4b Residential

4909

Mg

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing

1460

Mg

74931

Mg

1A2f Industry

Total

1) Only emission from stationary combustion plants in the sectors is included

46

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 2%

1A4b Residential 7%

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 1% 1A2f Industry 19%

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 9%

1A1a Electricity and heat production 60% 1A1b Petroleum refining 2%

Figure 22 NOX emission sources, stationary combustion plants, 2002.

Fuel consumption

NOX emission, fuel origin Biogas 1%

Natural gas 24%

Orimulsion 5%

Orimulsion 7%

Gas oil 0%

Coal 49%

Gas oil 0% Residual oil 4% Straw 3%

Biogas 2%

Natural gas 22%

Municipal waste 10%

Residual oil 3% Straw 3% Wood 2%

Coal 54% Municipal waste 9%

Wood 2%

Figure 23 NOX emissions from 1A1a Electricity and heat production, fuel origin.

180000 1A1a Electricity and heat production

160000

7RWDO

140000

1A1b Petroleum refining 1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries

NOx [Mg]

120000 100000

1A2f Industry

80000 1A4a Commercial / Institutional

60000

1A4b Residential

40000 20000

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 2001

1999

1997

1995

1993

1991

1989

1987

1985

-

Total

Figure 24 NOX emission time-series for stationary combustion.

6.3 NMVOC Stationary combustion plants account for 15% of the total Danish NMVOC emission. Table 24 and Figure 25 present the NMVOC emission inventory for the stationary combustion subsectors. 47

Residential plants are the largest emission source accounting for 59% of the total emission from stationary combustion plants. For residential plants NMVOC is mainly emitted from wood and straw combustion, see Figure 26. Electricity and heat production is also a considerable emission source, accounting for 23% of the total emission. Lean-burn gas engines have a relatively high NMVOC emission factor and are the most important emission source in this subsector (see Figure 26). The gas engines are either natural gas or biogas fuelled. Time-series for NMVOC emission from stationary combustion are shown in Figure 27. The emission has increased by 40% from 1985 and 14% from 1995. The increased emission is mainly a result of the increased use of lean-burn gas engines in CHP plants as discussed in Chapter 7.2. The emission from residential plants is relatively constant, but the NMVOC emission from wood combustion almost doubled since 1990 due to increased wood consumption. However the emission from straw combustion in farmhouse boilers has decreased over this period. The use of wood in residential boilers and stoves is relatively low in 1998-99 resulting in a sharp decrease in emission levels over these years. Fuel consumption rates 1985-1989 for the sector agriculture/forestry/fishing have not been updated according to the new energy statistics. This leads to an apparent sudden increase in emission between, 1989 and 1990, which, in fact, is not correct. 1)

Table 24 NMVOC emission from stationary combustion plants 2002 . 2002 1A1a Electricity and heat production

4240

Mg

4

Mg

1A1b Petroleum refining 1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries

55

Mg

1A2f Industry

926

Mg

1A4a Commercial / Institutional

748

Mg

10964

Mg

1657

Mg

18594

Mg

1A4b Residential 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing Total

1) Only emission from stationary combustion plants in the sectors is included

48

1A1a Electricity and heat production 23%

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 9%

1A1b Petroleum refining 0% 1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0%

1A2f Industry 5% 1A4b Residential 59%

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 4%

Figure 25 NMVOC emission sources, stationary combustion plants, 2002.

Residential plants

Electricity and heat production

NATURAL GAS 1% STRAW 16%

OTHER 1%

Other plants 2%

Gas engines 98%

WOOD 82%

Figure 26 NMVOC emission from residential plants and from electricity and heat production, 2002.

20000 1A1a Electricity and heat production

18000 16000

1A1b Petroleum refining

7RWDO

NMVOC [Mg]

14000

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries

12000

1A2f Industry

10000 8000

1A4a Commercial / Institutional

6000

1A4b Residential 4000 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing

2000

2001

1999

1997

1995

1993

1991

1989

1987

1985

-

Total

Figure 27 NMVOC emission time-series for stationary combustion.

49

6.4 CO Stationary combustion accounts for 29% of the total Danish CO emission. Table 25 and Figure 28 presents the CO emission inventory for stationary combustion subsectors. Residential plants are the largest emission source, accounting for 88% of the emission. Wood combustion accounts for 90% of the emission from residential plants, see Figure 29. This is in spite of the fact that the fuel consumption share is only 19%. Combustion of straw is also a considerable emission source whereas the emission from other fuels used in residential plants is almost negligible. Time-series for CO emission from stationary combustion are shown in Figure 30. The emission has increased by 40% from 1985 and 6% from 1995. The timeseries for CO from stationary combustion plants follows the time-series for CO emission from residential plants. The consumption of wood in residential plants has increased by 65% since 1990 leading to an increase in the CO emission. The increase in CO emission from residential plants is lower than the increase in wood consumption, because CO emission from straw-fired farmhouse boilers has decreased considerably. Both the annual straw consumption in residential plants and the CO emission factor for farmhouse boilers have decreased. 1)

Table 25 CO emission from stationary combustion plants 2002 . 2002 1A1a Electricity and heat production

11528

Mg

1A1b Petroleum refining

263

Mg

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries

749

Mg

1A2f Industry 1A4a Commercial / Institutional 1A4b Residential 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing Total

5203

Mg

909

Mg

147045

Mg

1480

Mg

167176

Mg

1) Only emission from stationary combustion plants in the sectors is included 1A1a Electricity and heat production 7% 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 1%

1A1b Petroleum refining 0%

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0% 1A2f Industry 3%

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 1%

1A4b Residential 88%

Figure 28 CO emission sources, stationary combustion plants, 2002.

50

Other fuels 2%

Straw 8%

Wood 90%

Figure 29 CO emission sources, residential plants, 2002.

200000 180000

1A1a Electricity and heat production

7RWDO

1A1b Petroleum refining

160000

CO [Mg]

140000

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries

120000

1A2f Industry

100000 80000

1A4a Commercial / Institutional

60000

1A4b Residential 40000 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing

20000

2001

1999

1997

1995

1993

1991

1989

1987

1985

-

Total

Figure 30 CO emission time-series for stationary combustion.

51

7

Particulate matter (PM)

The emission of total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10 and PM2.5 from Danish stationary combustion plants 2002 is presented in Table 26. The PM emission is reported to the LRTAP Convention. To date, only PM emissions from stationary combustion, transport, agriculture and part of the industrial sector have been included in the Danish inventory. TSP from stationary combustion accounts for 16% of the total Danish emission. The emission shares for PM10 and PM2.5 are 22% and 30%, respectively. Table 26 Danish PM emissions 2002.

30 0J

3ROOXWDQW

763 0J

30 0J

1A1 Fuel combustion, Energy industries

1332

1074

903

655

519

333

3415

3223

3026

1A2 Fuel combustion, Manufacturing Industries and Construction (Stationary combustion) 1) 1A4 Fuel combustion, Other sectors (Stationary combustion) 1)

7RWDOHPLVVLRQIURPVWDWLRQDU\FRPEXVWLRQSODQWV Total Danish emission (gross)







33788

22112

14316

% Emission share for stationary combustion

16,0

21,8

29,8

1) Only emission from stationary combustion plants in the sectors is included

Table 27 and Figure 31 show the PM emission inventory for the stationary combustion subsectors. Residential plants are the largest emission source accounting for 65% of the PM2.5 emission from stationary combustion plants. The primary sources of PM emissions are: • • • •

Residential boilers, stoves and fireplaces combusting wood Farmhouse boilers combusting straw Power plants primarily combusting coal Coal and residual oil combusted in industrial boilers and processes

Furthermore, there are considerable emissions from: • Residential boilers using gas oil • Refineries The PM emission from wood combusted in residential plants is the predominant source. Thus 47% of the PM2.5 emission from stationary combustion is emitted from residential wood combustion. This corresponds to 14% of the overall Danish emission. A literature review (Nielsen et al. 2003) has demonstrated that the uncertainty surrounding the emission factors for residential combustion of wood in stoves and boilers is extremely high. Results from a Nordic project attended by NERI (Sternhufvud et al. 2004) are planned to be implemented in the PM emission inventory next year. In Figure 32 the fuel consumption and the PM2.5 emission of residential plants is shown. Wood combustion accounts for 72% of the PM2.5 emission from residential plants in spite of the limited wood consumption share.

52

Emission inventories for PM have only been reported for the years 2000-2002 and the short time-series for TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emission is shown in Figure 33. In the fall 2004 a new methodology has been developed to estimate the PM emission from the residential sector (Illerup & Nielsen, 2004). The revised PM emission estimates result in a considerably higher PM2.5 emission compared to the emission presented in this report. The improved PM emission inventory will be implemented in the next official Danish inventory, which is going to be submitted in February 2005 to the LRTAP Convention. 1)

Table 27 PM emission from stationary combustion plants, 2002 . TSP 1A1a Electricity and heat production 1A1b Petroleum refining

PM10

PM2.5

1187

943

778

Mg

142

128

122

Mg

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries

3

3

3

Mg

1A2f Industry

655

519

333

Mg

1A4a Commercial / Institutional

204

195

181

Mg

3096

2936

2770

Mg

115

92

75

Mg

5402

4816

4261

Mg

1A4b Residential 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing Total

1) Only emission from stationary combustion plants in the sectors is included

TSP 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 2%

1A1a Electricity and heat production 22%

1A1b Petroleum refining 3% 1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0%

1A4b Residential 57%

1A2f Industry 12%

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 4%

PM10 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 2%

1A1a Electricity and heat production 20% 1A1b Petroleum refining 3%

1A4b Residential 60%

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0% 1A2f Industry 11% 1A4a Commercial / Institutional 4%

53

PM2.5 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 2%

1A1a Electricity and heat production 18%

1A1b Petroleum refining 3% 1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0%

1A4b Residential 65% 1A2f Industry 8%

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 4%

Figure 31 PM emission sources, stationary combustion plants, 2002.

Fuel consumption

Other fuels 2%

PM2.5 emission Wood 19%

Natural gas 38%

Straw 4%

Other fuels 6%

Straw 22%

Gas oil 37%

Figure 32 Fuel consumption and PM2.5 emission from residential plants.

6000 TSP PM10

4000

PM2.5

PM [Mg]

5000

3000 2000 1000

2002

2001

2000

0

Figure 33 PM emission time-series for stationary combustion.

54

Wood 72%

8

Heavy metals

Emission inventories for 9 heavy metals are reported to the LRTAP Convention. Three of the metals are considered priority metals: Pb, Cd and Hg. The 2002 emissions are presented in Table 28. Stationary combustion plants are the most important emission sources for heavy metals. For Cu the emission share from stationary combustion plants is 12%, but for all other heavy metals the emission share is more than 50%, see Table 28. Table 28 The emission of heavy metals in 2002, reported to the LRTAP Convention in 2004.

3ROOXWDQW 1A1 Fuel combustion, Energy industries 1A2 Fuel combustion, Manufacturing Industries and Construction (Stationary combustion) 1A4 Fuel combustion, Other sectors (Stationary combustion)

3E 0J

&G 0J

+J 0J

$V 0J

&U 0J

&X 0J

1L 0J

6H 0J

=Q 0J

2,33

0,23

0,66

0,41

0,51

0,65

4,53

0,73 13,64

0,29

0,20

0,28

0,19

0,31

0,22

5,36

0,13

1,60

0,23

0,15

0,22

0,08

0,11

0,19

1,24

0,19

2,64

7RWDOHPLVVLRQIURPVWDWLRQ DU\FRPEXVWLRQSODQWV

        

Total Danish emission (gross)

5,25

0,66

1,19

0,77

1,64

8,68 13,38

1,88 23,54

12,1

56,1

% Emission share for stationary combustion

54,2

86,8

98,1

89,1

56,9

83,2

75,9

Table 29 and Figure 34 present the heavy metal emission inventory for the stationary combustion subsectors. The sectors Electricity and heat production and Industry have the highest emission shares. Electricity and heat production accounts for 80%, 37% and 56% of the emission of the priority metals Pb, Cd and Hg, respectively. Table 30 presents the emission share for the two most important emission source categories: Power plants >25MWe and municipal waste incineration plants.

55

1)

Table 29 Heavy metal emission from stationary combustion plants, 2002 . 1A1a Electricity and heat production 1A1b Petroleum refining

As

Cd

Cr

Cu

Hg

Ni

Pb

Se

Zn

395

211

466

628

658

3651

2299

19

18

45

18

6

875

32

17

4 kg

714 13632 kg

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 1A2f Industry

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 kg

187

199

314

219

276

5363

287

135

1601 kg

1A4a Commercial / Institutional

20

14

20

20

43

233

46

23

185 kg

1A4b Residential

38

111

35

141

156

118

134

138

2377 kg

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing

25

22

51

27

25

888

50

29

81 kg





7RWDO

       NJ

1) Only emission from stationary combustion plants in the sectors is included

Table 30 Heavy metal emission share for large power plants and municipal waste incineration plants, 2002.

3ROOXWDQW

As Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Pb Se Zn

56

(PLVVLRQVKDUHRISODQWFDWHJRU\ 0XQLFLSDOZDVWH LQFLQHUDWLRQ&+3 DQGGLVWULFWKHDWLQJ

3RZHUSODQWV !0:H

31 23 16 33 28 3 62 0 57

32 9 32 28 22 26 18 65 30

As

Cd

1A4b Residential 6%

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 4%

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 4%

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 3%

1A4b Residential 19% 1A1a Electricity and heat production 37%

1A2f Industry 27%

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 2%

1A1a Electricity and heat production 57%

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0%

1A1b Petroleum refining 3% 1A2f Industry 35%

1A1b Petroleum refining 3%

Cr

Cu 1A4b Residential 4%

1A4b Residential 13%

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 5%

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 2% 1A1a Electricity and heat production 50%

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0%

1A2f Industry 21%

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0% 1A1b Petroleum refining 5%

Hg

1A1a Electricity and heat production 59%

1A1b Petroleum refining 2%

Ni 1A4b Residential 13%

1A4b Residential 1% 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 2%

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 2%

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 4% 1A1a Electricity and heat production 56%

1A2f Industry 24%

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0%

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 2% 1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0%

1A2f Industry 48%

Se

1A4b Residential 5%

1A2f Industry 10%

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 2%

1A2f Industry 9%

1A1a Electricity and heat production 33%

1A1b Petroleum refining 8%

1A4b Residential 13% 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 3% 1A4a Commercial / Institutional 2%

1A2f Industry 13%

1A1a Electricity and heat production 80%

1A4b Residential 13% 1A4a Commercial / Institutional 1%

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 8%

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0%

1A1b Petroleum refining 1%

1A1b Petroleum refining 1%

Zn

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 3%

1A4a Commercial / Institutional 2%

1A2f Industry 34%

Pb

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0%

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0% 1A1b Petroleum refining 2%

1A1a Electricity and heat production 67%

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 0%

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0% 1A1b Petroleum refining 0%

1A1a Electricity and heat production 77%

Figure 34 Heavy metal emission sources, stationary combustion plants, 2002.

57

Time-series for heavy metal emissions are provided in Figure 35. Time-series are only shown for total emission from stationary combustion and for the two most important sectors: Electricity and heat production and Industry-other. Heavy metal emissions have decreased considerably since 1990, see Table 31. Emissions have decreased despite increased incineration of municipal waste. This has been made possible due to installation and improved performance of gas cleaning devices in waste incineration plants and also in large power plants, the latter a further important emission source. The estimated As emission level decreased remarkably from 1994 to 1995. Plant-specific emission data for power plants are available for all power plants from 1995 onwards and the general point source emission factor for power plants has potentially been overestimated. Table 31 Decrease in heavy metal emission 1990-2002.

3ROOXWDQW As Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Pb Se Zn

58

'HFUHDVHVLQFH 51% 45% 84% 71% 64% 47% 80% 70% 8%

As

Cd

2000

1200

1800 1000

1600 1400

@J 1200 N> 1000 V$ 800

[email protected] >G &

1A1a Electricity and heat production

800 600 1A1a Electricity and heat production

400

600 400

1A2f Industry

200

1A2f Industry

200

Cu

7000

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

-

Cr

7RWDO

7RWDO

4500 4000

6000

3500 5000

7RWDO

[email protected] 4000 U>& 3000

7RWDO

3000

@J 2500 >N X&2000

1A1a Electricity and heat production

1A1a Electricity and heat production

1500 2000 1000 1000

1A2f Industry

500

2002

2001

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

2001

7RWDO

2000

3500

1991

1990

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

Ni

4000

2000

Hg

1A2f Industry

1990

-

25000

20000

3000

7RWDO

2500

@J >N 2000 J+

@J15000 >NL 1

1A1a Electricity and heat production

1A2f Industry

10000

1500 1000

5000 500

1A1a Electricity and heat production

1A2f Industry

Pb

Se

16000

2002

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

5000 4500

14000

4000

7RWDO

12000

@J >NE 3

1990

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

-

@J 3000 >NH 2500 62000

1A1a Electricity and heat production

8000

7RWDO

3500

10000

6000

1A1a Electricity and heat production

1500 4000 1000 2000

500

1A2f Industry

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

2002 2002

1992

2001 2001

1991

2000 2000

1990

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1999

Zn

1A2f Industry

1990

-

25000

20000

7RWDO

@J N> Q= 10000 15000

1A1a Electricity and heat production

5000 1A2f Industry

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

-

Figure 35 Heavy metal emission time-series, stationary combustion plants.

59

9

PAH and dioxin

Emission inventories for 4 PAHs and for dioxin are reported to the LRTAP Convention. Dioxin emission inventories are estimated by COWI for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Hansen & Hansen 2003). The emission inventories for PAH are presented in Table 32. Stationary combustion plants account for more than 90% of the PAH emissions. Table 32 The emission for the year 2002 reported to the LRTAP Convention in 2004.

3ROOXWDQW  DR ]Q H %

HQ HU \S J0

R OXI ER ]Q H %

R OXI NR ]Q H %

HQ HK WQ J UD 0

HQ HK WQ J UD 0

   R QH GQ ,

HQ HU \S G J F 0

1A1 Fuel combustion, Energy industries

0,01

0,04

0,02

0,01

1A2 Fuel combustion, Manufacturing Industries and Construction (Stationary combustion) 1A4 Fuel combustion, Other sectors (Stationary combustion)

0,03

0,10

0,02

0,01

2,80

3,65

1,21

2,04

7RWDOHPLVVLRQIURPVWDWLRQDU\FRPEXVWLRQ SODQWV









Total Danish emission (gross)

2,89

3,87

1,33

2,13

Emission share for stationary combustion

98,1

97,9

93,6

96,6

Table 33 and Figure 37 present the PAH emission inventory for the stationary combustion subsectors. Residential combustion is the largest emission source. Combustion of wood is the predominant source, accounting for more than 97% of the emission in residential plants, see Figure 36. Time-series for PAH emission are presented in Figure 38. The increasing emission trend is a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential plants. The time-series for wood combustion in residential plants is also provided in Figure 38. Table 33 PAH emission from stationary combustion plants, 2002.

 DR ]Q H % 1A1a Electricity and heat production 1A1b Petroleum refining 1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 1A2f Industry 1A4a Commercial / Institutional 1A4b Residential 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing Total

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60

E R ]Q H %

Benzo(a)pyrene Straw 1%

Benzo(b)fluoranthene Other 0%

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Wood 99%

Benzo(k)fluoranthene Straw 2%

Other 0%

Wood 99%

Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene Other 0%

Wood 98%

Straw 1%

Other 1%

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Figure 36 PAH emission from residential combustion plants (stationary), fuel origin.

61

%HQ]R D S\UHQH

1A1a Electricity and heat production 0%

1A1b Petroleum refining 0%

1A1c Solid fuel transf. and other energy industries 0%

1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 4%

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1A4b Residential 89%

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1A2f Industry 3% 1A4a Commercial / Institutional 6%

1A4b Residential 87%

%HQ]R N IOXRUDQWKHQH

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1A4b Residential 89%

,QGHQR FG S\UHQH

1A1a Electricity and heat production 1% 1A4c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 6%

1A1b 1A1c Solid fuel Petroleum transf. and refining other energy 0% industries 0%

1A2f Industry 0% 1A4a Commercial / Institutional 6%

1A4b Residential 87%

Figure 37 PAH emission sources, stationary combustion plants, 2002.

62

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14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 2002

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Figure 38 PAH emission time-series, stationary combustion plants. Comparison with wood consumption in residential plants.

63

10 QA/QC and validation A formal QA/QC plan has not yet been developed, but a number of quality control (QC) procedures are performed. The QC procedures for stationary combustion include: • Checking of time-series in the IPCC and SNAP source categories. Considerable changes are controlled and explained. • Comparison with the inventory of the previous year. Any major changes are verified. • Total emission, when aggregated to IPCC and LRTAP reporting tables, is compared with totals based on SNAP source categories (control of data transfer). • A manual log table in the emission databases is applied to collect information about recalculations. • The IPCC reference approach validates the fuel consumption rates and CO2 emissions of fuel combustion. Fuel consumption rates and CO2 emissions differ by less than 2,0% (1990-2002). The reference approach is further discussed below. • The emission from each large point source is compared with the emission reported the previous year. • Some automated checks have been prepared for the emission databases: ° Check of units for fuel rate, emission factor and plant specific emissions ° Check of emission factors for large point sources. Emission factors for pollutants that are not plant-specific should be the same as those defined for area sources. ° Additional checks on database consistency • Most emission factor references are now incorporated in the emission database, itself. • Annual environmental reports are kept for subsequent control of plant specific emission data. • QA/QC checks of the country-specific emission factors have not been performed, but most factors are based on work from companies that have implemented some QA/QC work. The two major power plant owners / operators in Denmark: E2 and Elsam both obtained the ISO 14001 certification for an environmental management system. Danish Gas Technology Centre and dk-Teknik both run accredited laboratories for emission measurements.

10.1 Reference approach In addition to the sector-specific CO2 emission inventories (the national approach), the CO2 emission is also estimated using the reference approach described in the IPCC Reference Manual (IPCC 1996). The reference approach is based on data for fuel production, import, export and stock change. The CO2 emission inventory based on the reference approach is reported to the Climate Convention and used for verification of the official data in the national approach. Data for import, export and stock change used in the reference approach originate from the annual “basic data” table prepared by the Danish Energy 64

Authority and published on their home page (DEA 2003b). The fraction of carbon oxidised has been assumed to be 1,00. The carbon emission factors are default factors originating from the IPCC Reference Manual (IPCC 1996). The country-specific emission factors are not used in the reference approach, the approach being for the purposes of verification. The Climate Convention reporting tables include a comparison of the national approach and the reference approach estimates. To make results comparable, the CO2 emission from incineration of the plastic content of municipal waste is added in the reference approach. Further consumption for non-energy purposes is subtracted in the reference approach, because non-energy use of fuels is not, as yet, included in the Danish national approach. Three fuels are used for non-energy purposes: lube oil, bitumen and white spirit. The total consumption for non-energy purposes is relatively low – 10,9 PJ in 2002. In 2002 the fuel consumption rates in the two approaches differ by 0,05% and the CO2 emission differs by 0,24%. In the period 1990-2002 fuel consumption differs by less than 1,96%, and the CO2 emission by less than 1,92%. According to IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC 2000) the difference should be within 2%. The reference approach for 2002 and the comparison with the Danish national approach are provided in Appendix 14. The appendix also includes a correspondence list for the fuel categories (Danish Energy Authority/IPCC reference approach).

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

HF QH UH ILG 

1991

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A comparison of the national approach and the reference approach is illustrated in Figure 39.

Fuel consumption CO2 emission

Figure 39 Comparison of the reference approach and the national approach.

10.2 External review This report has been reviewed by Jan Erik Johnsson, Technology University of Denmark. The review was performed after the reporting of emission data to the Climate Convention and the LRTAP Convention. Thus only the suggested improvements of the documentation is reflected in this report, whereas the suggested improvements of emission factors will be included the next emission inventory that will be reported in 2005.

65

11 Uncertainty According to the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC 2000) uncertainty estimates should be included in the annual National Inventory Report. Likewise, uncertainty estimates for the LRTAP Convention inventories are included in the report for these inventories. Uncertainty estimates include uncertainty with regard to the total emission inventory as well as uncertainty with regard to trends. The GHG emission from stationary combustion plants has been estimated with an uncertainty interval of ±10% and the decrease in the GHG emission since 1990 has been estimated to be 1,3% ± 1,8 %-age-points.

11.1 Methodology The Danish uncertainty estimates for GHGs are based on a methodology included in IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC 2000). The estimates are based on uncertainties for emission factors and fuel consumption rates, respectively. The input data required for the uncertainty calculations are: • Emission data for the base year and the last year • Uncertainty for activity rates • Uncertainty for emission factors 11.1.1 Greenhouse gases The Danish uncertainty estimates for GHGs are based on the tier 1 approach in IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC 2000). The uncertainty levels have been estimated for the following emission source subcategories within stationary combustion: • • • •

CO2 emission from each of the applied fuel categories 1 CH4 emission from gas engines CH4 emission from all other stationary combustion plants N2O emission from all stationary combustion plants

The separate uncertainty estimation for gas engine CH4 emission and CH4 emission from other plants does not follow the recommendations in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance. Disaggregation is applied, because in Denmark the CH4 emission from gas engines is much larger than the emission from other stationary combustion plants, and the CH4 emission factor for gas engines is estimated with a much smaller uncertainty level than for other stationary combustion plants. Most of the applied uncertainty estimates for activity rates and emission factors are default values from the IPCC Reference Manual. A few of the uncertainty estimates are, however, based on national estimates.

1

Brown coal and coke is included in the fuel category coal

66

Table 34 Uncertainty rates for activity rates and emission factors.

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11.1.2 Other pollutants With regard to other pollutants, IPCC methodologies for uncertainty estimates have been adopted for the LRTAP Convention reporting activities (Pulles & Aardenne 2002). The Danish uncertainty estimates are based on the simple tier 1 approach. The uncertainty estimates are based on emission data for the base year and year 2002 as well as on uncertainties for fuel consumption and emission factors for each of the main SNAP sectors. For particulate matter 2000 is considered to be the base year, but for all other pollutants the base year is 1990. The applied uncertainties for activity rates and emission factors are default values referring to Pulles & Aardenne 2002. The uncertainty for PM is, however, estimated by NERI. The default uncertainties for emission factors are given in letter codes representing an uncertainty range. It has been assumed that the uncertainties were in the lower end of the range for all sources and pollutants. The applied uncertainties for emission factors are listed in Table 35. The uncertainty for fuel consumption in stationary combustion plants was assumed to be 2%. Table 35 Uncertainty rates for emission factors [%].

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11.2 Results The uncertainty estimates for stationary combustion emission inventories are shown in Table 36. Detailed calculation sheets are provided in Appendix 9.

67

The uncertainty interval for GHG is estimated to be ±10% and the uncertainty for the trend in GHG emission is ±1,8%-age points. The main sources of uncertainty for GHG emission are N2O emission (all plants) and CO2 emission from coal combustion. The main source of uncertainty in the trend in GHG emission is CO2 emission from the combustion of natural gas and coal. The total emission uncertainty is 7% for SO2, 16% for NOX, 38% for NMVOC and 45% for CO. For PM, heavy metals and PAH the uncertainty estimate is greater than 100%. Table 36 Danish uncertainty estimates, 2002.

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GHG CO2 CH4 N2O SO2 NOX NMVOC CO TSP 1) PM10 1) PM2.5 1) As Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Pb Se Zn Benzo(b)fluoranthene Benzo(k)fluoranthene Benzo(a)pyrene Indeno(1,2,3-c,d) 1. The base year for PM is year 2000

68

10,4 2,6 39 1000 7 16 38 45 295 320 345 130 246 101 175 200 125 94 125 163 972 970 987 991

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12 Geographical distribution of the emissions Geographical distribution of emissions has been reported to the LRTAP Convention for the years 1990, 1995 and 2000 (Illerup et al. 2002). The emissions are disaggregated to a grid of 50x50 km2. Gridded data are reported for SO2, NOX, NMVOC, CO, PM, heavy metals and PAH. The assumptions and methodology will not be discussed here, but gridded emission data for SO2 from stationary combustion plants are illustrated in Figure 40. The gridded emission data are available on the EU EIONET (European Environment Information and Observation Network) homepage, which can be linked from the NERI home page, www.dmu.dk. Giga gram 0 - 0.017 0.017 - 0.054 0.054 - 0.112 0.112 - 0.302 0.302 - 0.441 0.441 - 0.732 0.732 - 3.543

Figure 40 Gridded SO2 emission from stationary combustion, 2000 (Hansen & Illerup 2002).

69

13 Improvements/recalculations since reporting in 2003 Recalculations since the 2003 emission inventory reporting include: • The CO2 emission factors for municipal waste, refinery gas and petroleum coke have been changed for certain years. ° Petroleum coke: The same CO2 emission factor (92 kg/GJ) is applied for all years now. In earlier inventories a higher emission factor was applied for 1990-1997. The reference for the emission factor is, however, based on a fuel analysis carried out in 1993 and, thus, the higher emission factor was not correct. ° Refinery gas: To improve time-series consistency the same emission factor (56,9 kg/GJ) is now applied for all years. In the inventory reported in 2003 the emission factor 57,1 kg/GJ was applied for 2000 and 2001. ° Municipal waste: An improved CO2 emission factor for municipal waste has been estimated. See Chapter 3.5.1 for details. • Fuel consumption rates for a few stationary combustion sectors have been recalculated as a result of a new estimate for off-road machinery. The fuel consumption of gas oil and LPG in the SNAP sectors 0203 and 0301 (stationary combustion) is calculated as total emission of the sectors minus offroad consumption. • Emission factors for combined heat and power plants have been improved based on a Danish project including collection of existing emission data and performance of a large number of new emission measurements (Nielsen & Illerup 2003). The emission measurements included CH4, N2O, SO2, NOX, NMVOC, CO, PM, heavy metals and PAH. • Centralised power plants have been included in the emission databases as point sources in 1993-1994 (and were already included as point sources all other years). Plant-specific SO2 and NOX emission factors are applied. However, the area source emission factor applied in former inventories took into account the plant-specific data and as a result of this, the estimated emission has not changed considerably. • The SO2 and NOX emission factors have been examined and time-series inconsistencies have been corrected. • HM emission factors for power plants have been changed for the years 1991-1993 due to inconsistencies with emission factors applied for 1990 and 1994. • The fuel consumption rate for residential wood combustion has been updated according to the new energy statistics. • PM emissions from refineries 2001 have been added. 70

Furthermore, a few minor errors for large point sources have been corrected. These corrections do not affect greenhouse gases.

71

14 Future improvements Some planned improvements of the emission inventories are discussed below. 1) Disaggregation of fuel consumption in the industrial sector To date the Danish energy statistics aggregated to SNAP sectors have not specified fuel consumption rates for specific industries. Disaggregation in this regard is expected to be implemented in the reporting activities in 2005. 2) Energy statistics update A full update of fuel consumption rates according to the updated energy statistics have not been carried out for a few years. A full update is expected to be part of the next emission inventory. 3) Improved documentation for CO2 emission factors The CO2 emission factors applied for the Danish inventories are considered accurate, but documentation will be improved in future inventories. 4) Improved documentation for other emission factors Reporting of and references for the applied emission factors have been improved in the current year and will be further developed in future inventories. 5) QA/QC and validation The QA/QC and validation of the inventories for stationary combustion will be improved as part of the work that has been initiated for the Danish inventory as a whole. 6) Uncertainty estimates Uncertainty estimates are based mainly on default uncertainty levels for activity rates and emission factors. More country-specific uncertainty estimates will be incorporated in future inventories. 7) Other improvements − The criteria for including a plant as a point source should be defined and the list of plants updated annually. − Improved emission factors for fish oil/rape oil should be estimated. So far the emission factors for straw have been applied. − HM emission factors should be compared to new Danish legislation and updated if relevant. − As a result of the external review of this report a few emission factors might be changed. The changes will, however, not increase or decrease the estimated total emission considerably.

72

15 Conclusion The annual Danish emission inventories are prepared and reported by NERI. The inventories are based on the Danish energy statistics and on a set of emission factors for various sectors, technologies and fuels. Plant-specific emissions for large combustion sources are incorporated in the inventories. Since 1990 fuel consumption has increased by 14% - fossil fuel consumption, however, by only 8%. The use of coal has decreased whereas the use of natural gas and renewable fuels has increased. The Danish fuel consumption fluctuates due to variation in the import/export of electricity from year to year. Stationary combustion plants account for more than 50% of the total Danish emission for the following pollutants: SO2, CO2, heavy metals and PAH. Furthermore, the emission from stationary combustion plants accounts for more than 10% of the total Danish emission for the following pollutants: NOX, CO, NMVOC and particulate matter. Stationary combustion plants account for less than 10% of the total Danish CH4 and N2O emission. Public power plants are the most important stationary combustion emission source for SO2, CO2, NOX and heavy metals. Lean-burn gas engines installed in decentralised CHP plants are the largest stationary combustion emission source for CH4. Furthermore, these plants are also a considerable emission source for NMVOC. Residential plants represent the most important stationary combustion source for CO, NMVOC, particulate matter and PAH. Wood combustion in residential plants is the predominant emission source. The greenhouse gas emission (GHG) development follows the CO2 emission development closely. Both the CO2 and the total GHG emission decreased slightly from 1990 to 2002, CO2 by 2,3% and GHG by 1,3%. However fluctuations in the GHG emission level are great. The fluctuations in the time-series are a result of electricity import/export and of outdoor temperature variations from year to year. The CH4 emission from stationary combustion has increased by a factor of 4,5 since 1990. This is a result of the considerable number of lean-burn gas engines installed in CHP plants in Denmark during this period. SO2 emission from stationary combustion plants has decreased by 95% from 1980 and by 83% from 1995. The considerable emission decrease is mainly a result of the reduced emission from electricity and heat production due to installation of desulphurisation technology and the use of fuels with lower sulphur content. The NOX emission from stationary combustion plants has decreased by 50% since 1985 and 34% since 1995. The reduced emission is mainly a result of the reduced emission from electricity and heat production. The fluctuations in the emission time-series follow fluctuations in electricity import/export. Wood consumption in residential plants has increased by 65% from 1990 to 2002 leading to an increased CO emission. The increase in CO emission from 73

residential plants is less than the increase in wood consumption, because CO emission from straw-fired farmhouse boilers has decreased considerably. The NMVOC emission from stationary combustion plants has increased by 40% from 1985 and 14% from 1995. The increased NMVOC emission is mainly a result of the increased use of lean-burn gas engines. The emission from residential plants is relatively constant, but the emission from wood combustion increased considerably and the emission from straw combustion decreased. All the heavy metal emissions decreased considerably since 1990 – between 8% and 84%. This is a result of the installation and improved performance of gas cleaning devices in municipal waste incineration plants and large power plants. The PAH emission has increased since 1990 due to the increased consumption of wood in residential plants. The uncertainty level of the Danish greenhouse gas emission from stationary combustion is estimated to be within a range of ±10% and the trend uncertainty within a range of ±1,8%-age points. The sources contributing the most to the uncertainty estimates are the N2O emission (all plants) and the CO2 emission from coal combustion.

74

References Andersen, M. A. 1996: Elkraft, personal communication letter 07-05-1996. Bech, N. 1999: Personal communication, letter 05-11-1999, Sjællandske Kraftværker, SK Energi. Berdowski, J.J.M., Veldt, C., Baas, J., Bloos, J.P.J. & Klein, A.E. 1995: Technical Paper to the OSPARCOM-HELCOM-UNECE Emission Inventory of heavy Metals and Persistent Organic Pollutants, TNO-report, TNO-MEP – R 95/247. Christiansen, M. 1996: Elsam, personal communication, letter 07-05-1996. Christiansen, M. 2001: Elsam, personal communication, e-mail 23-08-2001 to Jytte Boll Illerup. Danish Energy Authority, 2003a: The Danish energy statistics aggregated to SNAP sectors. Not published. Danish Energy Authority, 2003b: The Danish energy statistics, Available at http://www.ens.dk/graphics/Publikationer/Statistik/stat_02/02_Indholdsf ortegnelse.htm (06-07-2004). Danish Energy Authority, 2003c: The Danish energy statistics, Energiproducenttællingen 2003. Not published. Danish Gas Technology Centre, 2001: Naturgas – Energi og miljø (In Danish). Dyrnum, O., Warnøe, K., Manscher, O., Vikelsøe, J., Grove, A., Hansen, K.J., Nielsen, P.A., Madsen, H. 1990: Miljøprojekt 149/1990 Emissionsundersøgelse for pejse og brændeovne, Miljøstyrelsen (In Danish). rd EMEP/Corinair, 2003: Emission Inventory Guidebook 3 edition, prepared by the UNECE/EMEP Task Force on Emissions Inventories and Projections, 2003 update. Available at http://reports.eea.eu.int/EMEPCORINAIR3/en (10-052004).

Finstad, A., Haakonsen, G., Kvingedal, E. & Rypdal, K. 2001: Utslipp til luft av noen miljøgifter i Norge, Dokumentasjon av metode og resultater, Statistics Norway Report 2001/17 (In Norwegian). Gruijthuijsen, L.v. & Jensen, J.K. 2000: Energi- og miljøoversigt, Danish Gas Technology Centre 2000 (In Danish). Hansen, E. & Hansen, L.H. 2003: Substance Flow Analysis for Dioxin 2002, Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Project No. 811 2003. Hansen, H.S. & Illerup, J.B. 2003: Multiple Scale High-Resolution Atmospheric Emission Mapping. In Fendel, E. (Ed.) Proceedings 23th Urban Data Management Symposium, 1.-4. October 2002, Prague. pp. Theme V.4, pp 1-12. Hansen, K.J., Vikelsøe, J. & Madsen, H. 1994: Miljøprojekt 249/1994 Emissioner af dioxiner fra pejse og brændeovne, Miljøstyrelsen (In Danish). 75

Hulgaard, T. 2003: Personal communication, e-mail 02-10-2003, Rambøll. Illerup, J.B., Geertinger, A., Hoffmann, L. & Christiansen, K., 1999: Emissionsfaktorer for tungmetaller 1990-1996. Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser. 66 s. – Faglig rapport fra DMU nr. 301. (In Danish) Available at http://www.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Publikationer/3_fagrapporter/rapporter/fr 301.pdf (06-07-2004). Illerup, J.B., Lyck, E., Nielsen, M., Winther, M., Mikkelsen, M.H., Hoffmann, L., Sørensen, P.B., Vesterdal, L. & Fauser, P. 2004: Denmark’s National Inventory Report - Submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1990-2002. Emission inventories. National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark. 1099 pp. – Research Notes from NERI no. 196. http://research-notes.dmu.dk. Illerup, J.B., Lyck, E., Nielsen, M., Winther, M., Hoffmann, L., & Mikkelsen, M.H. 2004: Annual Danish Emission Inventory Report to UNECE. Inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2002. National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark. Research Notes from NERI (in press). Illerup, J.B. & Nielsen, M. 2004: Improved PM Emissions Inventory for Residential Wood Combustion, Proceedings of the PM Emission Inventories Scientific Workshop, Lago Maggiore, Italy, 18 October 2004. IPCC, 1995: Second Assessment, Climate Change 1995. IPCC, 1996: Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Reference Manual, 1996. Available at http://www.ipccnggip.iges.or.jp/public/gl/invs6.htm (06-07-2004). IPCC, 2000: Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, IPCC, May 2000. Available at http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gp/english/ (06-07-2004). Jensen, B.G. & Lindroth, M. 2002: Kontrol af indberetning af CO2-udledning fra el-producenter i 2002, Carl Bro for Energistyrelsens 6. Kontor (in Danish). Jensen, J. 2001: Danish Gas Technology Centre, Personal communication email 11-10-2001. Jensen, L. & Nielsen, P.A. 1990: Emissioner fra halm- og flisfyr, dk-Teknik & Levnedsmiddelstyrelsen 1990 (In Danish). Jensen, L. & Nielsen, P.B. 1996: Emissioner fra halm- og flisfyr, Arbejdsrapport fra Miljøstyrelsen nr 5 1996, Bilagsrapport (In Danish). Jørgensen, L. & Johansen, L. P. 2002: Eltra PSO 3141, Kortlægning af emissioner fra decentrale kraftvarmeværker, Anlæg A1-A5, dk-Teknik (In Danish). Available at http://www.eltra.dk/show.asp?id=15171 (06-07-2004). Karll, B. 2003: Personal communication, e-mail 17-11-2003, Danish Gas Technology Centre. Kristensen, P.G. 2003: Personal communication, e-mail 10-04-2003, Danish Gas Technology Centre.

76

Livbjerg, H. Thellefsen, M. Sander, B. Simonsen, P., Lund, C., Poulsen, K. & Fogh, C.L. 2001: Feltstudier af Forbrændingsaerosoler, EFP -98 Projekt, Aerosollaboratoriet DTU, FLS Miljø, Forskningscenter Risø, Elsam, Energi E2 (in Danish). Lov nr. 376 af 02/06/1999: Lov om CO2-kvoter for elproduktion. Lov om CO2-kvoter (1), Høringsudgave 19. februar 2004. Miljøstyrelsen, 1990: Bekendtgørelse om begrænsning af emissioner af svovldioxid, kvælstofoxider og støv fra store fyringsanlæg, Bekendtgørelse 689 af 15/10/1990, (Danish legislation). Miljøstyrelsen, 1998: Bekendtgørelseom begrænsning af svovlindholdet i visse flydende og faste brændstoffer, Bekendtgørelse 698 af 22/09/1998 (Danish legislation). Miljøstyrelsen, 2001: Luftvejledningen, Begrænsning af luftforurening fra virksomheder, Vejledning fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 2 2001 (Danish legislation). Nielsen, M. 2003: Energistyrelsen, personal communication, letter 07-08-2003. Nielsen, M. & Illerup, J.B. 2003: Emissionsfaktorer og emissionsopgørelse for decentral kraftvarme. Eltra PSO projekt 3141. Kortlægning af emissioner fra decentrale kraftvarmeværker. Delrapport 6. Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser. 116 s. –Faglig rapport fra DMU nr. 442.(In Danish, with an English summary). Available at http://www.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Publikationer/3_fagrapporter/rapporter/F R442.pdf (06-07-2004). Nielsen, M. Winther, M., Illerup, J.B. & Mikkelsen, M.H. 2003: Danish emission inventory for particulate matter (PM). National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark. 126 p. – Research Notes from NERI No. 189. Available at http://www.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Publikationer/3_arbrapporter/rapporter/ AR189.pdf (06-07-2004). Nielsen, M. & Wit, J. 1997: Emissionsforhold for gasdrevne kraftvarmeænlæg < 25MWe, Miljøstyrelsen, Arbejdsrapport Nr. 17 1997 (In Danish). Nikolaisen, L., Nielsen, C., Larsen, M.G., Nielsen, V. Zielke, U., Kristensen, J.K. & Holm-Christensen, B. 1998: Halm til energiformål, Teknik – Miljø – Økonomi, 2. udgave, 1998, Videncenter for halm og flisfyring (In Danish). Pulles, T. & Aardenne,. J.v. 2001: Good Practice Guidance for LRTAP Emission Inventories, 7. November 2001. Available at http://reports.eea.eu.int/EMEPCORINAIR4/en/BGPG.pdf (06-07-2004). Sander, B. 2002: Personal communication, e-mail 11-10-2002. Serup, H., Falster, H., Gamborg, C., Gundersen, P., Hansen, L. Heding, N., Jacobsen, H.H., Kofman, P., Nikolaisen, L. & Thomsen, I.M. 1999: Træ til energiformål, Teknik – Miljø – Økonomi, 2. udgave, 1999, Videncenter for halm og flisfyring (In Danish). Sternhufvud, C., Karvosenoja, N., Illerup, J., Kindbom, K., Lükewille, A., Johansson, M., & Jensen, D. 2004: Particulate matter emissions and abatement options in residential wood burning in the Nordic countries. 77

Appendix Appendix 1: The Danish emission inventory for the year 2002 reported to the Climate Convention in 2004 Appendix 2: Emission inventory for the year 2002 reported to the LRTAP Convention in 2004 Appendix 3: IPCC/SNAP source correspondence list Appendix 4: Fuel rate Appendix 5: Emission factors Appendix 6: Implied emission factors for power plants and municipal waste incineration plants Appendix 7: Large point sources Appendix 8: Uncertainty estimates Appendix 9: Lower Calorific Value (LCV) of fuels Appendix 10: Adjustment of CO2 emission Appendix 11: Reference approach Appendix 12: Emission inventory 2002 based on SNAP sectors

78

Appendix 1 The Danish emission inventory for the year 2002 reported to the Climate Convention Table 37 The Danish emission inventory for the year 2002 reported to the Climate Convention in 2004 (Illerup et al. 2004a).

*5((1+286(*$66285&($1'6,1. &$7(*25,(6 7RWDO 1HW(PLVVLRQV   (QHUJ\ A. Fuel Combustion (Sectoral Approach) 1. Energy Industries 2. Manufacturing Industries and Construction 3. Transport 4. Other Sectors 5. Other B. Fugitive Emissions from Fuels 1. Solid Fuels 2. Oil and Natural Gas

,QGXVWULDO3URFHVVHV A. B. C. D. E. F. G.

Mineral Products Chemical Industry Metal Production Other Production Production of Halocarbons and SF6 Consumption of Halocarbons and SF6 Other

6ROYHQWDQG2WKHU3URGXFW8VH $JULFXOWXUH A. B. C. D. E. F. G.

Enteric Fermentation Manure Management Rice Cultivation (2) Agricultural Soils Prescribed Burning of Savannas Field Burning of Agricultural Residues Other

A. B. C. D.

Solid Waste Disposal on Land Wastewater Handling Waste Incineration Other

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51.921,90 26.548,40 5.557,12 12.300,06 7.427,53 88,78 535,37 0,00 535,37

607,59 339,86 37,43 66,07 164,13 0,09 131,80 62,28 69,52

829,13 264,23 62,44 407,17 94,01 1,27 2,90 0,00 2,90

1.591,78 3,12 0,00 NE

0,00 0,00 0,00

0,00 774,07 0,00



0,00

 



0,00

 2.797,90 966,15 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

 

 

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0,00

0,00 0,00

0,00 0,00

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0,00 21,63 0,00

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53.358,61 27.152,50 5.656,99 12.773,31 7.685,68 90,13 670,07 62,28 607,79



1.591,78 777,19 0,00 0,00 0,00 715,89 0,00

  2.797,90 1.571,50 0,00 5.765,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

605,36

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2.053,39 2.965,52

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(1)

For CO2 emissions from Land-Use Change and Forestry the net emissions are to be reported. Please note that for the purposes of reporting, the signs for uptake are always (-) and for emissions (+). (2) See footnote 4 to Summary 1.A of this common reporting format.

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/DQG8VH&KDQJHDQG)RUHVWU\ A. Changes in Forest and Other Woody Biomass Stocks B. Forest and Grassland Conversion C. Abandonment of Managed Lands D. CO2 Emissions and Removals from Soil E. Other Total CO2 Equivalent Emissions from Land-Use Change and Forestry

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Total CO2 Equivalent Emissions without Land-Use Change and Forestry (a) Total CO2 Equivalent Emissions with Land-Use Change and Forestry (a)

68.490,98 64.677,98

0,00 0,00 0,00 -3.813,00

-3.813,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 -3.813,00

79

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*5((1+286(*$66285&($1'6,1. &$7(*25,(6 7RWDO1DWLRQDO(PLVVLRQVDQG5HPRYDOV (QHUJ\ Reference Approach(2) Sectoral Approach(2) B. Fugitive Emissions from Fuels

51.196,34 51.921,90 535,37

A. Fuel Combustion

,QGXVWULDO3URFHVVHV 6ROYHQWDQG2WKHU3URGXFW8VH $JULFXOWXUH /DQG8VH&KDQJHDQG)RUHVWU\ :DVWH 2WKHU 0HPR,WHPV ,QWHUQDWLRQDO%XQNHUV 



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Appendix 2 Emission inventory for the year 2002 reported to the LRTAP Convention in 2004 Table 38 Emission inventory for the year 2002 reported to the LRTAP in 2004 (a) (Illerup et al. 2004b). 12[ &2 1092& 62[ 763 30 30 *J *J *J62 0J *J12 0J 0J 1 A 1 a Public Electricity and Heat Production 1 A 1 b Petroleum refining 1 A 1 c Manufacture of Solid Fuels and Other Energy Industries 1 A 2 Manufacturing Industries and Construction 1 A 2 a Iron and Steel 1 A 2 b Non-ferrous Metals 1 A 2 c Chemicals 1 A 2 d Pulp, Paper and Print 1 A 2 e Food Processing, Beverages and Tobacco 1 A 2 f Other (Please specify in a covering note) 1 A 3 a ii Civil Aviation (Domestic, LTO) 1 A 3 a ii Civil Aviation (Domestic, Cruise) 1 A 3 b Road Transportation 1 A 3 b i R.T., Passenger cars 1 A 3 b ii R.T., Light duty vehicles 1 A 3 b iii R.T., Heavy duty vehicles 1 A 3 b iv R.T., Mopeds & Motorcycles 1 A 3 b v R.T., Gasoline evaporation 1 A 3 b vi R.T., Automobile tyre and brake wear 1 A 3 b vii R.T., Automobile road abrasion 1 A 3 c Railways 1 A 3 d ii National Navigation 1 A 3 e Other (Please specify in a covering note) 1 A 3 e i Pipeline compressors 1 A 3 e ii Other mobile sources and machinery 1 A 4 a Commercial / Institutional 1 A 4 b Residential 1 A 4 b i Residential plants 1 A 4 b ii Household and gardening (mobile) 1 A 4 c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 1 A 4 c i Stationary 1 A 4 c ii Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery 1A 4 c iii National Fishing 1 A 5 a Other, Stationary (including Military) 1 A 5 b Other, Mobile (Including military) 1B1 Fugitive Emissions from Solid Fuels 1 B 1 a Coal Mining and Handling 1 B 1 b Solid fuel transformation 1 B 1 c Other (Please specify in a covering note) 1 B 2 Oil and natural gas 1 B 2 a Oil 1 B 2 a i Exploration Production, Transport 1 B 2 a iv Refining / Storage 1 B 2 a v Distribution of oil products 1 B 2 a vi Other 1 B 2 b Natural gas 1 B 2 c Venting and flaring 2 A MINERAL PRODUCTS (b) 2 A 1 Cement Production 2 A 2 Lime Production 2 A 3 Limestone and Dolomite Use 2 A 4 Soda Ash Production and use 2 A 5 Asphalt Roofing 2 A 6 Road Paving with Asphalt 2 A 7 Other including Non Fuel Mining & Construction (Please specify in a covering note) 2 B CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 2 B 1 Ammonia Production 2 B 2 Nitric Acid Production 2 B 3 Adipic Acid Production 2 B 4 Carbide Production 2 B 5 Other (Please specify in a covering note) 2 C METAL PRODUCTION 2 D OTHER PRODUCTION (b) 2 D 1 Pulp and Paper 2 D 2 Food and Drink 2 G OTHER (Please specify in a covering note)

44,96 1,55 6,55 16,18 IE IE IE IE IE 9,32 0,23 0,44 32,43 10,15 24,06 0,11 NO NO NO 3,39 8,64 IE NO 1,08 4,91 0,24 1,46 19,97 11,04 0,42 NA NO NO NO NO NO NO 2,79 IE IE IE IE NE NE NE

11,53 0,26 0,75 14,80 IE IE IE IE IE 1,18 0,76 0,11 247,45 16,45 6,17 13,84 NO NO NO 0,64 20,02 IE NO 0,91 147,05 47,60 1,48 20,78 1,50 0,32 21,26 NO NO NO NO NO NO NA 1,79 IE IE IE IE NE NE NE

4,24 0,00 0,05 3,88 IE IE IE IE IE 0,10 0,13 0,02 19,80 1,91 2,74 2,90 7,46 NO NO 0,25 11,37 IE NO 0,75 10,96 4,16 1,66 4,51 0,49 0,06 NA NO NO IE 4,30 1,04 NO 0,41 0,78 IE IE IE IE NE NE 0,02

9,94 0,93 0,01 5,83 IE IE IE IE IE 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,20 0,06 0,09 0,00 NO NO NO 0,01 2,02 IE NO 0,55 1,79 0,00 1,28 0,38 0,78 0,00 NA NO NO IE 0,33 NO NO 0,00 0,07 IE IE IE IE NE NE NE

1187,44 142,10 2,76 1314,75 174,60 32,65 IE IE IE 441,91 1,55 1,67 723,49 1564,34 1166,66 53,18 NO 1371,20 962,14 124,95 604,09 IE NO 203,70 3096,18 25,97 114,65 2012,45 348,45 20,34 939,30 NO NO NO NO NO NO NA 2,92 IE IE IE IE NE NE 172,00

942,70 128,47 2,66 1160,34 52,38 29,40 IE IE IE 383,89 1,55 1,67 723,49 1564,34 1166,66 53,18 NO 1027,77 481,07 124,95 575,05 IE NO 195,34 2936,18 25,97 91,70 1912,46 331,04 20,34 375,72 NO NO NO NO NO NO NA 2,92 IE IE IE IE NE NE 43,00

778,29 121,66 2,65 1039,63 7,86 13,48 IE IE IE 234,62 1,55 1,67 723,49 1564,34 1166,66 53,18 NO 559,72 259,78 124,95 547,46 IE NO 180,80 2770,17 25,97 75,27 1818,47 314,51 20,34 37,57 NO NO NO NO NO NO NA 2,92 IE IE IE IE NE NE 6,88

NO 0,40 NO NO 0,03 NA NE NE -

NO NE NO NO NE NE NE NE -

NO NE NO NO 0,03 NE NE 0,53 -

NO NE NO NO NE NA NE NE -

NO 310,00 NO NO 19,00 NE NE -

NO 248,00 NO NO 15,00 NE NE -

NO 186,00 NO NO 11,00 NE NE -

81

Table 38 (a) continued.

12[ *J12 3 A PAINT APPLICATION 3 B DEGREASING AND DRY CLEANING 3 C CHEMICAL PRODUCTS, MANUFACTURE AND PROCESSING 3 D OTHER including products containing HMs and POPs (Please specify in a covering note) 4 B MANURE MANAGEMENT (c) 4 B 1 Cattle 4 B 1 a Dairy 4 B 1 b Non-Dairy 4 B 2 Buffalo 4 B 3 Sheep 4 B 4 Goats 4 B 5 Camels and Llamas 4 B 6 Horses 4 B 7 Mules and Asses 4 B 8 Swine 4 B 9 Poultry 4 B 13 Other 4 C RICE CULTIVATION 4 D AGRICULTURAL SOILS 4 D 1 Direct Soil Emission 4 F FIELD BURNING OF AGRICULTURAL WASTES 4 G OTHER (d) 5 B FOREST AND GRASSLAND CONVERSION 6 A SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL ON LAND 6 B WASTE-WATER HANDLING 6 C WASTE INCINERATION (e) 6 D OTHER WASTE (f) 7 OTHER

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&2 1092& *J *J

82

763 0J

30 0J

30 0J

NO NO NO

NO NO NO

23,22 NO 2,14

NO NO

NO -

NO -

NO -

NO

NO

12,64

NO

NO

NO

NO

IE NA NA NO NA NA NO NA NO NA NA NA NO NA NO NO NO NO NO NO NE NO

IE NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NE NO

IE NA NA NO NA NA NO NA NO NA NA NA NO 1,21 NO NO NO NE NE NO NE NO

IE IE NO 587,41 NO 1143,33 NO NO NO NE NO NE NO NO NO NE NO NO NO 12380,63 NO 2541,93 NO NE NO NO NO NE NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NE NO NO NO NO NE NE NO NO

IE 264,32 514,47 NO NE NE NO NE NO 5571,54 1144,22 NE NO NE NO NO NO NE NO NO NE NO

IE 58,77 114,38 NO NE NE NO NE NO 1237,55 253,99 NE NO NE NO NO NO NE NO NO NE NO

  

Memo Items International Aviation (LTO) International Aviation (Cruise) International Navigation 5 E Other X (11 08 Volcanoes)

62[ *J62

1,01 7,70 81,29 -

0,64 0,96 6,91 -

0,12 0,26 2,17 -

    0,01 0,06 39,61 -

3,63 29,53 4427,68 -

3,63 29,53 4206,30 -

3,63 29,53 3995,98 -

Table 38 (b).

1 A 1 a Public Electricity and Heat Production 1 A 1 b Petroleum refining 1 A 1 c Manufacture of Solid Fuels and Other Energy Industries 1 A 2 Manufacturing Industries and Construction 1 A 2 a Iron and Steel 1 A 2 b Non-ferrous Metals 1 A 2 c Chemicals 1 A 2 d Pulp, Paper and Print 1 A 2 e Food Processing, Beverages and Tobacco 1 A 2 f Other (Please specify in a covering note) 1 A 3 a ii Civil Aviation (Domestic, LTO) 1 A 3 a ii Civil Aviation (Domestic, Cruise) 1 A 3 b Road Transportation 1 A 3 b i R.T., Passenger cars 1 A 3 b ii R.T., Light duty vehicles 1 A 3 b iii R.T., Heavy duty vehicles 1 A 3 b iv R.T., Mopeds & Motorcycles 1 A 3 b v R.T., Gasoline evaporation 1 A 3 b vi R.T., Automobile tyre and brake wear 1 A 3 b vii R.T., Automobile road abrasion 1 A 3 c Railways 1 A 3 d ii National Navigation 1 A 3 e Other (Please specify in a covering note) 1 A 3 e i Pipeline compressors 1 A 3 e ii Other mobile sources and machinery 1 A 4 a Commercial / Institutional 1 A 4 b Residential 1 A 4 b i Residential plants 1 A 4 b ii Household and gardening (mobile) 1 A 4 c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 1 A 4 c i Stationary 1 A 4 c ii Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery 1A 4 c iii National Fishing 1 A 5 a Other, Stationary (including Military) 1 A 5 b Other, Mobile (Including military) 1B1 Fugitive Emissions from Solid Fuels 1 B 1 a Coal Mining and Handling 1 B 1 b Solid fuel transformation 1 B 1 c Other (Please specify in a covering note) 1 B 2 Oil and natural gas 1 B 2 a Oil 1 B 2 a i Exploration Production, Transport 1 B 2 a iv Refining / Storage 1 B 2 a v Distribution of oil products 1 B 2 a vi Other 1 B 2 b Natural gas 1 B 2 c Venting and flaring 2 A MINERAL PRODUCTS (b) 2 A 1 Cement Production 2 A 2 Lime Production 2 A 3 Limestone and Dolomite Use 2 A 4 Soda Ash Production and use 2 A 5 Asphalt Roofing 2 A 6 Road Paving with Asphalt 2 A 7 Other including Non Fuel Mining & Construction (Please specify in a covering note) 2 B CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 2 B 1 Ammonia Production 2 B 2 Nitric Acid Production 2 B 3 Adipic Acid Production 2 B 4 Carbide Production 2 B 5 Other (Please specify in a covering note) 2 C METAL PRODUCTION 2 D OTHER PRODUCTION (b) 2 D 1 Pulp and Paper 2 D 2 Food and Drink 2 G OTHER (Please specify in a covering note) 3 A PAINT APPLICATION 3 B DEGREASING AND DRY CLEANING 3 C CHEMICAL PRODUCTS, MANUFACTURE AND PROCESSING 3 D OTHER including products containing HMs and POPs (Please specify in a covering note)

3E 0J

&G 0J

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1L 0J

6H 0J

=Q 0J

2,30 0,03 0,00 0,26 0,63 0,01 IE IE IE 0,20 1,33 0,05 0,00 0,00 0,00 NO NO NO 0,02 IE NO 0,05 0,13 0,00 0,05 0,00 0,02 0,11 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NA IE IE IE IE NE NE NE

0,21 0,02 0,00 0,18 0,01 0,00 IE IE IE 0,04 0,00 0,00 0,02 0,01 0,01 0,00 NO NO NO 0,00 0,00 IE NO 0,01 0,11 0,00 0,02 0,00 0,00 0,00 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NA IE IE IE IE NE NE NE

0,66 0,01 0,00 0,11 NE NE IE IE IE 0,17 NE NE NE NE NO NO NO 0,01 IE NO 0,04 0,16 NE 0,02 0,01 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NA IE IE IE IE NE NE NE

0,40 0,02 0,00 0,13 0,03 NE IE IE IE 0,07 NE NE NE NE NO NO NO 0,03 IE NO 0,02 0,04 NE 0,02 0,01 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NA IE IE IE IE NE NE NE

0,47 0,05 0,00 0,30 0,10 NE IE IE IE 0,40 0,00 0,00 0,10 0,03 0,04 0,00 NO NO NO 0,00 0,02 IE NO 0,02 0,04 0,00 0,05 0,02 0,01 0,00 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NA IE IE IE IE NE NE NE

0,63 0,02 0,00 0,54 NE 0,00 IE IE IE 0,12 0,02 0,06 3,48 1,06 1,51 0,04 NO NO NO 0,11 0,10 IE NO 0,02 0,14 0,04 0,03 0,66 0,01 0,05 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NA IE IE IE IE NE NE NE

3,65 0,87 0,00 5,32 0,11 NE IE IE IE 0,35 0,00 0,00 0,14 0,04 0,06 0,00 NO NO NO 0,00 1,52 IE NO 0,23 0,12 0,00 0,89 0,03 0,02 0,00 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NA IE IE IE IE NE NE NE

0,71 0,02 0,00 0,12 0,44 NE IE IE IE 0,29 0,00 0,00 0,02 0,01 0,01 0,00 NO NO NO 0,00 0,04 IE NO 0,02 0,14 0,00 0,03 0,00 0,04 0,00 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NA IE IE IE IE NE NE NE

13,63 0,00 0,00 1,67 0,44 IE IE IE 0,16 0,01 0,03 2,05 0,62 0,89 0,02 NO NO NO 0,07 0,13 IE NO 0,19 2,38 0,03 0,08 0,39 0,10 0,03 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NA IE IE IE IE NE NE NE

NO NE NO NO NE 0,07 NA NA NO -

NO NE NO NO NE 0,00 NA NA NO -

NO NE NO NO NE NA NA NO -

NO NE NO NO NE NE NA NA NO -

NO NE NO NO NE NA NA NO -

NO NE NO NO NE 0,05 NA NA NO -

NO NE NO NO NE NA NA NO -

NO NE NO NO NE NE NA NA NO -

NO NE NO NO NE 0,63 NA NA NO -

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

83

Table 38 (b) continued.

4 B MANURE MANAGEMENT (c) 4 B 1 Cattle 4 B 1 a Dairy 4 B 1 b Non-Dairy 4 B 2 Buffalo 4 B 3 Sheep 4 B 4 Goats 4 B 5 Camels and Llamas 4 B 6 Horses 4 B 7 Mules and Asses 4 B 8 Swine 4 B 9 Poultry 4 B 13 Other 4 C RICE CULTIVATION 4 D AGRICULTURAL SOILS 4 D 1 Direct Soil Emission 4 F FIELD BURNING OF AGRICULTURAL WASTES 4 G OTHER (d) 5 B FOREST AND GRASSLAND CONVERSION 6 A SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL ON LAND 6 B WASTE-WATER HANDLING 6 C WASTE INCINERATION (e) 6 D OTHER WASTE (f) 7 OTHER

1DWLRQDO7RWDO Memo Items International Aviation (LTO) International Aviation (Cruise) International Navigation 5 E Other X (11 08 Volcanoes)

84

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1L 0J

6H 0J

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IE NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NE NO

IE NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NE NO

IE NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NE NO

IE NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NE NO

IE NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NE NO

IE NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NE NO

IE NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NE NO

IE NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NE NO











0,11 0,14 -

0,00 0,01 0,02 -

0,03 -

0,24 -

0,00 0,03 0,11 -

  0,12 0,99 0,24 -

0,00 0,04 12,91 -

  0,00 0,01 0,27 -

0,07 0,58 0,64 -

Table 38 (c).

QL [R L' 1 A 1 a Public Electricity and Heat Production 1 A 1 b Petroleum refining 1 A 1 c Manufacture of Solid fuels and Other Energy Indus1 A 2 Manufacturing Industries and Construction 1 A 2 a Iron and Steel 1 A 2 b Non-ferrous Metals 1 A 2 c Chemicals 1 A 2 d Pulp, Paper and Print 1 A 2 e Food Processing, Beverages & Tobacco 1 A 2 f Other (Please specify in a covering note) 1 A 3 a ii Civil Aviation (Domestic, LTO) 1 A 3 a ii Civil Aviation (Domestic, Cruise) 1 A 3 b Road Transportation 1 A 3 b i R.T., Passenger cars 1 A 3 b ii R.T., Light duty vehicles 1 A 3 b iii R.T., Heavy duty vehicles 1 A 3 b iv R.T., Mopeds & Motorcycles 1 A 3 b v R.T., Gasoline evaporation 1 A 3 b vi R.T., Automobile tyre and brake wear 1 A 3 b vii R.T., Automobile road abrasion 1 A 3 c Railways 1 A 3 d ii National Navigation 1 A 3 e Other (Please specify in a covering note) 1 A 3 e i Pipeline compressors 1 A 3 e ii Other mobile sources and machinery 1 A 4 a Commercial / Institutional 1 A 4 b Residential 1 A 4 b i Residential plants 1 A 4 b ii Household and gardening (mobile) 1 A 4 c Agriculture / Forestry / Fishing 1 A 4 c i Stationary 1 A 4 c ii Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery 1A 4 c iii National Fishing 1 A 5 a Other, Stationary (including Military) 1 A 5 b Other, Mobile (Including military) 1B1 Fugitive Emissions from Solid Fuels 1 B 1 a Coal Mining and Handling 1 B 1 b Solid fuel transformation 1 B 1 c Other (Please specify in a covering note) 1 B 2 Oil and natural gas 1 B 2 a Oil 1 B 2 a i Exploration Production, Transport 1 B 2 a iv Refining / Storage 1 B 2 a v Distribution of oil products 1 B 2 a vi Other 1 B 2 b Natural gas 1 B 2 c Venting and flaring 2 A MINERAL PRODUCTS ( a) 2 A 1 Cement Production 2 A 2 Lime Production 2 A 3 Limestone and Dolomite Use 2 A 4 Soda Ash Production and use 2 A 5 Asphalt Roofing 2 A 6 Road Paving with Asphalt 2 A 7 Other including Non Fuel Mining & Construction 2 B CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 2 B 1 Ammonia Production 2 B 2 Nitric Acid Production 2 B 3 Adipic Acid Production 2 B 4 Carbide Production 2 B 5 Other (Please specify in a covering note) 2 C METAL PRODUCTION 2 D OTHER PRODUCTION (a) 2 D 1 Pulp and Paper 2 D 2 Food and Drink 2 G OTHER (Please specify in a covering note) 3 A PAINT APPLICATION 3 B DEGREASING AND DRY CLEANING 3 C CHEMICAL PRODUCTS, MANUFACTURE AND 3 D OTHER including products containing HMs and POPs

FH W, J

4,700 1,460 0,400 0,004 0,070 0,200 0,007 1,300 18,850 3,300 0,800 0,041 0,160 13,250

HU \S D R ]Q H% HQ J0

UR OXI E R] QH %

0,010 0,000 0,000 0,004 0,024 0,000 0,027 0,014 0,003 0,001 0,000 0,001 0,164 2,534 0,000 0,105 0,004 0,001 0,000 -

0,040 0,001 0,000 0,024 0,077 0,000 0,028 0,013 0,019 0,001 0,001 0,003 0,216 3,319 0,000 0,117 0,008 0,005 0,000 -

HQ HK WQ J D 0

UR OXI N R] QH %

HQ HK WQ J D 0

0,016 0,000 0,000 0,022 0,004 0,000 0,027 0,012 0,027 0,001 0,001 0,002 0,072 1,107 0,000 0,028 0,008 0,002 0,000 -

   R QH GQ ,

HQ UH\ S GF J0

0,011 0,000 0,000 0,007 0,003 0,000 0,031 0,013 0,005 0,001 0,000 0,005 0,117 1,789 0,000 0,131 0,004 0,010 0,000 -

85

Table 38 (c) continued.

QL [R L' 4 B MANURE MANAGEMENT (b) 4 B 1 Cattle 4 B 1 a Dairy 4 B 1 b Non-Dairy 4 B 2 Buffalo 4 B 3 Sheep 4 B 4 Goats 4 B 5 Camels and Llamas 4 B 6 Horses 4 B 7 Mules and Asses 4 B 8 Swine 4 B 9 Poultry 4 B 13 Other 4 C RICE CULTIVATION 4 D AGRICULTURAL SOILS 4 D 1 Direct Soil Emission 4 F FIELD BURNING OF AGRICULTURAL WASTES 4 G OTHER (c) 5 B FOREST AND GRASSLAND CONVERSION 6 A SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL ON LAND 6 B WASTEWATER HANDLING 6 C WASTE INCINERATION (d) 6 D OTHER WASTE (e) 7 OTHER

1DWLRQDO7RWDO

Memo Items: International Aviation (LTO) International Aviation (Cruise) International Marine (b) 5 E Other X (11 08 Volcanoes)

86

FH W, J

5,150 0,002 17,700 10,250

 DR ]Q H%

HQ UH\ J S0 -

 ER ]Q H%

HQ HK WQ UDR XIO J0 -

 NR ]Q H%

HQ HK WQ UDR XIO J0 -

   R QH GQ ,

HQ UH\ S GF J0 -











NO NO NO NO NO

0,000 0,004 NO

0,000 0,017 NO

0,000 0,008 NO

0,000 0,029 NO

Appendix 3 IPCC/SNAP source correspondence list Table 39 Correspondence list for IPCC source categories 1A1, 1A2 and 1A4 and SNAP (EMEP/CorinAir 2003).

61$3BLG

61$3BQDPH

01 0101 010101 010102 010103 010104 010105 0102 010201 010202 010203 010204 010205 0103 010301 010302 010303 010304 010305 010306 0104 010401 010402 010403 010404 010405 010406 010407 0105 010501 010502 010503 010504 010505 02 0201 020101 020102 020103 020104 020105 020106 0202 020201 020202 020203 020204 020205 2) 0203 020301 020302 020303 020304 020305 03 0301 030101 030102 030103 030104 030105 030106 0302 030203

Combustion in energy and transformation industries Public power Combustion plants >= 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines District heating plants Combustion plants >= 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Petroleum refining plants Combustion plants >= 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Process furnaces Solid fuel transformation plants Combustion plants >= 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Coke oven furnaces Other (coal gasification, liquefaction, ...) Coal mining, oil/gas extraction, pipeline compressors Combustion plants >= 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Non-industrial combustion plants Commercial and institutional plants (t) Combustion plants >= 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary gas turbines Stationary engines Other stationary equipments (n) Residential plants Combustion plants >= 50 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Other equipments (stoves, fireplaces, cooking,...) 2) Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture Combustion plants >= 50 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Stationary gas turbines Stationary engines Other stationary equipments (n) Combustion in manufacturing industry Comb. in boilers, gas turbines and stationary Combustion plants >= 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants >= 50 and < 300 MW (boilers) Combustion plants < 50 MW (boilers) Gas turbines Stationary engines Other stationary equipments (n) Process furnaces without contact Blast furnace cowpers

,3&&VRXUFH 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2a

87

030204 Plaster furnaces 1A2f 030205 Other furnaces 1A2f 0303 Processes with contact 030301 Sinter and pelletizing plants 1A2a 030302 Reheating furnaces steel and iron 1A2a 030303 Gray iron foundries 1A2a 030304 Primary lead production 1A2b 030305 Primary zinc production 1A2b 030306 Primary copper production 1A2b 030307 Secondary lead production 1A2b 030308 Secondary zinc production 1A2b 030309 Secondary copper production 1A2b 030310 Secondary aluminium production 1A2b 030311 Cement (f) 1A2f 030312 Lime (includ. iron and steel and paper pulp industr.)(f) 1A2f 030313 Asphalt concrete plants 1A2f 030314 Flat glass (f) 1A2f 030315 Container glass (f) 1A2f 030316 Glass wool (except binding) (f) 1A2f 030317 Other glass (f) 1A2f 030318 Mineral wool (except binding) 1A2f 030319 Bricks and tiles 1A2f 030320 Fine ceramic materials 1A2f 030321 Paper-mill industry (drying processes) 1A2d 030322 Alumina production 1A2b 030323 Magnesium production (dolomite treatment) 1A2b 030324 Nickel production (thermal process) 1A2b 030325 Enamel production 1A2f 030326 Other 1A2f 08 1) Other mobile sources and machinery 0804 1) Maritime activities 080403 1) National fishing 1A4c 0806 1) Agriculture 1A4c 0807 1) Forestry 1A4c 0808 1) Industry 1A2f 0809 1) Household and gardening 1A4b 1) Not stationary combustion. Included in a IPCC sector that also includes stationary combustion plants 2) Stoves, fireplaces and cooking is included in the sector 0202 or 020202 in the Danish inventory. It is not possible based on the Danish energy statistics to split the residential fuel consumption between stoves/fireplaces/cooking and residential boilers.

88

Appendix 4 Fuel rate Table 40 Fuel consumption rate of stationary combustion plants [GJ]. )XHOLG )XHO 102 106 107 110 111 114 115 116 117 118 203 204 206 215 225 301 303 308 309

7RWDO

Coal Brown coal briquettes Coke Petroleum coke Wood and simil. Municipal waste Industrial waste Wood waste Straw Sewage sludge Residual oil Gas oil Kerosene Fish and rape oil Orimulsion Natural gas LPG Refinery gas Biogas



























254836476 0

345917382 0

288115109 0

302081632 0

326290582 0

273898654 0

375387102 0

280010525 0

233354509 0

197985454 0

165920864 0

175451125 0

174639322 18922

0 4459475 18239133 16384900 0 0 13225200 0 32115775 61673820 5086000 0 0 76099387 2979387 14169000 751600

0 4403578 20313133 17727900 0 0 14050200 0 37019669 65349403 943300 0 0 86421571 2747776 14537000 910100

0 4562877 21410173 18829500 0 0 14624200 0 37331722 55972785 783700 0 0 90523947 2403579 14865000 898900

0 5928457 22701233 20469900 0 0 14103200 0 32497828 62122851 771300 0 0 103173352 2425299 15405000 1076800

0 3806509 23886440 21468400 0 0 12757200 0 49806706 53198037 649600 0 0 117014079 2399108 16390999 1409100

0 4598627 23537165 24152480 0 0 13074202 0 37527011 53923308 580700 0 19968824 135645220 2491400 21005286 2055800

0 6130172 25253215 26146928 33813 0 13475808 0 41791443 57846146 539700 0 36885721 160599207 2693594 20271224 2244826

0 6271959 25607369 27925960 0 0 13358144 0 30158107 51497273 436570 0 40611318 169726176 2227826 17091995 2714861

0 5546731 22545580 27322665 0 0 13363126 0 30173567 48357982 414294 0 32580001 180201988 2399970 15224935 2662881

0 7032313 23329536 28522787 0 607044 14370434 0 22563263 48060167 255606 0 34190630 187958727 2143219 15724000 2640444

0 7040383 25990200 30265050 0 0 13053790 40162 18860843 41016114 169963 0 34148181 183757321 1985058 15219727 2980430

0 8062464 28363689 33037670 0 0 13698057 0 19702838 43806222 286786 191475 30243687 193449631 1732002 15534154 3046907

1068454 8281655 32754200 33972344 0 0 15732839 64508 24648453 39462159 256128 127243 23846400 193610189 1598822 14792686 3331097



























89

Table 41 Detailed fuel consumption data for stationary combustion plants [GJ] LSFFBLG

1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a

90

IXHO

102 102 102 102 102 102 110 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 115 116 117 117 117 117 117 117 117 203 203 203 203 203 203 203 203 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204

IXHOBJUBDEEU

COAL COAL COAL COAL COAL COAL PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES INDUSTR. WASTES WOOD WASTES STRAW STRAW STRAW STRAW STRAW STRAW STRAW RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL

61$3BLG

010101 010102 010103 0102 010202 010203 010102 010101 010102 010103 010104 010105 0102 010202 010203 010205 010101 010102 010103 010104 010105 0102 010202 010203 010202 010102 010101 010102 010103 010104 0102 010202 010203 0101 010101 010102 010103 010104 0102 010202 010203 0101 010101 010102 010103 010104 010105 0102 010202 010203



219780959 10643051 6017000





303105248 252745120 15546752 12426136 6635000

5173000





269458670 294708124 10490330 10438182



241921428 11678411

3581000

1661900

1213900





346038108 254306486 8910896 8671430 1760100 454200 -





210718948 176640613 8884368 8238010 33747





146911420 158990462 6224846 4970502 35480 24354



161608383 4684578 779

9000

6562

371 3551

1494 439

363 -

263719 528441 41468

705526 327025

1090331 297612

920 1181886 341452

428

60394

65930 892421 1049148 117062 -

179937 3882223 53040 1230861 18305718 8361289 416975 -

249689 4300369 2809020 17902293 8343163 756908

227284 4451351 3502130 19002825 7236828 -

1239200

3217000

15470800

3648000

172000

515200

943000

643600

335925 306000

453186 332100

4096000

3750500

3556400

3775100

4185900

4217100 4699721

193908 3911382

1300000

2005000

3990000

4904200

5881780

7152947 738400

10831534 -

1288015 11023094 3027000

1278184 17039832 5911296

15416500

15753900

15381300

15339500

13702100 3254000

11824900 4612251 582330 33813

10622800 4649086 630840

4617704 6492514

2809156

1395589

2302823

2430354

1013770 1751935 958000

607044 1339800 2429408 1058701

1119600 1826796 640340

1587710 1746030 1905033 101730

2643060 1640945 1890837 1215692

3889315

141564 3639251

11369048 353400

6955499 755210

150510 3290636 17206 4045724 513002 82101 117319

97600 3418313 533 5869702 235650 117384 1767903

64873 3435882 656 5018057 232919 75269 6684079

86854 611104 4864 138238 89748 66635 38714 79770

121947 453278 2497 92395 107821 17133 75233 64070

826687 354986

166763 808046

479000

985000

1487000

1643200

1846200

2612602

1503708 2176100

740153 1306291 1715900

4268000

4587000

4659000

4606000

3700000

3893600

3871000

3670800

7171573 826465

10052580 390420

8691120 1778880

8420050 774628

22142392 306421

10770398 600920

15795457 382538 453500

7447256 333923 535000

2046900

2326800

1286200

1059500

1802400

1970500

1852700 22250

1681400 66495

14114

300000

1941000

474940

698630

294270

18060

22370

30730

813000

744000

947000

286600

342600

16653 486000

18113 465100

1034200

803700

1183200 152994

999900 73314

492445 1097303

135957 956510

112000 13235 15405 148871 130410

537423 302722 40495 61852 104311

58729 650393 6427 135602 278595 91382 74249

426455 788287

257831 296697

399458 230214

1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A1c 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f

204 215 225 225 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 303 303 303 303 308 308 308 309 309 309 309 309 203 203 203 204 204 301 303 303 308 308 308 308 204 204 301 301 301 301 301 309 309 309 102 102 102 102 107 110 110

GAS OIL RAPE & FISH OIL ORIMULSION ORIMULSION NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS LPG LPG LPG LPG REFINERY GAS REFINERY GAS REFINERY GAS BIOGAS BIOGAS BIOGAS BIOGAS BIOGAS RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS LPG LPG REFINERY GAS REFINERY GAS REFINERY GAS REFINERY GAS GAS OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS BIOGAS BIOGAS BIOGAS COAL COAL COAL COAL COKE OVEN COKE PETROLEUM COKE PETROLEUM COKE

010205 010203 010101 010102 0101 010101 010102 010103 010104 010105 0102 010202 010203 010102 010103 0102 010203 010102 010103 0102 010102 010103 010105 0102 010203 0103 010303 010306 0103 010303 010304 0103 010303 0103 010303 010304 010306 010406 010505 010405 010406 010502 010504 010505 010405 010502 010505 0301 030102 030103 030311 0301 0301 030311

190 19913424 55400

36885721

40611318

32580001

34190630

34148181

190810 30243687

12217008 1346036 11131660 6245516 22539550 4207670 381483

10956960 5620044 11810929 6875564 24339600 2592500 466411

20808855 10551198 691382 7759802 28976521 15753 539227 2999618

21307826 2416632 926574 21656759 26619884

14558 23541558 1456749 680624 22973678 25826778

11364 20514966 4258088 739539 25003005 28098555

2 19246614 2893865 654790 30027783 27998258

270693 1889688

217700 1416762

286968 1762910

291201 1482478

246

-

-

25771 134968 1548734

23338 123991 1589322

20466 89445 1757220

21733

11129

12650

1322995

1442929

1362640

-

-

-

1170793 2400233 11648701

1300559 2457089 11776506

995654 2455232 11341800

-

-

150 -

23580170 274178 13883

25026374 164410 13250 -

24383156 232982 11887 -

26226872 246307 11470 -

29028 5126053 1411682

32507 4849360 1063375

28627 4465330 997381

39855 2316222 808823

5638061

5708047

4718458

38999 6398880

285426 6474743

127924 7656733

4348589 1065641 223785 7543476

4005028 115700

4394781 766090

3279455 3257796

4422200 6479498

6283990 7524400

10453816 6751996

2107800 313500 11033000

2107800 814300 13655000

2107800 1639900 12350000

2614600 2401700 11420000

6012900 8490200 7488700

4839582 16758500 6618900

1000

1000

3000

13000

10000

-

132300

221400

126336 23846400

600 -

9000

2700

100

-

156700 35200

235600

393800

359500

537400

639700

666100

94326 742600

40100 40561 1028200

57500

69800

131500

149500

159900

286900

272200

393300

1309200

2038100

3568700

3490200

50269 1515688

29597 103711 1500477

194984

40000

13978100

44500

-

4600

14411900

14630500

29100

3336717 49300

8000

8961800 376900 9500

10382600 376900 9500

2244019

1005700 616254

21700

87000

32049 1073951

16612 1073388

15000 20700

18000

1340730 2524072 16336522

1866363 2361788 12771044

15075200 2386000 14004999

8751400 376300 4900

2333787 33300

10499400 376900 9500

2289723 18548164

11997600 349800 3500

12589447 411700 12700

14994291 338690 9080

19586715 392000 8100

6800

56500

64800

61900

511593 2484108 12202506 15603

911835 21938219 126150 8790

10023993

10334985

7832879

8789663

9412925

8446538 1051344

8041600 1449890

6908700 1466575

5018873

6048697

6577274

6602369

6913652

7224934

7067609

7209034

4469247 1405667 206631 6627624

300246 2499252

2991306

56107 3234048

122868 3230652

3469025

98156 3707398

110000 4966161

33600 5229890

25858 4774684

1518794 2654000 11551206

91

1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a

92

111 111 111 114 114 114 117 117 118 203 203 203 203 203 203 204 204 204 204 204 204 206 215 301 301 301 301 301 301 303 303 308 309 309 309 309 102 110 111 111 114 114 117 203 203 204 204 204 206 301 301 301 301 303

WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES STRAW STRAW SEWAGE SLUDGE RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL KEROSENE RAPE & FISH OIL NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS LPG LPG REFINERY GAS BIOGAS BIOGAS BIOGAS BIOGAS COAL PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES STRAW RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL KEROSENE NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS LPG

0301 030102 030103 0301 030102 030311 030102 030105 030311 0301 030102 030103 030104 030105 030311 0301 030102 030103 030104 030105 030106 0301 030105 0301 030102 030103 030104 030105 030106 0301 030106 0301 0301 030102 030103 030105 0201 0201 0201 020105 0201 020103 0201 0201 020105 0201 020103 020105 0201 0201 020103 020104 020105 0201

5776000

5961000

6130000

6303000

7484200

6954700

7142500

7393900

4729903 228152 322116

3997800 1424571 413749

3836511 1557075 439542

4310038 1411227 428603

505233 386 40162 8241264 648553 139691 -

795492 91 7292390 306379 89445 22 784 3188376 5071 19 511 10000 25543

7474992 2148172 424290

481

6098 69600

45700

8644 38300

2762 35500

9433 30500

24500

30900

8178 27800

15604 13363

70265 8909

858853 2212978 3138 82107 51 103 8070 7552

23284500

24940500

25814500

27902100

33016700

33445300 2661779

32857200 2464665

34089100 2971625

2600 136059 1482591

2600 1561267

2600 37696 1410087

2600 70154 1238800

150300 23500 53489 1311475

838200 224500 1465219

2971200 1144400 1616519

3941400 1251500 5228 1256440

34898549 2961903 542888 2141369 679952 31735 1267455

32466636 3100115 126872 6486855 1224637 38608 970603

28746747 2690206 116411 6756339 1556394 50809 621768

32058619 2869052 117965 6138931 1641970 83000 370289 11000

1787613 64508 7435663 736719 64340 10 591804 2618024 222 165 897 7066 2993 242 31365984 1190136 14626 6723657 1545295 25558 287019 -

190900 10000

125100 10000

102200 10000

108400 10000

32600

10700 269700

34700 210100

52700 255100

32727 16116

54758 15755

28077 58579

36860 70934

269

1487

23805

18344

88600 62000 204500

10700 104200 204500

95900 90200 204500

84100 96400 204500

91100 92000 270200

66700 70400 334700

41700 90500 527200

43400 97800 555200

26728 83042 4943 2122 193 2306 70544 510825

50434 540696

12070 575926

914100

1011400

1070600

1098600

1224700

1314600

1236100

1191700

873857

1070600

865200

600300

516900

846600

780300

718800

729300

418154

11794800

10622900

9062300

9007000

7158100

6579100

6704500

6184200

5496730 3303

1476975 7344 2057 485684 66 5788419 39101

569100 6357600

209800 7223900

207000 7348100

188900 9497400

154600 7098800

124300 7807000

103300 10221840

96459 7523200

26200 82800

55700 77100

92400 76500

110800 122200

16900 710800 125200

35800 770500 131000

44200 866640 138000

37300 1056400 128600

127964 7272911 55495 21153 342953 84733

117233 6653203 10802 30736 985737 110343

35615 13770 342842 4957566 71306 859 63008 5854391 43211 23335 967874 121621

12086 632817 97 115302 12669 203459 4736649 44010 673 79642 6431733 67208 31001 1048143 119345

5355 972070 598 12594 348147 4031234 43890 488 145428 6679517 49523 42862 1098129 136552

1496

16487584

17678972

17238144

14022407

16716100

15349840 201556

14900000 513500

12921800 418614

9365957 747697 63565

7921335 770215 128184 6787

1762853 665870

2152997 1575591

2366678 1361528

2397243 1007507

2618777 525669

2840311 1594421

1771379 2155217

1863965 2092813

2538540 1730029

885967 2537653

1965

64

1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4b 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 1A4c 727$/

309 309 309 102 106 107 110 111 117 203 204 206 301 301 301 303 309 102 110 111 117 117 203 203 203 204 204 206 215 301 301 301 303 309 309

BIOGAS BIOGAS BIOGAS COAL BROWN COAL BRI. COKE OVEN COKE PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. STRAW RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL KEROSENE NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS LPG BIOGAS COAL PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. STRAW STRAW RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL KEROSENE RAPE & FISH OIL NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS LPG BIOGAS BIOGAS

0201 020103 020105 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 0202 020202 020204 0202 0202 0203 0203 0203 0203 020302 0203 020302 020304 0203 020304 0203 020304 0203 020303 020304 0203 0203 020304

448500

436500

397900

379900

557700

751900

835600

913700

452365 4557 272454 127147

366842 71845 433844 182354

423606 86680 504895 45201

396023 84512 501385 48680

454761 11615183 3443104 50365 35675468 118954 29396072 31289 1531350 987953

261990 13847545 3611833 35611 30275667 91190 27562772 55319 1439173 1179124

262393 15248320 2901450 26881 31506271 159051 29557603 69007 1450266 1185770

2492500

474591 11134265 3446584 43266 37849748 251843 27650326 14779 1706977 928931 10000 903571 201054 86970 2297722 5800 2578192

396057 74286 487668 15370 18922 2813 509008 14760273 2901450 148870 28997757 99599 28080877 30105 1391882 1144455

746200

1290600

1008800

947100

757700

487800

169700

161700

760877 8954433 5086900 216900 46463200 4404800 17362100

697484 10412433 5086900 218600 50638400 659600 20432600

709922 10720473 5086900 167700 42913600 512000 21436600

739137 11859633 4712400 129900 49967100 520800 24900900

245484 11564240 4326600 95200 43678600 437800 23928600

483073 11760665 3940800 62800 43287900 410800 26141800

677611 12668890 3555000 66300 45295600 382600 29457418

588069 12569083 3551500 45900 39595500 287211 27737600

1119162 2517800 837100 87200 3391300

825126 2945400 610588 87200 3391300

3100 680245 2256000 472600 87200 3391300

3100 929257 2128400 500200 68400 3141600

1171200 834898 2307000 68400 2884400

1189400 758090 1807600 239600 68400 2627200

1602560 788512 1453300 285900 86800 2370000

1622500 725371 1243200 322600 86800 2373500

708372 89239 199696 2309253 5800 2407370

1079213 6154 230030 2407889 5800 1782543

1830282

1973155

1610337

2347866

21100

22900

25100

21124

10510

4017 2183377 4774 8213

448500 116835 12400

2816600 1277700 121391 24700

3153760 7760 2396580 129863 25200

3374200 34400 3432900 99415 22100

2421915 37904 4093829 118851 60000 12264

3618456 77171 3223901 74320 14684 41304

3467279 61906 3032714 62299 64084 65452

1234026 3328 197877 1934300 5800 1644780 2069 4570 2712277 2723 22550 665 3662566 59503 2859644 45598 69300 108819

856215 31 170609 1934300 5800 1368564 2170 3321 2423485 4824 8108 665 3188151 64369 3039877 30796 115430 211882

1223700

1296000

1634000

1687000

1942100

2616600

3071000

502852

1166512

1117213

837382

456135

1282287

42500

28200

26400

26100

26700

2156400

2613800

2318700

2393800

2244200

66300 285834

66300 270283

66300 221147

68700 132042



























93

Appendix 5 Emission factors Table 42 CO2 emission factors. )XHO

(PLVVLRQIDFWRU %LRPDVV )RVVLOIXHO

Coal

8QLW

95 kg/GJ

Brown coal briquettes

94,6 kg/GJ

Coke oven coke

108 kg/GJ

Petroleum coke

92 kg/GJ

Wood

102

kg/GJ

Municipal waste

94,5

17,6 kg/GJ

Straw

102

5HIHUHQFHW\SH

&5)IXHO

Country specific

Solid

IPCC reference manual

Solid

IPCC reference manual

Solid

Country specific

Liquid

Corinair

Biomass

Country specific Country specific

Biomass / Other fuels Biomass

Residual oil

78 kg/GJ

Corinair

Liquid

Gas oil

74 kg/GJ

Corinair

Liquid

Kerosene

72 kg/GJ

Corinair

Liquid

kg/GJ

Corinair

Biomass

80 kg/GJ

Country specific

Liquid

57,28 kg/GJ

Country specific

Gas

Fish & rape oil

kg/GJ

102

Orimulsion Natural gas LPG

65 kg/GJ

Refinery gas Biogas

Corinair

Liquid

56,9 kg/GJ

Country specific

Liquid

kg/GJ

Country specific

Biomass

83,6

Time-series for natural gas and municipal waste are shown below. All other emission factors are the same for 1990-2002. Table 43 CO2 emission factors, time-series. Year

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

94

Natural gas [kg/GJ]

56,9 56,9 56,9 56,9 56,9 56,9 56,9 56,9 56,9 56,6 57,1 57,25 57,28

Municipal waste, plastic [kg/GJ] 22,5 22,5 20,5 19,6 19,6 18,5 17,6 17,6 17,6 17,6 17,6 17,6 17,6

Municipal waste biomass [kg/GJ] +89,6 +89,6 +91,6 +92,5 +92,5 +93,6 +94,5 +94,5 +94,5 +94,5 +94,5 +94,5 +94,5

Table 44 CH4 emission factors and references 2002. )XHO

LSFFBLG

61$3BLG

COAL COAL BROWN COAL BRI.

1A1a 1A1a, 1A2f, 1A4b, 1A4c all

010101, 010102, 010103 010202, 010203, 0301, 0202, 0203 all

COKE OVEN COKE

all

all

PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL.

all 010102, 010103, 010104 0202 all other

MUNICIP. WASTES

all 1A1a 1A4b 1A1a, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c 1A1a

MUNICIP. WASTES STRAW STRAW

1A1a, 1A2f, 1A4a 1A1a 1A1a, 1A2f

STRAW RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL KEROSENE FISH & RAPE OIL

1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c all all all 1A1a

010102, 010103, 010104, 010105 all other 010102, 010103 010202, 010203, 030102, 030105 0201, 0202, 0203, 020302 all all all 010203

FISH & RAPE OIL

1A2f

030105

FISH & RAPE OIL

1A4c

020304

ORIMULSION

1A1a

010101

NATURAL GAS

1A1a

NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS

1A1a 1A1a, 1Ab, 1Ac, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c

NATURAL GAS

1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c

NATURAL GAS

1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4b

0101, 010101, 010102, 010202 010103, 010203 Gas turbines: 010104, 010304, 010504, 030104, 020104, 020303 Gas engines: 010105, 010405, 010505, 030105, 020105, 020204, 020304 010502, 0301, 0201, 0202, 0203 030103, 030106, 020103, 020202 all 010303, 010304 Gas engines: 010105, 010405, 010505, 030105, 020105, 020304 all other

NATURAL GAS LPG REFINERY GAS BIOGAS

all 1A1b 1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c

BIOGAS

1A1a, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c

(PLVVLRQ IDFWRU>J*[email protected]

5HIHUHQFH

1,5 15

EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003

15 EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as for coal 15 EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as for coal 15 EMEP/Corinair 2003 2 Nielsen & Illerup 2003 200 EMEP/Corinair 2003 32 EMEP/Corinair 2003 0,59

Nielsen & Illerup 2003

6 0,5 32

EMEP/Corinair 2003 Nielsen & Illerup 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003

200 EMEP/Corinair 2003 3 EMEP/Corinair 2003 1,5 EMEP/Corinair 2003 7 EMEP/Corinair 2003 32 EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as straw 32 EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as straw 200 EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as straw 3 EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as residual oil 6 DGC 2001 15 1,5

Gruijthuijsen & Jensen 2000 Nielsen & Illerup 2003

520

Nielsen & Illerup 2003

6

DGC 2001

15

Gruijthuijsen & Jensen 2000

1 2 323

EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 Nielsen & Illerup 2003

4

EMEP/Corinair 2003

Time-series for CH4 emission factors for gas engines are shown below. All other CH4 emission factors are the same for 1990-2002. Table 45 CH4 emission factors, time-series.
1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c

BIOGAS

1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c

Gas engines: 010105, 010405, 010505, 030105, 020105, 020204, 020304 Gas engines: 010105, 010405, 010505, 030105, 020105, 020304



























257

299

347

545

604

612

596

534

525

524

520

520

520

314

318

323

323

323

95

Table 46 N2O emission factors and references 2002. )XHO COAL BROWN COAL BRI. COKE OVEN COKE PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL.

LSFFBLG

61$3BLG

5HIHUHQFH

3 3 3 3 0,8 4

EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 Nielsen & Illerup 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003

4

EMEP/Corinair 2003

1,2

Nielsen & Illerup 2003

4 4 1,4 4 4

EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 Nielsen & Illerup 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003

2 2 2 4

RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL KEROSENE FISH & RAPE OIL

all all all all 010102, 010103, 010104 010105, 010202, 010203, 010205 1A2f, 1A4a, all 1A4b, 1A4c 1A1a 010102, 010103, 010104, 010105 1A1a 010203 1A2f, 1A4a 030102, 0201, 020103 1A1a 010102, 010103 1A1a 010202, 010203 1A2f, 1A4a, all 1A4b, 1A4c all all all all all all all all

ORIMULSION

1A1a

010101

2

NATURAL GAS

1A1a

1

NATURAL GAS

0101, 010101, 010102, 010103, 010202, 010203 Gas turbines: 010104, 010304, 010504, 030104, 020104, 020303 Gas engines: 010105, 010405, 010505, 030105, 020105, 020204, 020304 010502, 0301, 030103, 030106, 0201, 020103, 0202, 020202, 0203 all all 010102, 010103, 010203 010105, 010405, 010505, 030105, 020105, 020304

EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as municipal waste EMEP/Corinair 2003, assuming same emission factor as residual oil EMEP/Corinair 2003

1A1a, 1Ab, 1Ac, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c 1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c all all 1A1a 1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c 1A2f, 1A4a, 0301, 030102, 0201, 020103, 1A4c 0203

2,2

Nielsen & Illerup 2003

1,3

Nielsen & Illerup 2003

1

EMEP/Corinair 2003

2 2 2 0,5

EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 EMEP/Corinair 2003 Nielsen & Illerup 2003

2

EMEP/Corinair 2003

WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES STRAW STRAW STRAW

NATURAL GAS

NATURAL GAS

LPG REFINERY GAS BIOGAS BIOGAS

BIOGAS

all all all all 1A1a 1A1a

(PLVVLRQ IDFWRU>J*[email protected]

The same N2O emission factors are applied for 1990-2002

96

Table 47 SO2, NOX, NMVOC and CO emission factors and references 2002. )XHO

,3&&VHFWRU

61$3

COAL COAL BROWN COAL BRI. COKE OVEN COKE PETROLEUM COKE PETROLEUM COKE WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL.

1A1a 1A1a, 1A2f, 1A4b, 1A4c 1A4b 1A2f, 1A4b 1A2f 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a, 1A2f

WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL.

1A4a, 1A4c 1A4b

010101, 010102, 010103 010202, 010203, 0301, 0202, 0203 0202 0301, 0202 0301 0201, 0202, 0203 010102, 010103, 010104 010105 010202, 010203, 010205, 0301, 030102, 030103 0201, 020105, 0203 0202

MUNICIP. WASTES

1A1a

MUNICIP. WASTES

1A1a, 1A2f, 1A4a

STRAW STRAW

1A1a 1A1a, 1A2f

STRAW STRAW

1A4a, 1A4c 1A4b

010102, 010103, 010104, 010105 010203, 030102, 0201, 020103 010102, 010103 010202, 010203, 030102, 030105 0201, 0203, 020302 0202

62 >J*[email protected]

5HI

12; >J*[email protected]

 

18 19

 

      

29 29 20 20 31 22, 21 22, 21

      

29 29 1 1 31 22, 21, 4 22, 21, 4

      

29 29 1 1 31 1 1

      

29 29 4 1 31 3 4

 

22, 21 22, 21

 

22, 21, 4 22

 1  1, 32

 



31



31



31



4 12, 13 31



9



9



1



9

 

31 5

 

31 4, 28

 

31 1

 

31 4, 5

 

5 5

 

4, 28 4, 28

 

1 1

5HI 1092 5HI &2 5HI & >J*[email protected] >J*[email protected]   9 1 3   4 1 1

 4, 5  1, 6,

7     0101, 010101, 010102, 9 18 1 3 010103, 010104  25, 10, 24    RESIDUAL OIL 1A1a, 1A4b, 1A4c 010202, 010203, 0201, 4 1 1 0202, 0203, 020302  25, 10, 24    RESIDUAL OIL 1A2f 0301, 030102, 030103 28 1 1  25, 10, 24    RESIDUAL OIL 1A2f 030104 28 1 1  25, 10, 24    RESIDUAL OIL 1A2f 030105 28 1 1  25, 10, 24    RESIDUAL OIL 1A4a, 1A4c 020105, 020304 4 1 1     GAS OIL 1A1a 0101, 010101, 010102, 27 9 1 3 010103     GAS OIL 1A1a, 1A2f Gas turbines: 010104, 27 9 1 3 030104     GAS OIL 1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, Engines: 010105, 010205, 27 1 1 1A4a, 1A4c 010505, 030105, 020105, 020304     GAS OIL 1A1a, 1A2f 010202, 0301, 030102 27 28 1 1     GAS OIL 1A1a, 1A2f 010203, 030103, 030106 27 4 1 1     GAS OIL 1A4a, 1A4c 0201, 020103, 0203 27 4 1 1     GAS OIL 1A4b 0202 27 4 1 1     KEROSENE all all 30 1 1 1     FISH & RAPE OIL 1A1a 010203 15 15 15 15     FISH & RAPE OIL 1A2f 030105 15 15 15 15     FISH & RAPE OIL 1A4c 020304 15 15 15 15     ORIMULSION 1A1a 010101 9 9 16 16     NATURAL GAS 1A1a 0101, 010101, 010102, 17 9 14 3 010103     NATURAL GAS 1A1a, 1A1b, 1A1c, Gas turbines: 010104, 17 31 31 31 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c 010304, 010504, 030104, 020104, 020303     NATURAL GAS 1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, Gas engines: 010105, 17 31 31 31 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c 010405, 010505, 030105, 020105, 020204, 020304     NATURAL GAS 1A1a, 1A2f 010202, 010203, 0301, 17 4 14 4 030103, 030106     NATURAL GAS 1A1c 010502 17 1, 8, 32 14 4     NATURAL GAS 1A4a, 1A4c 0201, 020103, 0203 17 1, 4, 11 14 4     NATURAL GAS 1A4b 0202, 020202 17 1, 4, 11 11 11     LPG 1A1a, 1A2f 010203, 0301, 030106 32 1 1     LPG 1A4a, 1A4c 0201, 0203 32 1 1     LPG 1A4b 0202 32 1 1     REFINERY GAS 1A1b 010303 23 1 1 1     REFINERY GAS 1A1b 010304 23 9 1 1     BIOGAS 1A1a, 1A2f, 1A4a, 010102, 010103, 010203, 26 4 1 4 1A4c 0301, 0201, 020103, 0203     BIOGAS 1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, Gas engines: 010105, 31 31 31 31 1A4a, 1A4c 010405, 010505, 030105, 020105, 020304     BIOGAS 1A2f 030102 26 1 4 1. Emission Inventory Guidebook 3rd edition, prepared by the UNECE/EMEP Task Force on Emissions Inventories and Projections, 2003 update. Available on the Internet at http://reports.eea.eu.int/EMEPCORINAIR4/en (13-05-2004) 2. 3. Sander, B. 2002. Elsam, personal communication, e-mail 17-05-2002 RESIDUAL OIL

1A1a

97

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

32.

Miljøstyrelsen, 2001. Luftvejledningen, Begrænsning af luftforurening fra virksomheder, Vejledning fra Miljøstyrelsen Nr. 2 2001 (Danish legislation) Nikolaisen L., Nielsen C., Larsen M.G., Nielsen V. Zielke U., Kristensen J.K. & Holm-Christensen B. 1998 Halm til energiformål, Teknik – Miljø – Økonomi, 2. udgave, 1998, Videncenter for halm og flisfyring (In Danish) Jensen L. & Nielsen P.A. 1990. Emissioner fra halm- og flisfyr, dk-Teknik & Levnedsmiddelstyrelsen 1990 (In Danish) Bjerrum M., 2002. Danish Technological Institute, personal communication 09-10-2002 Kristensen, P. (2004) Danish Gas Technology Centre, e-mail 31-03-2004 NERI calculation based on annual environmental reports of Danish plants year 2000 Risø National Laboratory home page - http://www.risoe.dk/sys/esy/emiss_e/emf25082000.xls Gruijthuijsen L.v. & Jensen J.K., 2000. Energi- og miljøoversigt, Danish Gas Technology Centre 2000 (In Danish) Dyrnum O., Warnøe K., Manscher O., Vikelsøe J., Grove A.., Hansen K.J., Nielsen P.A., Madsen H. 1990, Miljøprojekt 149/1990 Emissionsundersøgelse for pejse og brændeovne, Miljøstyrelsen (In Danish) Hansen K.J., Vikelsøe J., Madsen H. 1994, Miljøprojekt 249/1994 Emissioner af dioxiner fra pejse og brændeovne, Miljøstyrelsen (In Danish) Danish Gas Technology Centre 2001, Naturgas – Energi og miljø (In Danish) Same emission factors as for straw is assumed (NERI assumption) Same emission factors as residual oil assumed (NERI assumption) 3 NERI calculation based on S content of natural gas 6mg(S)/mn gas. The S content refers to the Danish natural gas transmission company Gastra (http://www.gastra.dk/dk/index.asp) Estimated by NERI based on 2002 data reported by the plant owners to the electricity transmission companies and the Danish Energy Authority. NERI calculations are based on data forwarded by the Danish Energy Authority: Nielsen M. 2003. Energistyrelsen, personal communication, letter 07-082003. NERI calculation based on a sulphur content of 0,8% and a retention of sulphur in ash of 5%. The sulphur content has been assumed just below the limit value of 0,9% (reference no. 24) NERI calculation based on a sulphur content of 1% (reference no. 24) and a retention of sulphur in ash of 10%. Christiansen, B.H., Evald, A., Baadsgaard-Jensen, J. Bülow, K. 1997. Fyring med biomassebaserede restprodukter, Miljøprojekt nr. 358, 1997, Miljøstyrelsen Serup H., Falster H., Gamborg C., Gundersen P., Hansen L. Heding N., Jacobsen H.H., Kofman P., Nikolaisen L., Thomsen I.M. 1999. Træ til energiformål, Teknik – Miljø – Økonomi, 2. udgave, 1999, Videncenter for halm og flisfyring (In Danish) Same emission factor as for natural gas assumed (NERI assumption) Miljøstyrelsen, 2001.Bekendtgørelseom begrænsning af svovlindholdet i visse flydende og faste brændstoffer, Bekendtgørelse 532 af 25/05/2001 (Danish legislation) NERI calculation based on a sulphur content of 0,7%. The sulhpur content refer to product data from Shell and Statoil available at the internet at: http://www.statoil.dk/mar/svg01185.nsf/fs/erhverv-produkt (13-05-2004) NERI calculation based on a H2S content of 200 ppm. 7KH1(5,FDOFXODWLRQLVQRWFRUUHFW±WKHHPLVVLRQIDFWRUVKRXOGKDYHEHHQJ*-7KH FRUUHFWYDOXHZLOOEHDSSOLHGLQIXWXUHLQYHQWRULHV  The H2S content refer to &KULVWLDQVHQ-3HUVRQDOFRPPXQLFDWLRQand to Hjort-Gregersen K., 1999 Centralised Biogas Plants, Danish Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Economics, 1999 NERI calculation based on a sulphur content of 0,05% S. The sulphur content refers to Bilag 750, Kom 97/0105 (http://www.folketinget.dk/?/samling/20041/MENU/00000002.htm) and to product sheets from Q8, Shell and Statoil Miljøstyrelsen 1990. Bekendtgørelse om begrænsning af emissioner af svovldioxid, kvælstofoxider og støv fra store fyringsanlæg, Bekendtgørelse 689 af 15/10/1990 (Danish legislation) Same emission factor as for coal is assumed (NERI assumption) Product sheet from Shell. Available on the internet at: http://www.shell.com/home/dk-da/html/iwgen/app_profile/app_products_0310_1510.html (13-052004) Nielsen, M. & Illerup, J.B: 2003. Emissionsfaktorer og emissionsopgørelse for decentral kraftvarme. Eltra PSO projekt 3141. Kortlægning af emissioner fra decentrale kraftvarmeværker. Delrapport 6. Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser. 116 s. –Faglig rapport fra DMU nr. 442.(In Danish, whith an english summary). Available on the Internet at :http://www.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Publikationer/3_fagrapporter/rapporter/FR442.pdf Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Reference Manual, 1996. Available on the Internet at http://www.ipccnggip.iges.or.jp/public/gl/invs6.htm (07-11-2003)

Time-series for emission factors for SO2, NOX, NMVOC and CO that are not the same in 1990-2002 are shown below. All other factors are constant in 1990-2002. Table 48 SO2, NOX, NMVOC and CO emission factors time-series [g/GJ]. SROOXWDQW IXHO SO2

102

SO2

110

SO2

114

SO2

114

SO2 SO2 SO2 SO2 SO2 SO2 SO2 SO2

203 203 203 203 203 203 203 203

SO2 SO2 NOx NOx NOx

204 225 102 102 102

98

IXHOBJUBDEEU COAL

,3&& 61$3             

1A1a 010101, 010102, 010103 PETROLEUM COKE 1A2f, 0301, 1A4a, 0201, 1A4b, 0202, 1A4c 0203 MUNICIP. WASTES 1A1a 010102, 010103 MUNICIP. WASTES 1A1a, 0102, 1A2f, 010203, 1A4a 030102, 0201, 020103 RESIDUAL OIL 1A1a 0101 RESIDUAL OIL 1A1a 010101 RESIDUAL OIL 1A1a 010102 RESIDUAL OIL 1A1a 010103 RESIDUAL OIL 1A1a 010104 RESIDUAL OIL 1A1a 0102 RESIDUAL OIL 1A1b 0103 RESIDUAL OIL 1A2f 0301 1A4a 0201 1A4b 0202 1A4c 0203 GAS OIL all all ORIMULSION 1A1a 010101 COAL 1A1a 010101 COAL 1A1a 010102 COAL 1A1a 010103

506

571

454

386

343

312

420

215

263

193

64

47

45

745

745

745

745

745

745

745

745

745

745

745

573

573

116

95

73

52

30

25

23,9

23,9

23,9

131

124

117

110

103

74

67

67

67

403 403 403 403 403

315 315 315 315 315

290 290 290 290 290

138

446

470

490

475 1564

495 495 495 495 5869 3021 2048 2155 495 495 495 495

95

88

81

369 369

351 408

344

495

344

495

495 495 495

495

344

344

344

344

344

344

23 147 250 250 200

23 149 200 200 200

23

23

23

177 177 177

152 152 152

129 129 129

23 10 122 122 122

23 12 130 130 130

495

94

94

94

94

94

23

342 342

384 384

294 294

289 289

267 267

239 239

NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NMVOC NMVOC NMVOC NMVOC NMVOC NMVOC CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO

102 102 102 102 203 203 203 203 203 204 204 204 225 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 309 309 309 309 309 301 301 301 301 301 301 111 111 111 111 114 114 114 114 117 117 117 301 301 301 301 301 301 309 309 309 309 309

COAL COAL COAL COAL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL ORIMULSION NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS BIOGAS BIOGAS BIOGAS BIOGAS BIOGAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES STRAW STRAW STRAW NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS BIOGAS BIOGAS BIOGAS BIOGAS BIOGAS

1A1a 1A2f 1A4b 1A4c 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1b 1A2f 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1c 1A1c 1A2f 1A2f 1A4a 1A4a 1A4b 1A4c 1A4c 1A1a 1A1c 1A2f 1A4a 1A4c 1A1a 1A1c 1A2f 1A4a 1A4b 1A4c 1A1a 1A2f 1A4a 1A4c 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A4a 1A1a 1A4b 1A4c 1A1a 1A1c 1A2f 1A4a 1A4b 1A4c 1A1a 1A1c 1A2f 1A4a 1A4c

010203 0301 0202 0203 0101 010101 010102 010103 010104 0102 0103 0301 010101 010104 010105 010504 010505 030104 030105 020104 020105 020204 020303 020304 010105 010505 030105 020105 020304 010105 010505 030105 020105 020204 020304 0102 0301 0201 0203 010102 010103 0102 0201 0102 0202 0203 010105 010505 030105 020105 020204 020304 010105 010505 030105 020105 020304

200 200 200

200 200 200

200 200 200

200 200 200

200 200 200

200 200 200

342

384

294

289

267

239

100

95 95 95

90 90 90

85 85 85

52 80 52

52 75 52

157 241 157 241

153 235 153 235

149 214 149 214

235

214

276 276

241 157 241 241

235 235

214 214

145 199 145 199 145 199 145 199 199

276

241

235

214

199

141 194 141 194 141 194 141 194 194 141 194

100 161 276 161 276 161 276

58 58 58 58 58 58 400 400 400 400

67 67 67 67 67 67 373 373 373 373 85

78 78 78 78 78 78 347 347 347 347 70

122 122 122 122 122 122 320 320 320 320 55

136 136 136 136 136 136 293 293 293 293 40

137 137 137 137 137 137 267 267 267 267 25

200 200 200

200 200 200

200 200 200 200

200 200 200 200 152 152

250

200

52

52

70 139

65 138 134 170 134 170 134 170 134 170 170 134 170

193 138 193 138 193 138 193 193 138 193

134 134 134 134 134 134 240 240 240 240

120 120 120 120 120 120 240 240 240 240

95 95 95 95 129 129 129 129 129

95 95 95 95 122 122 122 122 122

95 95 95 95 130 130 130 130 130

65 86 124 168 124 168 124 168 124 168 168 124 168 540 540 540 540 540 117 117 117 117 117 117 240 240 240 7,4 7,4

65

65

65

131 167 131 167 131 167 131 167 167 131 167 578

127 167 127 167 127 167 127 167 167 127 167 559 559 559 559 559 118 118 118 118 118 118

124 168 124 168 124 168 124 168 168 124 168 540 540 540 540 540 117 117 117 117 117 117

65 88 124 168 124 168 124 168 124 168 168 124 168 540 540 540 540 540 117 117 117 117 117 117

240 240 240 10 10

240 240 240 7,4 7,4

240 240 240 7,4 7,4

578 578 578 118 118 118 118 118 118 240 240 240

10 10 10 100 85 70 55 40 25 10 10 100 85 70 55 40 25 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 600 554 508 463 417 371 325 325 8500 8500 8500 8500 8500 7500 6500 5500 4500 4000 4000 4000 4000 600 554 508 463 417 371 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 181 202 203 217 216 212 211 174 174 174 175 175 175 181 202 203 217 216 212 211 174 174 174 175 175 175 181 202 203 217 216 212 211 174 174 174 175 175 175 181 202 203 217 216 212 211 174 174 174 175 175 175 181 202 203 217 216 212 211 174 174 174 175 175 175 181 202 203 217 216 212 211 174 174 174 175 175 175 265 269 273 273 273 269 273 273 273 265 269 273 273 273 265 269 273 273 273 265 269 273 273 273

99

Table 49 PM emission factors and references 2002. )XHO

,3&&VHFWRU

STRAW STRAW

1A1a 1A1a, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c 1A4b 1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c 1A1a, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c 1A1a, 1A4c 1A2f all all all all all 1A1a 1A1a, 1A2f 1A4a 1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c

61$3

763 5HIHUHQFH >J*[email protected]  3  1

30 5HIHUHQFH >J*[email protected]  3  2

30 5HIHUHQFH >J*[email protected]  3  2

010102, 010103 010202, 010203, 030102, 030105, 0201, 0203, 020302    STRAW 0202 4 5    BIOGAS Gas engines: 010105, 010405, 010505, 3 3 030105, 020105, 020304    BIOGAS 010102, 010103, 010203, 0301, 6 7 030102, 0201, 020103, 0203    FISH & RAPE OIL 010203, 020304 15 15    FISH & RAPE OIL 030105 8 8    BROWN COAL BRI. all 16 16    COKE OV.COKE all 16 16    GAS OIL all 9 9    KEROSENE all 9 9    LPG all 9 9    MUNICIP. WASTES 010102, 010103, 010104, 010105 3 3    MUNICIP. WASTES 010203, 030102 10 11    MUNICIP. WASTES 0201, 020103 9 9    NATURAL GAS 0101, 010101, 010102, 010103, 9 9 010202, 010203, 010502, 0301, 030103, 030106, 0201, 020103, 0202, 020202, 0203    NATURAL GAS 1A1a, 1A1b, 1A1c, Gas turbines: 010104, 010304, 010504, 3 3 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c 030104, 020104, 020303    NATURAL GAS 1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, Gas engines: 010105, 010405, 010505, 3 3 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c 030105, 020105, 020204, 020304    ORIMULSION 1A1a 010101 12 12    PETROLEUM COKE 1A2f 0301 9 9    PETROLEUM COKE 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c 0201, 0202, 0203 9 9    REFINERY GAS all all 9 9    RESIDUAL OIL 1A1a 0101, 010101, 010102, 010103, 9 9 010104, 010202, 010203    RESIDUAL OIL 1A1b 010303 9 9    RESIDUAL OIL 1A2f, 1A4a 0301, 030102, 030103, 030104, 6 13 030105, 0201    RESIDUAL OIL 1A4a, 1A4c Engines: 020105, 020304 9 9    RESIDUAL OIL 1A4b, 1A4c 0202, 0203, 020302 6 13    COAL 1A1a 010101, 010102, 010103 12 12    COAL 1A1a 010202, 010203 9 9    COAL 1A2f, 1A4b, 1A4c 0301, 0202, 0203 6 14    WOOD AND SIMIL. 1A1a 010102, 010103, 010104 3 3    WOOD AND SIMIL. 1A1a, 1A2f 010105, 010202, 010202, 010203, 1 2 010205, 0301, 030102, 030103    WOOD AND SIMIL. 1A4a, 1A4c 0201, 020105, 0203 1 9    WOOD AND SIMIL. 1A4b 0202 9 9 1. Danish legislation, Miljøstyrelsen 2001. Luftvejledningen, Begrænsning af luftforurening fra virksomheder, Vejledning fra Miljøstyrelsen nr 2 2001 2. Particulate size distribution for wood combustion in power plants refers to the TNO CEPMEIP emission factor database 2001. Available on the internet at: http://www.air.sk/tno/cepmeip/ 3. Nielsen, M. & Illerup, J.B: 2003. Emissionsfaktorer og emissionsopgørelse for decentral kraftvarme. Eltra PSO projekt 3141. Kortlægning af emissioner fra decentrale kraftvarmeværker. Delrapport 6. Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser. 116 s. –Faglig rapport fra DMU nr. 442.(In Danish, whith an english summary). Available on the Internet at :http://www.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Publikationer/3_fagrapporter/rapporter/FR442.pdf 4. German, L., 2002. The Danish Technological Institute, Personal communication, rough estimate 5. Particulate size distribution for wood combustion in residential plants refers to the TNO CEPMEIP emission factor database 2001. Available on the internet at: http://www.air.sk/tno/cepmeip/ 6. Danish legislation. Miljøstyrelsen 1990, Bekendtgørelse 689, 15/10/1990, Bekendtgørelse om begrænsning af emissioner af svovldioxid, kvælstofoxider og støv fra store fyringsanlæg. (and Bekendtgørelse 518/1995) 7. All TSP emission is assumed to be <2,5µm (NERI assumption) 8. Same emission factor as for straw is assumed (NERI assumption) 9. The TNO CEPMEIP emission factor database 2001. Available on the internet at: http://www.air.sk/tno/cepmeip/ 10. Implied emission factor calculation based on annual environmental reports of a large number of municipal waste incineration plants, 2000 11. Particulate size distribution is unknown. The PM10 fraction is assumed to equal 85% of TSP and the PM2.5 fraction is assumed to equal 70% of TSP (NERI assumption) 12. Livbjerg, H. Thellefsen, M. Sander, B. Simonsen, P., Lund, C., Poulsen, K.& Fogh, C.L., 2001. Feltstudier af Forbrændingsaerosoler, EFP -98 Projekt, Aerosollaboratoriet DTU, FLS Miljø, Forskningscenter Risø, Elsam, Energi E2 (in Danish) 13. Particulate size distribution for residual oil combustion refers to the TNO CEPMEIP emission factor database 2001. Available on the internet at: http://www.air.sk/tno/cepmeip/ 14. Particulate size distribution for coal combustion refers to the TNO CEPMEIP emission factor database 2001. Available on the internet at: http://www.air.sk/tno/cepmeip/ 15. Error. Assuming same emission factors as for straw the emission factors should have been TSP: 21g/GJ, PM10: 15 g/GJ and PM2.5: 12 g/GJ. The error is negligible. 16. Same emission factor as for coal is assumed (NERI assumption)

The same PM emission factors are applied for 2000-2002.

100

5 3 7 15 8 16 16 9 9 9 3 11 9 9

3 3 12 9 9 9 9 9 13 9 13 12 9 14 3 2 9 9

Table 50 HM emission factors and references 2002. )XHO

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BROWN COAL BRI. COAL COKE OV.COKE FISH & RAPE OIL GAS OIL MUNICIP. WASTES

1A4b 0202

$V 5HIHU &G 5HIHU &U 5HIHU &X 5HIHU +J 5HIHU 1L 5HIHU 3E 5HIHU 6H 5HIHU =Q 5HIHU >PJ HQFH >PJ HQFH >PJ HQFH >PJ HQFH >PJ HQFH >PJ HQFH >PJ HQFH >PJ HQFH >PJ HQFH *[email protected] *[email protected] *[email protected] *[email protected] *[email protected] *[email protected] *[email protected] *[email protected] *[email protected] 10,5

1

10,5 10,5 8,39 1 11,7 359,5

1 1 1 1 1

359,5

1

2,72 10,5

1 1

all all 14,07 1 13,5 1 33,33 1 12,96 1 4,3 1 642 1 23,46 1 12,3 1 2,72 1A1a 010102, 2 2 0,72 2 1,52 2 1,66 2 0,53 2 1,62 2 6,12 2 8,39 010103 STRAW 1A1a, 010202, 0,62 1 0,62 1 1,06 1 6,8 1 0,53 1 3,22 1 8,39 1A2f, 010203, 1A4a, 030102, 1A4b, 030105, 1A4c 0201, 0202, 0203, 020302 WOOD AND 1A1a 010102, 2,34 2 0,9 2 2,34 2 2,6 2 0,72 2 2,34 2 3,62 2 136 SIMIL. 010103, 010104 WOOD AND 1A1a 010105 6,8 1 6,8 1 6,8 1 3,4 1 136 SIMIL. 1A2f 010202 1A4a 010203 1A4b 010205 1A4c 0301 030102 030103 0201 020105 0202 0203 1. Illerup, J.B., Geertinger, A., Hoffmann, L. & Christiansen, K., 1999. Emissionsfaktorer for tungmetaller 1990-1996. Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser. 66 s. – Faglig rapport fra DMU nr. 301. (In Danish) Available on the internet at: http://www.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Publikationer/3_fagrapporter/rapporter/fr301.pdf 2. Nielsen, M. & Illerup, J.B. 2003. Emissionsfaktorer og emissionsopgørelse for decentral kraftvarme. Eltra PSO projekt 3141. Kortlægning af emissioner fra decentrale kraftvarmeværker. Delrapport 6. Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser. 116 s. –Faglig rapport fra DMU nr. 442.(In Danish, whith an english summary). Available on the Internet at :http://www.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Publikationer/3_fagrapporter/rapporter/FR442.pdf

1 1

MUNICIP. WASTES

ORIMULSION PETROLEUM COKE RESIDUAL OIL STRAW

3,2

1

0,1

1

2,3

all 3,2 all 3,2 all all 1,17 010102, 6,74 010103, 010104, 010105 1A1a 010203, 3,53 1A2f 030102, 1A4a 0201, 020103 1A1a 010101 14,07 all all 3,2

1 1 1 2

0,1 0,1 0,62 0,23 4,73

1 1 1 1 2

2,3 2,3 0,62 0,94 2,43

1

9,21

1 1

13,5 0,1

all all all all 1A1a

1

3,1

1

1,7

1

4,4

1

6

1

0,5

1

1 3,1 1 3,1 1 1,06 1 1,17 2 10,03

1 1 1 1 2

1,7 1,7 6,8 1,17 7,39

1 1 1 1 2

4,4 4,4 0,53 0,64 4,71

1 1 1 1 2

6 6 3,22 2,34 123

1 1 1 1 2

0,5 0,5

1 1

1 32,97

1

31,8

1

58,7

1

55,4

1 137,5 7

1

1 33,33 1 2,3

1 12,96 1 3,1

1 1

4,3 1,7

1 1

642 4,4

1 23,46 1 6

1 1

4,68

12,3 0,5

1 1

For large power plants combusting coal or residual oil other emission factors are applied for point sources than for area sources. The emission inventories are however mainly based on plants specific emission data from each plant. The large point source emission factors that differ from the area source emission factors are shown below. Table 51 HM emission factors [mg/GJ] 2002 for large point sources. Only emission factors that differ from the area source emission factors are included. )XHO

61$3

$V

&G

&U

&X

+J

1L

3E

6H

=Q

Coal

010102

3,3

-

8,02

4,41

2,2

6,81

-

13

-

Residual oil

010101, 010102

1,48

4,43

1,33

1,48

0,15

191

1,48

0,59

11,7

Time-series for emission factors for heavy metals that are not the same in 1990-2002 are shown below. All other factors are constant in 1990-2002.

101

1

1

1

Table 52 HM emission factors time-series [mg/GJ]. 3RO )XHO OXWDQW

,3&& 61$3 VHFWRU

M01 M01 M01 M01 M01 M02 M02 M02 M02 M02 M03 M03 M03 M03 M04 M04 M04 M04 M05 M05 M05 M05 M06 M06 M06 M06 M07 M07 M07 M07 M09 M09 M09 M09

1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A4a 1A1b 1A2f 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A4a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A4a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A4a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A4a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A4a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A4a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A4a

MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL PETROLEUM COKE MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES

010102 010103 0102 0201 010303 0301 010102 010103 0102 0201 010102 010103 0102 0201 010102 010103 0102 0201 010102 010103 0102 0201 010102 010103 0102 0201 010102 010103 0102 0201 010102 010103 0102 0201



























7,207

6,594

5,981

5,369

4,756 4,143 4,143 4,143

3,53

3,53 3,53

6,74 6,74

6,74 6,74

6,74 6,74

0,1

3,53 3,53 3,53 14,07 0,1

12,369 12,369 12,369

9,21 9,21 9,21

3,53 17,07 0,1 9,21 9,21

3,53 14,07 0,1 4,73 4,73

3,53 14,07 0,1 4,73 4,73

3,53 14,07 0,1 4,73 4,73

54,846 54,846 54,846

32,97 32,97 32,97

9,21 32,97 32,97

9,21 2,43 2,43

9,21 2,43 2,43

9,21 2,43 2,43

44,899 44,899 44,899

31,8 31,8 31,8

32,97 31,8 31,8

32,97 10,03 10,03

32,97 10,03 10,03

32,97 10,03 10,03

69,231 69,231 69,231

58,7 58,7 58,7

58,7

31,8 58,7 58,7

31,8 7,39 7,39

31,8 7,39 7,39

31,8 7,39 7,39

74,909 74,909 74,909

55,4 55,4 55,4

55,4

58,7 55,4 55,4

58,7 4,71 4,71

58,7 4,71 4,71

58,7 4,71 4,71

221,146 722,6 639,024 555,449 471,873 388,297 304,721 221,146 722,6 639,024 555,449 471,873 388,297 304,721 221,146 741,254 677,629 614,003 550,377 486,751 423,126 804,88 741,254 677,629 614,003 550,377 486,751 423,126 804,88 741,254 677,629 614,003 550,377 486,751 423,126

137,57 137,57 137,57

137,57

55,4 137,57 137,57

55,4 123 123

55,4 123 123

55,4 123 123

359,5

137,57 359,5 359,5

137,57 359,5 359,5

137,57 359,5 359,5

137,57 359,5 359,5

359,5

359,5

359,5

359,5

359,5

7,82 7,82

7,207 7,207

6,594 6,594

5,981 5,981

5,369 5,369

4,756 4,756

0,2

0,1 28,161

0,1 25,003

0,1 21,844

0,1 18,686

0,1 15,527

28,161 25,003 21,844 28,161 25,003 21,844 164,224 142,349 120,473

18,686 18,686 98,597

15,527 15,527 76,721

186,1 164,224 142,349 120,473 186,1 164,224 142,349 120,473 110,391 97,293 84,194

98,597 98,597 71,096

76,721 76,721 57,997

123,49 110,391 97,293 84,194 123,49 110,391 97,293 84,194 121,889 111,357 100,826

71,096 71,096 90,294

57,997 57,997 79,763

132,42 121,889 111,357 100,826 90,294 132,42 121,889 111,357 100,826 90,294 172,451 152,943 133,434 113,926

79,763 79,763 94,417

31,32 31,32

191,96 172,451 152,943 133,434 113,926 94,417 191,96 172,451 152,943 133,434 113,926 94,417 639,024 555,449 471,873 388,297 304,721

359,5 359,5 359,5

3,53 17,07 0,1 9,21 9,21 32,97 32,97 31,8 31,8

58,7

55,4

137,57

Table 53 PAH emission factors 2002. )XHO

,3&&LG

61$3

BIOGAS BROWN COAL BRI. COAL

all 1A4b 1A1a

COAL COAL COKE OV.COKE COKE OV.COKE FISH & RAPE OIL GAS OIL

1A2f 1A4b, 1A4c 1A2f 1A4b all 1A1a 1A1c

GAS OIL

1A2f 1A4a 1A4b 1A4c

MUNICIP. WASTES

1A1a

MUNICIP. WASTES

1A1a, 1A2f, 1A4a 1A1a, 1A1b, 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4c

all 0202 010101, 010102, 010103, 010202, 010203 0301 0202, 0203 0301 0202 all 0101, 010101, 010102, 010103, 010104, 010105, 010202, 010203, 010205, 010505 0301, 030102, 030103, 030104, 030105, 030106, 0201, 020103, 020105, 0202, 0203, 020304 010102, 010103, 010104, 010105 010203, 030102, 0201, 020103 Gas turbines: 010104, 010304, 010504, 030104, 020104, 020303 Gas engines: 010105, 010405, 010505, 030105, 020105, 020204, 020304 020202 010101

NATURAL GAS

NATURAL GAS

1A1a, 1A1c, 1A2f, 1A4a, 1A4b, 1A4c

NATURAL GAS ORIMULSION

1A4b 1A1a

102

%HQ]R D  S\UHQH >—J*[email protected] Refer-

%HQ]R E  IOXRUDQWKHQH >—J*[email protected] Refer-

%HQ]R N  IOXRUDQWKHQH >—J*[email protected] Refer-

,QGHQR FG  S\UHQH >—J*[email protected] Refer-

1 59524 0,14

ence 8 4 (9) 4

1 63492 0,29

ence 8 4 (9) 4

0,4 1984 0,29

ence 8 4 (9) 4

1,1 119048 0,28

ence 8 4 (9) 4

23 59524 23 59524 1529 109,6

4 4 4 (9) 4 (9) 2 (3) 4

929 63492 929 63492 3452 475,41

4 4 4 (9) 4 (9) 2 (3) 4

929 1984 929 1984 1400 93,21

4 4 4 (9) 4 (9) 2 (3) 4

698 119048 698 119048 1029 177,28

4 4 4 (9) 4 (9) 2 (3) 4

80

4

42

4

66

4

160

4

0,8

8

1,7

8

0,8

8

0,9

8

67

5

571

5

1

5

1

5

1

8

1

8

2

8

3

8

3

8

42

8

24

8

6

8

0,133 109,6

6 4 (7)

0,663 475,41

6 4 (7)

0,265 93,21

6 4 (7)

2,653 177,28

6 4 (7)

PETROLEUM COKE RESIDUAL OIL

all all 3184 5 9554 5 1A1a, 1A1b 0101, 010101, 109,6 4 475,41 4 93,21 4 177,28 4 010102, 010103, 010104, 010202, 010203, 010303 RESIDUAL OIL 1A2f 0301, 030102, 80 4 42 4 66 4 160 4 1A4a 030103, 030104, 1A4b 030105, 0201, 1A4c 020105, 0202, 0203, 020302, 020304 STRAW 1A1a 010102 1,6 1 1,4 1 1 1 1,6 1 STRAW 1A1a 010103 21 8 157 8 90 8 23 8 STRAW 1A1a, 1A2f 010202, 010203, 1529 2 3452 2 1400 2 1029 2 030102, 030105 STRAW 1A4a, 1A4b, 0201, 0202, 12956 2 12828 2 6912 2 4222 2 1A4c 0203, 020302 WOOD AND SIMIL. 1A1a 010102, 010103, 3 8 2 8 2 8 2 8 010104 WOOD AND SIMIL. 1A1a, 1A2f 010105, 010202, 6,46 4 1292,52 4 1292,52 4 11,56 4 010203, 010205, 0301, 030102, 030103 WOOD AND SIMIL. 1A4a, 1A4b, 0201, 020105, 168707 4 221769 4 73469 4 119728 4 1A4c 0202, 0203 1. Sander, B. 2002. Personal communication, e-mail 11-10-2002 2. Jensen, L. & Nielsen, P.B. 1996 Emissioner fra halm- og flisfyr, Arbejds rapport fra Miljøstyrelsen nr 5 1996, Bilagsrapport (In Danish) 3. Same emission factors as for straw is assumed (NERI assumption) 4. Berdowski J.J.M., Veldt C., Baas J., Bloos J.P.J., Klein A.E. 1995, Technical Paper to the OSPARCOM-HELCOM-UNECE Emission Inventory of heavy Metals and Persistent Organic Pollutants, TNO-report, TNO-MEP – R 95/247 5. Finstad A., Haakonsen G., Kvingedal E. & Rypdal K. 2001. Utslipp til luft av noen miljøgifter i Norge, Dokumentasjon av metode og resultater, Statistics Norway Report 2001/17 (In Norwegian) 6. Jensen, J. 2001, Danish Gas Technology centre, personal communication, e-mail 11-10-2001 7. Same emission factors as for residual oil is assumed (NERI assumption) 8. Nielsen, M. & Illerup, J.B. 2003. Emissionsfaktorer og emissionsopgørelse for decentral kraftvarme. Eltra PSO projekt 3141. Kortlægning af emissioner fra decentrale kraftvarmeværker. Delrapport 6. Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser. 116 s. –Faglig rapport fra DMU nr. 442. (In Danish, whith an english summary). Available on the Internet at :http://www.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Publikationer/3_fagrapporter/rapporter/FR442.pdf 9. Same emission factor as for coal is assumed (NERI assumption)

The same PAH emission factors are applied for 1990-2002.

103

Appendix 6 Implied emission factors for municipal waste incineration plants and power plants combustion coal Table 54 Implied emission factors for municipal waste incineration plants 2002.

3ROOXWDQW SO2 NOx TSP PM10 PM2.5 As Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Pb Zn

Implied Emission factor 28 127 3,0 2,5 2,1 7,3 4,6 5,1 12 12 10 62 352

Unit g/GJ g/GJ g/GJ g/GJ g/GJ mg/GJ mg/GJ mg/GJ mg/GJ mg/GJ mg/GJ mg/GJ mg/GJ

Table 55 Implied emission factors for power plants combusting coal, 2002.

3ROOXWDQW SO2 NOx TSP PM10 PM2.5 As Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Pb Se Zn

104

Implied Emission factor 36 148 3,7 3,0 2,5 0,73 0,06 1,5 0,96 1,0 4,3 1,9 3,8 7,2

Unit g/GJ g/GJ g/GJ g/GJ g/GJ mg/GJ mg/GJ mg/GJ mg/GJ mg/GJ mg/GJ mg/GJ mg/GJ mg/GJ

Appendix 7 Large point sources Table 56 Large point sources, fuel consumption in 2002 (1A1, 1A2 and 1A4). OSVBLG

OSVQDPH

SDUWBLG

61$3BLG

IXHOBLG

IXHO

001 001 001 001 001 001 002 002 002 002 003 003 003 003 004 004 004 004 004 004 004 005 005 005 005 007 007 007 007 008 008 008 008 008 008 008 008 008 009 009 010 010 010 010 010 010 010 011 011 011 011 011 011 011 011 012 012 012 012 012 014 014 014 017 017 017 018 018 018 019 019 019 019 019 020 020 022 022 022 022 023 023 024 025 025

Amagervaerket Amagervaerket Amagervaerket Amagervaerket Amagervaerket Amagervaerket Svanemoellevaerket Svanemoellevaerket Svanemoellevaerket Svanemoellevaerket H.C.Oerstedsvaerket H.C.Oerstedsvaerket H.C.Oerstedsvaerket H.C.Oerstedsvaerket Kyndbyvaerket Kyndbyvaerket Kyndbyvaerket Kyndbyvaerket Kyndbyvaerket Kyndbyvaerket Kyndbyvaerket Masnedoevaerket Masnedoevaerket Masnedoevaerket Masnedoevaerket Stigsnaesvaerket Stigsnaesvaerket Stigsnaesvaerket Stigsnaesvaerket Asnaesvaerket Asnaesvaerket Asnaesvaerket Asnaesvaerket Asnaesvaerket Asnaesvaerket Asnaesvaerket Asnaesvaerket Asnaesvaerket Statoil Raffinaderi Statoil Raffinaderi Avedoerevaerket Avedoerevaerket Avedoerevaerket Avedoerevaerket Avedoerevaerket Avedoerevaerket Avedoerevaerket Fynsvaerket Fynsvaerket Fynsvaerket Fynsvaerket Fynsvaerket Fynsvaerket Fynsvaerket Fynsvaerket Studstrupvaerket Studstrupvaerket Studstrupvaerket Studstrupvaerket Studstrupvaerket Vendsysselvaerket Vendsysselvaerket Vendsysselvaerket Shell Raffinaderi Shell Raffinaderi Shell Raffinaderi Skaerbaekvaerket Skaerbaekvaerket Skaerbaekvaerket Enstedvaerket Enstedvaerket Enstedvaerket Enstedvaerket Enstedvaerket Esbjergvaerket Esbjergvaerket Oestkraft Oestkraft Oestkraft Oestkraft Danisco Ingredients Danisco Ingredients Dansk Naturgas Behandlingsanlaeg Horsens Kraftvarmevaerk Horsens Kraftvarmevaerk

01 01 02 02 03 03 05 05 07 07 03 03 07 07 21 22 26 28 41 51 52 12 12 12 31 01 01 02 02 01 02 02 03 03 04 04 05 05 01 01 01 01 01 02 02 02 02 03 03 03 03 07 07 08 08 03 03 04 04 04 03 03 03 01 01 05 01 03 03 03 03 04 04 04 03 03 05 06 06 06 01 01 01 01 01

010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010104 010104 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010105 010104 010104 010102 010102 010102 010104 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010306 010306 010101 010101 010101 010104 010104 010104 010104 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010306 010306 010304 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010102 010102 010102 010102 030102 030102 010502 010102 010102

102 203 102 203 102 203 204 301 204 301 203 301 203 301 203 203 203 203 204 204 204 111 117 204 204 102 203 102 203 203 102 203 102 203 102 203 203 225 203 308 102 203 204 111 117 203 301 102 114 203 301 102 203 114 203 102 203 102 117 203 102 203 204 203 308 308 203 204 301 102 203 111 117 204 102 203 203 102 111 203 102 301 301 111 114

COAL RESIDUAL OIL COAL RESIDUAL OIL COAL RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS GAS OIL NATURAL GAS RESIDUAL OIL NATURAL GAS RESIDUAL OIL NATURAL GAS RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL GAS OIL WOOD AND SIMIL. STRAW GAS OIL GAS OIL COAL RESIDUAL OIL COAL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL COAL RESIDUAL OIL COAL RESIDUAL OIL COAL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL ORIMULSION RESIDUAL OIL REFINERY GAS COAL RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL WOOD AND SIMIL. STRAW RESIDUAL OIL NATURAL GAS COAL MUNICIP. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL NATURAL GAS COAL RESIDUAL OIL MUNICIP. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL COAL RESIDUAL OIL COAL STRAW RESIDUAL OIL COAL RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL RESIDUAL OIL REFINERY GAS REFINERY GAS RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS COAL RESIDUAL OIL WOOD AND SIMIL. STRAW GAS OIL COAL RESIDUAL OIL RESIDUAL OIL COAL WOOD AND SIMIL. RESIDUAL OIL COAL NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES

IXHOFRQVXPS WLRQ>*[email protected]

,3&& VRXUFH

2064946 184904 3290774 214191 13750850 86228 720 1679600 42 3787960 438313 1928414 584175 2737670 198245 296933 215426 57826 1432 14126 10578 125807 467182 991 21913 2272643 143140 6796315 111473 77287 4755522 134726 379041 35793 3724192 38991 580710 23846400 682280 6568024 16051850 61806 14695 117062 1215692 6624653 7757769 963550 890980 61930 5913280 12160620 206020 2611150 55000 10941110 238500 16009780 889080 150990 18869460 216600 14840 680360 4773776 2455232 341140 41190 6987650 30974580 150200 65930 1753980 20950 18603150 137510 9320 713024 37905 30781 542112,9 21035,91 379362,15 2969 859200

1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1b 1A1b 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1b 1A1b 1A1b 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A2f 1A2f 1A1c 1A1a 1A1a

105

025 026 026 026 027 027 027 028 029 029 029 030 030 030 030 030 030 031 032 032 034 035 035 035 036 036 037 037 037 037 038 038 039 039 040 042 045 045 045 045 045 046 047 047 048 049 049 049 050 051 052 053 053 054 054 054 054 054 054 054 054 054 054 055 056 058 059 059 059 060 060 061 062 063 063 064 064 065 065 066 066 067 068 069 070 071 071 072

106

Horsens Kraftvarmevaerk Herningvaerket Herningvaerket Herningvaerket Vestforbraendingen Vestforbraendingen Vestforbraendingen Amagerforbraendingen Randersvaerket Randersvaerket Randersvaerket Grenaavaerket Grenaavaerket Grenaavaerket Grenaavaerket Grenaavaerket Grenaavaerket Hilleroedvaerket Helsingoervaerket Helsingoervaerket Stora Dalum Assens Sukkerfabrik Assens Sukkerfabrik Assens Sukkerfabrik Kolding Kraftvarmevaerk Kolding Kraftvarmevaerk Maabjergvaerket Maabjergvaerket Maabjergvaerket Maabjergvaerket Soenderborg Kraftvarmevaerk Soenderborg Kraftvarmevaerk Kara Affaldsforbraendingsanlaeg Kara Affaldsforbraendingsanlaeg Viborg Kraftvarmevaerk Nordforbraendingen Aalborg Portland Aalborg Portland Aalborg Portland Aalborg Portland Aalborg Portland Aarhus Nord Reno Nord Reno Nord Silkeborg Kraftvarmevaerk Rensningsanlægget Lynetten Rensningsanlægget Lynetten Rensningsanlægget Lynetten I/S Fasan AVV Forbrændingsanlæg I/S REFA Kraftvarmeværk Svendborg Kraftvarmeværk Svendborg Kraftvarmeværk Kommunekemi Kommunekemi Kommunekemi Kommunekemi Kommunekemi Kommunekemi Kommunekemi Kommunekemi Kommunekemi Kommunekemi I/S Fælles Forbrænding Vestfyns Forbrænding I/S Reno Syd I/S Kraftvarmeværk Thisted I/S Kraftvarmeværk Thisted I/S Kraftvarmeværk Thisted Knudmoseværket Knudmoseværket Kavo I/S Energien VEGA Hadsund Bys Fjernvarmeværk Hadsund Bys Fjernvarmeværk Aars Fjernvarmeforsyning Aars Fjernvarmeforsyning Haderslev Kraftvarmeværk Haderslev Kraftvarmeværk Frederiskhavn Affaldskraftvarmeværk Frederiskhavn Affaldskraftvarmeværk Vejen Kraftvarmeværk Bofa I/S DTU Næstved Kraftvarmeværk Maricogen Maricogen Hjørring KVV

02 01 01 01 01 01 02 01 01 01 02 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 02 01 01 01 01 01 02 02 02 02 02 01 02 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 02 02 02 03 03 03 04 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01

010104 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010104 010104 010105 030102 030102 030102 030102 010103 010103 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010104 010102 010102 010104 010102 030311 030311 030311 030311 030311 010102 010103 010103 010104 020103 020103 020103 010203 010103 010103 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010104 010203 010203 010103 010103 010103 010103 010103 010103 010103 010203 010203 010203 010103 010103 010103 010103 010103 010103 010103 010203 010104 010104 030104 030104 010104

301 111 203 301 114 204 114 114 102 309 204 102 111 114 117 203 204 301 301 301 301 102 203 309 114 114 111 114 117 301 114 301 114 301 301 114 102 110 114 118 203 114 111 114 301 114 204 309 114 114 114 114 301 114 203 204 114 203 204 114 203 204 301 114 114 114 111 114 117 114 301 114 114 111 114 111 114 114 301 114 204 114 114 301 301 204 301 301

NATURAL GAS WOOD AND SIMIL. RESIDUAL OIL NATURAL GAS MUNICIP. WASTES GAS OIL MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES COAL BIOGAS GAS OIL COAL WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES STRAW RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS COAL RESIDUAL OIL BIOGAS MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES STRAW NATURAL GAS MUNICIP. WASTES NATURAL GAS MUNICIP. WASTES NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS MUNICIP. WASTES COAL PETROLEUM COKE MUNICIP. WASTES SEWAGE SLUDGE RESIDUAL OIL MUNICIP. WASTES WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES NATURAL GAS MUNICIP. WASTES GAS OIL BIOGAS MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES NATURAL GAS MUNICIP. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL MUNICIP. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL MUNICIP. WASTES RESIDUAL OIL GAS OIL NATURAL GAS MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES STRAW MUNICIP. WASTES NATURAL GAS MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES WOOD AND SIMIL. MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES NATURAL GAS MUNICIP. WASTES GAS OIL MUNICIP. WASTES MUNICIP. WASTES NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS GAS OIL NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS

893452 243170 15820 2560550 2021880 23457,67 2966608 4142540 2920674 20466 45623 1050880 39000 137208 787673 50258 9378 3190706 2019878 20789 1169100 266710 120935 22754 726736,3 323698 443570 1742510 386090 209580 481102 1178454 1801188,4 9771,52 2334004 1015274,5 4348589 7543476 1787613 64508 591804 1830728 1038717 699226,5 3207206 12593,92 43889,5 74286 934589,7 662682 970453,6 548898 5093,23 141708 42084 18113,34 655105 37729 5093,26 658875 46927 5164,99 109,36 282819,6 228332 643403 985,8 551449,5 2668 36080 8205,37 674320,5 589029 30400 201660 9445 521349 666358 54 352602 1761 408470 193924 1194192 407112 896,7 2302648 1397583

1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A2f 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A4a 1A4a 1A4a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A2f 1A2f 1A1a

1)

Table 57 Large point sources, plant specific emissions (IPCC 1A1, 1A2 and 1A4) . OSV

OSVQDPH

SDUW LG

61$3 LG

,3&& LG

62 0J

12; 0J

001

Amagervaerket

Svanemoellevaerket

003

H.C.Oerstedsvaerket

004

Kyndbyvaerket

010101 010101 010101 010101 010104 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010105 010104 010104 010102 010104 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010306 010101 010104 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010306 010304 010101 010101 010101 010101 010101 010102 010102 030102 010502

1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1b 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1b 1A1b 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A2f 1A1c

x x x

002

01 02 03 05 07 03 07 21 22 26 28 41 51 52 12 31 01 02 02 03 04 05 01 01 02 03 07 08 03 04 03 01 05 01 03 03 04 03 05 06 01 01

x x x x x x x x x x x

01 02 Herningvaerket 01 Vestforbraendingen 01 02 Amagerforbraendingen 01 Randersvaerket 01 Grenaavaerket 01 Hilleroedvaerket 01 Helsingoervaerket 01 02 Stora Dalum 01 Assens Sukkerfabrik 01 Kolding Kraftvarmevaerk 01 02 Maabjergvaerket 02 Soenderborg Kraftvarmevaerk 01 02 Kara Affaldsforbraendingsan- 01 laeg Viborg Kraftvarmevaerk 01 Nordforbraendingen 01 Aalborg Portland 01, 03 Aarhus Nord 01 Reno Nord 01 Silkeborg Kraftvarmevaerk 01 Rensningsanlægget Lynetten 01 I/S Fasan 01 AVV Forbrændingsanlæg 01 I/S REFA Kraftvarmeværk 01 Svendborg Kraftvarmeværk 01 Kommunekemi 01 02 03

010102 010104 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010102 010104 010104 010105 030102 030102 010103 010103 010102 010102 010104 010102

1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A2f 1A2f 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a

010104 010102 030311

1A1a 1A1a 1A2f

010102 010103 010104 020103 010203 010103 010103 010102 010102 010102 010102

1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A4a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a

005

Masnedoevaerket

007

Stigsnaesvaerket

008

Asnaesvaerket

009 010

Statoil Raffinaderi Avedoerevaerket

011

Fynsvaerket

012

Studstrupvaerket

014 017

Vendsysselvaerket Shell Raffinaderi

018

Skaerbaekvaerket

019

Enstedvaerket

020 022

Esbjergvaerket Oestkraft

023 024

Danisco Ingredients Dansk Naturgas Behandlingsanlaeg Horsens Kraftvarmevaerk

025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 042 045 046 047 048 049 050 051 052 053 054

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

1092& 0J

&2 0J

763 30 30 $V &G &U &X +J 1L 0J 0J 0J NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ x x x

x x x

6H =Q NJ NJ

x x x

x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x x x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x

x

x

x

x

x x

x x

x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x

x

x

x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x x

x

x x

x x

x x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x

3E NJ

x

x x x

x x x

x x x x

x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x

x

x

x x

x

x

x

x

x x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x x x x

x

x x x x x x

x x x

x x x

x

x

x x x

x

x x x x x x x x x x

x x x

x

x x x x

x x x x x x

107

x

x

04 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01

010104 010203 010103 010103 010103 010103 010203 010203 010103 010103

1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a

067 068 069 070 071

Vestfyns Forbrænding I/S Reno Syd I/S Kraftvarmeværk Thisted Knudmoseværket Kavo I/S Energien VEGA Hadsund Bys Fjernvarmeværk Haderslev Kraftvarmeværk Frederiskhavn Affaldskraftvarmeværk Vejen Kraftvarmeværk Bofa I/S DTU Næstved Kraftvarmeværk Maricogen

01 01 01 01 01

010103 010203 010104 010104 030104

1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A1a 1A2f

x x

072

Hjørring KVV

01

010104

1A1a

  

056 058 059 060 061 062 063 065 066

OD W R 7

x x x x x x x x x

x x

x x x x x x x x x

  

x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

 

 

 

x x

x

x x

x x

x

x

x

x x x x x x x

x



 

 



 

 

 

 

 

1) Emission of the pollutants marked with “x” is plant specific. Emission of other pollutants is estimated based on emission factors. The total shownLQWKLV only include plant specific data. 2) Based on particle size distribution

WDEOH

108

x

 

 

Appendix 8 Uncertainty estimates Table 58 Uncertainty estimation, GHG.

U\ R JH WD FH UF X R 6  & & 3 ,

Stationary Combustion, Coal Stationary Combustion, Petroleum coke Stationary Combustion, Plastic waste Stationary Combustion, Residual oil Stationary Combustion, Gas oil Stationary Combustion, Kerosene Stationary Combustion, Orimulsion Stationary Combustion, Natural gas Stationary Combustion, LPG Stationary Combustion, Refinery gas Stationary combustion plants, gas engines Stationary combustion plants, other Stationary combustion plants Total

7RWDOXQFHUWDLQWLHV

VD *

CO2

Q R LV VL P H UD H\ H VD %

Q R LV VL P H WU DH <

Input Input data data Gg CO2 Gg CO2 eq eq 24209 16708

\W Q LD WU HF Q X U R WF DI  Q R LV LV P (

\W Q LD WU HF Q X D WD G \W LY LW F $

\W Q LD WU HF Q X G H Q LE P R &

 WR I WU R D  V H\ L D\ Q W VQ Q LD R L UWH VLV F P Q H X G OD H Q Q LE R WLD P Q R OD &W

W\L LYW LV Q HV  $ H S \ 7

W\L LYW LV Q HV  % H S \ 7

OD Q R WLD Q Q L G Q HU WQ L\ W Q LD WU HF Q 8

Q R LV VL P H \ E  G HF X W\ G R UW LQ DW LQ V UH Q FQ R LV X U VL R WF P H DI

OD Q R WLD Q Q L G Q HU WQ L W\ LQ DW UH F Q 8

W\L LYW FD \ E  G HF X G \ R UW WQ L LQ V WDU Q HF R LV Q VL X WDD P H G

H K W WR Q L G HF X G UR W Q L \W LQ DW UH F Q 8

V Q R LV VL P HO D Q R WLD Q OD W R W Q L G Q HU W

Input data %

Input data %

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

1

5

5,099

2,254

-0,187

0,437

-0,935

0,617

1,120

CO2

410

762

3

5

5,831

0,118

0,009

0,020

0,047

0,084

0,096

CO2

369

599

5

5

7,071

0,112

0,006

0,016

0,031

0,111

0,115

CO2

2505

1923

2

2

2,828

0,144

-0,014

0,050

-0,029

0,142

0,145

CO2

4564

2920

4

5

6,403

0,495

-0,041

0,076

-0,207

0,432

0,479

CO2

366

18

4

5

6,403

0,003

-0,009

0,000

-0,045

0,003

0,045

CO2

0

1908

1

2

2,236

0,113

0,050

0,050

0,100

0,070

0,122

CO2

4330

11090

3

1

3,162

0,928

0,178

0,290

0,178

1,229

1,242

CO2

194

104

4

5

6,403

0,018

-0,002

0,003

-0,011

0,015

0,019

CO2

806

842

3

5

5,831

0,130

0,001

0,022

0,006

0,093

0,094

CH4

2

400

2,2

40

40,060

0,424

0,010

0,010

0,416

0,033

0,417

CH4

117

133

2,2

100 100,024

0,352

0,000

0,003

0,047

0,011

0,048

N2O

397

383

2,2

1000 1000,00 2

10,124

0,000

0,010

-0,248

0,031

0,250

38269

37789

2YHUDOOXQFHUWDLQW\LQWKH\HDU  

109,062



3,335

7UHQGXQFHUWDLQW\  



109

Table 59 Uncertainty estimation, CO2.

\U R JH WD F HF U X R 6 & & ,3

VD *

Q R LV VL P H UD H\ H VD %

Q LR VV L P H W UD H <

Input Input data data Gg CO2 Gg CO2 Stationary Combustion, Coal Stationary Combustion, Petroleum coke Stationary Combustion, Plastic waste Stationary Combustion, Residual oil Stationary Combustion, Gas oil Stationary Combustion, Kerosene Stationary Combustion, Orimulsion Stationary Combustion, Natural gas Stationary Combustion, LPG Stationary Combustion, Refinery gas Total

7RWDOXQFHUWDLQWLHV

110

\W Q LD WU HF Q X DW D G \ WL YL WF $

\W LQ DW UH F Q X U R WF DI  Q LR VV L P (

Input data %

Input data %

\W Q LD WU HF Q X G H Q LE P R &

W I UD R  H\  VD Q L \ VQ W R Q LD LVV WU L HF P H Q OD X Q G LW H R Q LE DQ  P OWD R R &W

\W LY LW LV Q HV  $ H S \ 7

OD Q R LW D Q Q LG \W Q LY HWU LW Q LV L \ Q HV WQ  LDW % H UH F S \ Q 7 8

V L P H \ E  W\ G HF Q L X DWU G H UR W FQ Q U LV X W Q R R LV FID VL Q R P H LV

OD Q R LW D Q Q LG Q HU W Q L\ W Q LD WU HF Q 8

\W LY LW FD \ E  G HF X G \ R UW WLQ Q L DWU V H Q F R LV Q VL X DW D P H G

H K W R W Q LG HF X G R UW Q L\ W Q LD WU HF Q 8

V Q R LV LV P HO D Q R WLD Q OD W WR  Q L G Q HU W

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

CO2

24209

16708

1

5

5,099

2,254

-0,187

0,437

-0,935

0,617

1,120

CO2

410

762

3

5

5,831

0,118

0,009

0,020

0,047

0,084

0,096

CO2

369

599

5

5

7,071

0,112

0,006

0,016

0,031

0,111

0,115

CO2

2505

1923

2

2

2,828

0,144

-0,014

0,050

-0,029

0,142

0,145

CO2

4564

2920

4

5

6,403

0,495

-0,041

0,076

-0,207

0,432

0,479

CO2

366

18

4

5

6,403

0,003

-0,009

0,000

-0,045

0,003

0,045

CO2

0

1908

1

2

2,236

0,113

0,050

0,050

0,100

0,070

0,122

CO2

4330

11090

3

1

3,162

0,928

0,178

0,290

0,178

1,229

1,242

CO2

194

104

4

5

6,403

0,018

-0,002

0,003

-0,011

0,015

0,019

CO2

806

842

3

5

5,831

0,130

0,001

0,022

0,006

0,093

0,094

CO2

37753,4 36873,4 14 3

2YHUDOOXQFHUWDLQW\LQWKH\HDU  

6,581



3,115

7UHQGXQFHUWDLQW\   

Table 60 Uncertainty estimation, CH4.

\U R JH WD F HF U X R 6 & & ,3

VD *

Q R LV VL P H UD H\ H VD %

Q LR VV L P H W UD H <

Input Input data data Mg CH4 Mg CH4 Stationary combustion plants, gas engines Stationary combustion plants, other Total

\W Q LD WU HF Q X DW D G \ WL YL WF $

\W Q LD WU HF Q X G H Q LE P R &

\W LY LW LV Q HV  $ H S \ 7

\W LY LW LV Q HV  % H S \ 7

V U L R W P HO FID D Q Q R LR WD LVV L Q Q P LG H\ E Q HU G W H F Q L\ X W G R W\ Q LD UWQ Q L UWH LV DWU H F Q Q LR FQ 8V X

V  L Q X P HO DW D DG Q  LR WD \LWY L Q Q WF LG D\ E Q HU G W H F Q L\ X W G R Q LD UWQ UWH LV F Q Q LR 8V

G Q UHW H K W R W Q LG HF X G R UW Q L\ W Q LD WU HF Q 8

\W LQ DW UH F

V Q LR VV L P HO D Q LR WD Q OD W R W LQ

Input data %

Input data %

%

%

%

40

40,060

30,058

3,283

3,368 131,303

10,477 131,720

100 100,024

24,975

-3,251

1,121 -325,129

3,487 325,147

CH4

106

19046

2,2

CH4

5549

6338

2,2

CH4

5656

25384

7RWDOXQFHUWDLQWLHV

\W LQ DW UH F Q X U R WF DI  Q LR VV L P (

OD W R WI R  W U  VD DH \ \ W Q Q LD LV WU Q HF LR V Q LV X P G H HO Q LE DQ P LR R WD &Q

%

%

%

1527,23

2YHUDOOXQFHUWDLQW\LQWKH\HDU  

%

123071



7UHQGXQFHUWDLQW\   

Table 61 Uncertainty estimation, N2O.

\U R JH WD F HF U X R 6 & & 3 ,

VD *

Q LR VV L P H UD H\ H VD %

Q LR VV L P H W UD H <

Input Input data data Gg N2O Gg N2O Stationary combustion plants Total

7RWDOXQFHUWDLQWLHV

N2O

1,281

1,234

N2O

1,281

1,234

W\ LQ DW UH F Q X D WD G \ WL YL WF $ Input data %

W\ LQ DW UH F Q X U R WF ID Q R LV VL P ( Input data %

I UD R  H\  V Q L D V \W \W Q Q LR LQ DW LDW VVL UH UH P F F HO Q Q D X X Q G H G H LR Q WD LQ E LE Q  P P ODW R R R & &W W

\W LY LW LV Q HV  % H S \ 7

V L P H \ E \W G HF Q L X DWU G H R UW FQ Q U LV X Q WR F LR VV ID L Q R P H LV

OD Q R LW D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L \W LQ WDU HF Q 8

Y LW FD \ E G HF \ X WQ G L R UW DWU H Q LV FQ Q X D LR VV WD L G \ P H WL

H WK  R W LQ G HF X G R UW LQ \ W Q LD WU HF Q 8

V L P HO D Q LR WD Q OD W R W LQ  V G Q Q HU R W LV

%

%

%

%

%

%

2,200 1000,00 1000,00 1000,00 0 2 2 1000005

0,000

0,964

0,000

2,998

2,998

2YHUDOOXQFHUWDLQW\LQWKH\HDU  

%

\W LY LW LV Q HV  $ H S \ 7

OD Q R LW D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L \W LQ WDU HF Q 8



8,987

7UHQGXQFHUWDLQW\  



111

Table 62 Uncertainty estimation, SO2.

3 $ 1 6

UD H\ H VD %

VD *

DW D G \ WL YL WF $

V L P H WU DH Q R < LV

Q LRV VL P H

Input Input data data Mg SO2 Mg SO2

F ID  U Q R LV HF VL Q X P UR ( W

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

Input data %

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

W\ Q LD W

Input data %

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

OD W WR I OD R  Q R  V WLD D Q

%

LQ V Q LR VV L P H

L V Q HV  $ H S \ 7

%

\W LY LW

L V Q HV  % H S \ 7

%

\W LY LW

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

\ E  G HF X G

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X U P H R W

W\ Q LD W

%

%

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

F D \ E  G HF X G

WDD G \W LY LW

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

G HF X G UR W Q L

G Q UHW H K W R W Q L

D Q OD W WR  Q L

%

V L P HO D VQ Q R LR W LV %

01

SO2

134117

10872

2

10 10,198

5,265 -0,041

0,067

-0,408

0,191

0,450

02

SO2

11425

3623

2

20 20,100

3,458

0,013

0,022

0,264

0,064

0,272

03

SO2

15812

6563

2

10 10,198

3,179

0,028

0,041

0,279

0,115

0,301

Total SO2

161355

21058

Total uncertainties

49,782

0,367



Overall uncertainty in the year (%):



Trend uncertainty (%):

Table 63 Uncertainty estimation, NOX.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

WDD G \W LY LW F $

V L P H WU DH Q R < LV

Q RL VV L P H

Input Input data data Mg NOx Mg NOx 94994

F DI  U Q R LV HF Q LV X  P UR ( W

\W LQ DW UH F Q X

Input data %

53073

\W Q LD W

\W G H LQ Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

Input data %

OD W R W O I D R  Q R WL  VD DQ

%

20 20,100

LQ V Q R LV W VL U D P H H\ %

L V Q HV  $ H S \ 7

\W LY LW %

L V Q HV  % H S \ 7

\W LY LW

W\ LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q  Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L UR W P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

\ E  G HF X G

F ID  Q UH R LV F VL Q X U P H R W

\W Q LD W

W\ LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q  Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L UR W P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

F D \ E  G HF X G

DW D G \ LWY LW

\W LQ DW UH F Q X

W\ LQ DW UH F Q 8

G HF X G R UW Q L

G Q HU W H K W R W Q L

D Q O DW WR  Q L

V L P HO D VQ Q R R LW LV

%

%

%

%

14,236 -0,073 0,4589

-1,452

1,298

1,948

01

NOx

02

NOx

7871

7446

2

50 50,040

4,973

0,020 0,0644

1,014

0,182

1,030

03

NOx

12798

14412

2

20 20,100

3,866

0,053 0,1246

1,057

0,352

1,114

Total NOx

115662

74931

Total uncertainties

2

\W G H LQ Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

242,349 Overall uncertainty in the year (%):

6,097





Trend uncertainty (%):

Table 64 Uncertainty estimation, NMVOC.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

01

NMVOC

02

NMVOC

03

NMVOC

Total NMVOC

V L P H UD H\ H VD QR % LV

\W Q LD WU HF

Input Input Input data data data Mg Mg % NMVOC NMVOC 1108 4299 2

Total uncertainties

112

 Q X D WD G W\L LYW F $

Q R LV VL P H WU DH <

U HF Q X G H Q LE \ P WQ R LD &W

U WR FD I \W Q LQ R LV WD VL UH P FQ ( X Input data %

U  HF WR  Q IR X G  OD H V Q Q L LE D R \ WD Q P WQ R LD OD &W W

LQ V Q R LV W VL U D P H H\

%

%

Y WLL V Q HV  $ H S \ \W 7 L %

Y WLL V Q HV  % H S \ \W 7 L %

LQ \ W Q LD WU HF Q 8

OD Q R WLD Q  LQ  G Q HU W

R  UW LV Q X LQ V P H U W Q \E R R LV G FDI VL HF Q X R P H G LV

LQ \ W Q LD WU HF Q 8

\W Q LD WU HF

OD Q R WLD Q  LQ  G Q HU W

R W\L UW LY W LQ V FD Q \E R LV G VL HF X P H G

\W Q LD WU HF Q X D WD G

 LQ \ W LQ DW UH F Q 8

R W Q L G HF X G R UW

OD W WR  Q L G Q HU W H K W

V L P HO D Q V R WLD Q R Q LV

%

%

%

50 50,040

11,570

0,211 0,3382

10,528

0,957

10,571

13369

2

50 50,040

35,979 -0,211 1,0517

-10,556

2,975

10,967

614

926

2

50 50,040

0,110

0,206

12713

18594

10991

2,491

0,002 0,0728

1434,549 Overall uncertainty in the year (%):



0,234 232,074

Trend uncertainty (%):



Table 65 Uncertainty estimation, CO.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

Q LRV VL P H

Input data Mg CO

V L P H WU DH Q R < LV

DW D G \ WL YL WF $

Input data Mg CO

Input data %

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

F ID  U Q R LV HF VL Q X P UR ( W

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

W\ Q LD W

Input data %

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

OD W WR I OD R  Q R  V WLD D Q

%

LQ V Q LR VV W L UD P H H\

L V Q HV  $ H S \ 7

\W LY LW

L V Q HV  % H S \ 7

\W LY LW

%

%

%

1,508

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

\ E  G HF X G

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X U P H R W

W\ Q LD W

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

F D \ E  G HF X G

WDD G \W LY LW

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

G HF X G UR W Q L

G Q UHW H K W R W Q L

D Q OD W WR  Q L

V L P HO D VQ Q R LR W LV

%

%

%

01

CO

8982

12539

2

20 20,100

0,015

0,086

0,301

0,245

0,388

02

CO

130963

149434

2

50 50,040

44,729 -0,010

1,030

-0,517

2,914

2,959

03

CO

5100

5203

2

20 20,100

0,626 -0,005

0,036

-0,093

0,101

0,138

Total CO

145045

167176

Total uncertainties

2003,377

8,928



Overall uncertainty in the year (%):



Trend uncertainty (%):

Table 66 Uncertainty estimation, TSP.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

Q RL VV L P H

Input data kg TSP

V L P H WU DH Q R < LV

WDD G \W LY LW F $

\W LQ DW UH F Q X

Input Input data data kg TSP %

F DI  U Q R LV HF Q LV X  P UR ( W Input data %

W\ Q LD W

\W G H LQ Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

\W G H LQ Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

OD W R W O I D R  Q R WL  VD DQ

LQ V Q R LV W VL U D P H H\

L V Q HV  $ H S \ 7

\W LY LW

L V Q HV  % H S \ 7

\W LY LW

W\ LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q  Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L UR W P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

\ E  G HF X G

F ID  Q UH R LV F VL Q X U P H R W

\W Q LD W

W\ LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q  Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L UR W P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

F D \ E  G HF X G

DW D G \ LWY LW

\W LQ DW UH F Q X

W\ LQ DW UH F Q 8

G HF X G R UW Q L

G Q HU W H K W R W Q L

D Q O DW WR  Q L

V L P HO D VQ Q R R LW LV

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

01

TSP

1144

1332

2

50

50,040

11,524

0,030

0,234

1,498

0,661

1,637

02

TSP

3385

3415

2

500

500,004

295,123 -0,004

0,599

-1,901

1,695

2,547

03

TSP

1170

1038

2

50

50,040

8,980 -0,026

0,182

-1,307

0,515

Total TSP

5699

5785

Total uncertainties

1,405

87311,041

11,142



Overall uncertainty in the year (%):



Trend uncertainty (%):

Table 67 Uncertainty estimation, PM10.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

Q LRV VL P H

V L P H W UD Q H R < LV

DW D G \ LWY LW F $

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

Input Input Input data data data kg PM10 kg PM10 %

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X P UR ( W Input data %

W\ LQ DW

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X %

OD W WR I OD R  Q R  V LWD D Q

Q LV Q LR VV W L UD P H H\

LV Q HV  $ H S \ 7

\W LY LW

LV Q HV  % H S \ 7

\W LY LW

%

%

%

10,656

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

D Q LQ  G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

\ E G HF X G

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X U P H R W

W\ LQ DW

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

D Q LQ  G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

F D\ E G HF X G

WDD G \W LY LW

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

G HF X G R UW Q L

G Q HU W H K W WR Q L

D Q OD W R W Q L

V L P HO D VQ Q R LR W LV

%

%

%

01

PM10

937

1074

2

50

50,040

0,026

0,215

1,278

0,608

1,415

02

PM10

3199

3223

2

500

500,004

319,607 -0,001

0,645

-0,628

1,825

1,930

03

PM10

859

745

2

50

50,040

7,398 -0,024

0,149

-1,215

0,422

1,286

Total PM10

4994

5043

Total uncertainties

102317,094 Overall uncertainty in the year (%):



7,382



Trend uncertainty (%):

113

Table 68 Uncertainty estimation, PM2.5.

3 $ 1 6

UD H\ H VD %

VD *

Q LRV VL P H

DW D G \ WL YL WF $

V L P H WU DH Q R < LV

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

01

PM2.5

Input Input Input data data data kg kg PM2.5 % PM2.5 801 903 2

02

PM2.5

3010

03

PM2.5

Total PM2.5

F ID  U Q R LV HF VL Q X P UR ( W

W\ Q LD W

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

Input data %

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X %

50

50,040

3026

2

500

500,004

511

458

2

50

50,040

4322

4386

Total uncertainties

OD W WR I OD R  Q R  V WLD D Q

LQ V Q LR VV W L UD P H H\

L V Q HV  $ H S \ 7

\W LY LW

L V Q HV  % H S \ 7

\W LY LW

%

%

%

10,297

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

\ E  G HF X G

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X U P H R W

W\ Q LD W

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

F D \ E  G HF X G

WDD G \W LY LW

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

G HF X G UR W Q L

D Q OD W WR  Q L

V L P HO D VQ Q R LR W LV

%

%

%

0,021

0,209

1,034

0,591

1,191

344,963 -0,007

0,700

-3,288

1,981

3,839

5,219 -0,014

0,106

-0,704

0,299

0,765

119133,070

16,740



Overall uncertainty in the year (%):

G Q UHW H K W R W Q L



Trend uncertainty (%):

Table 69 Uncertainty estimation, As.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

Q RL VV L P H

Input data kg As

DW D G W\L YL WF $

V L P H WU DH Q R < LV

\W LQ DW UH F Q X

Input Input data data kg As % 414

F ID  U Q R LV HF VL Q X  P UR ( W

W\ Q LD W

\W G H LQ Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

\W G H LQ Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

Input data %

%

2

100

100,020

OD W R W O I D R Q R WL  VD DQ

LQ V Q R LV W VL U D P H H\ %

\W LY LW

L V Q HV  % H S \ 7

\W LY LW

W\ LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q  Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L UR W P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

\ E  G HF X G

F ID  Q UH R LV F VL Q X U P H R W

\W Q LD W

W\ LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q  Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L UR W P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

F D \ E  G HF X G

DW D G \ LWY LW

\W LQ DW UH F Q X

W\ LQ DW UH F Q 8

G HF X G R UW Q L

D Q OD W WR  Q L

V L P HO D VQ Q R R LW LV

%

%

%

%

%

0,286

-5,118

0,809

5,181

0,013

0,057

12,630

0,161

12,631

0,039

0,160

3,879

0,453

3,905

As

972

02

As

127

82

2

1000

1000,002

113,007

03

As

349

232

2

100

100,020

31,818

Total As

1448

728

17020,547

201,641



Overall uncertainty in the year (%):

G Q HU W H K W R W Q L

56,899 -0,051

01

Total uncertainties

L V Q HV  $ H S \ 7



Trend uncertainty (%):

Table 70 Uncertainty estimation, Cd.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

Q LRV VL P H

Input data kg Cd

V L P H W UD Q H LR < V

DW D G \ LWY LW F $

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

Input Input data data kg Cd %

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X  P UR ( W

W\ LQ WD

\W G H Q L Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

\W G H Q L Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

Input data %

%

01

Cd

621

230

2

100

100,020

02

Cd

145

147

2

1000

1000,002

03

Cd

314

235

2

100

100,020

Total Cd

1080

611

Total uncertainties

114

OD W R W O I D R  Q R  V LWD D Q

Q LV Q LR VV W L UD P H H\ %

LV Q HV  $ H S \ 7

W\L YL W

LV Q HV  % H S \ 7

W\L YL W

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

D Q LQ  G Q HU W Q L

V  L R UW P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

\ E G HF X G

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X U P H WR

\W LQ DW

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

D Q LQ  G Q HU W Q L

V  L R UW P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

F D\ E G HF X G

DW D G \ WL YL W

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

G HF X G R UW LQ

G Q HU W H K W WR LQ

D Q OD W R W LQ

V L P HO D VQ Q R R LW LV

%

%

%

%

%

37,587 -0,112

0,213

-11,248

0,602

11,264 59,927

239,993

0,060

0,136

59,926

0,384

38,429

0,053

0,218

5,296

0,615

60486,031 Overall uncertainty in the year (%):

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8



5,332 3746,537

Trend uncertainty (%):



Table 71 Uncertainty estimation, Cr.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

Q LRV VL P H Input data kg Cr

V L P H WU DH Q R < LV

DW D G \ WL YL WF $

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

Input Input data data kg Cr %

F ID  U Q R LV HF VL Q X P UR ( W

W\ Q LD W

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

Input data %

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

OD W WR I OD R  Q R  V WLD D Q

%

LQ V Q LR VV W L UD P H H\

L V Q HV  $ H S \ 7

%

\W LY LW

L V Q HV  % H S \ 7

%

\W LY LW

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

\ E  G HF X G

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X U P H R W

W\ Q LD W

%

%

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

F D \ E  G HF X G

WDD G \W LY LW

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

G HF X G UR W Q L

G Q UHW H K W R W Q L

D Q OD W WR  Q L

%

V L P HO D VQ Q R LR W LV %

01

Cr

4845

511

2

100

100,020

36,580 -0,090

0,082

-9,014

0,231

9,017

02

Cr

326

107

2

1000

1000,002

76,489

0,005

0,017

5,463

0,048

5,463

03

Cr

1097

780

2

100

100,020

55,789

0,085

0,124

8,522

0,352

8,529

Total Cr

6268

1398

Total uncertainties

10301,150

183,896



Overall uncertainty in the year (%):



Trend uncertainty (%):

Table 72 Uncertainty estimation, Cu.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

Q RL VV L P H

Input data kg Cu

V L P H W UD Q H LR < V

DW D G \ LWY LW F $

W\ Q LD WU HF Q X

Input Input data data kg Cu %

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X  P UR ( W

W\ Q LD W

W\ G H Q L Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

W\ G H Q L Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

Input data %

%

01

Cu

3028

646

2

100

100,020

02

Cu

302

187

2

1000

1000,002

03

Cu

401

312

2

100

100,020

Total Cu

3731

1146

Total uncertainties

OD W R W O I D R  Q R  V LWD D Q

Q LV Q R LV W VL U D P H H\

LV Q HV  $ H S \ 7

%

W\L YL W

LV Q HV  % H S \ 7

W\L YL W

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

D Q  LQ  G Q HU W LQ

V  L R UW P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

\ E G HF X G

F DI  U Q H R LV F Q LV X U P H WR

\W Q LD W

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

D Q  LQ  G Q HU W LQ

V  L R UW P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

F D\ E G HF X G

DW D G \ WL YL W

W\ Q LD WU HF Q X

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

G HF X G R UW LQ

D Q OD W R W LQ

V L P HO D VQ Q R R LW LV

%

%

%

%

%

56,392 -0,075

0,173

-7,546

0,490

7,562 25,384

163,570

0,025

0,050

25,383

0,142

27,268

0,051

0,084

5,061

0,237

5,067

30678,587

727,197



Overall uncertainty in the year (%):

G Q HU W H K W WR LQ



Trend uncertainty (%):

Table 73 Uncertainty estimation, Hg.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

Q LRV VL P H

Input data kg Hg

V L P H WU DH Q R < LV

DW D G \ WL YL WF $

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

Input Input data data kg Hg %

F ID  U Q R LV HF VL Q X P UR ( W Input data %

W\ Q LD W

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X %

OD W R W O I D R Q R  V WLD D Q

LQ V Q LR VV W L UD P H H\ %

L V Q HV  $ H S \ 7

\W LY LW %

\W LY LW %

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L UR W P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

\ E  G HF X G

F ID  Q UH LR VV FQ L X U P H R W

W\ Q LD W

%

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L UR W P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

F D \ E  G HF X G

DW D G \ LWY LW

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

G HF X G UR W Q L

G Q UHW H WK  R W Q L

%

D Q OD W WR  Q L

V L P HO D VQ Q R LR W LV %

01

Hg

2634

664

2

100

100,020

0,208

-9,323

0,587

9,341

02

Hg

330

223

2

1000

1000,002

190,449

0,032

0,070

31,957

0,197

31,958

03

Hg

234

284

2

100

100,020

24,253

0,062

0,089

6,196

0,251

6,201

Total Hg

3198

1171

Total uncertainties

56,718 -0,093

L V Q HV  % H S \ 7

40075,948 Overall uncertainty in the year (%):



1147,000



Trend uncertainty (%):

115

Table 74 Uncertainty estimation, Ni.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

Q LRV VL P H

V L P H WU DH Q R < LV

DW D G \ WL YL WF $

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

Input data kg Ni

Input Input data data kg Ni %

F ID  U Q R LV HF VL Q X P UR ( W

W\ Q LD W

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

Input data %

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X %

01

Ni

8585

4526

2

100

100,020

02

Ni

1852

1240

2

1000

1000,002

03

Ni

11109

5769

2

100

100,020

Total Ni

21546

11535

Total uncertainties

OD W WR I OD R  Q R  V WLD D Q

LQ V Q LR VV W L UD P H H\

L V Q HV  $ H S \ 7

%

\W LY LW

L V Q HV  % H S \ 7

%

39,247 -0,003

\W LY LW

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

\ E  G HF X G

%

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X U P H R W

W\ Q LD W

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

F D \ E  G HF X G

WDD G \W LY LW

%

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

G HF X G UR W Q L

D Q OD W WR  Q L

%

V L P HO D VQ Q R LR W LV %

0,210

-0,324

0,594

0,677

0,012

0,058

11,513

0,163

11,514

50,024 -0,008

0,268

-0,823

0,757

1,118

107,471 15592,691

134,281



Overall uncertainty in the year (%):

G Q UHW H K W R W Q L



Trend uncertainty (%):

Table 75 Uncertainty estimation, Pb.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

Q RL VV L P H

Input data kg Pb

V L P H W UD Q H LR < V

DW D G \ LWY LW F $

W\ Q LD WU HF Q X

Input Input data data kg Pb %

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X  P UR ( W

W\ Q LD W

W\ G H Q L Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

W\ G H Q L Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

Input data %

%

01

Pb

12739

2331

2

100

100,020

02

Pb

946

230

2

1000

1000,002

03

Pb

2401

1096

2

100

100,020

Total Pb

16085

3657

Total uncertainties

OD W R W O I D R  Q R  V LWD D Q

Q LV Q R LV W VL U D P H H\

LV Q HV  $ H S \ 7

%

W\L YL W

LV Q HV  % H S \ 7

W\L YL W

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

D Q  LQ  G Q HU W LQ

V  L R UW P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

\ E G HF X G

F DI  U Q H R LV F Q LV X U P H WR

\W Q LD W

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

D Q  LQ  G Q HU W LQ

V  L R UW P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

F D\ E G HF X G

DW D G \ WL YL W

W\ Q LD WU HF Q X

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

G HF X G R UW LQ

D Q OD W R W LQ

V L P HO D VQ Q R R LW LV

%

%

%

%

%

63,745 -0,035

0,145

-3,488

0,410

3,512

62,888

0,001

0,014

0,929

0,040

0,930

29,985

0,034

0,068

3,418

0,193

3,423

8917,454

24,919



Overall uncertainty in the year (%):

G Q HU W H K W WR LQ



Trend uncertainty (%):

Table 76 Uncertainty estimation, Se.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

Q LRV VL P H

Input data kg Se

V L P H W UD Q H R < LV

DW D G \ LWY LW F $

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

Input Input data data kg Se %

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X P UR ( W Input data %

W\ LQ DW

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X %

OD W WR I OD R  Q R  V LWD D Q

Q LV Q LR VV W L UD P H H\ %

LV Q HV  $ H S \ 7

\W LY LW %

\W LY LW

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

D Q LQ  G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

\ E G HF X G

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X U P H R W

W\ LQ DW

%

%

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

D Q LQ  G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

F D\ E G HF X G

WDD G \W LY LW

\W Q LD WU HF Q X %

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

G HF X G R UW Q L

G Q HU W H K W WR Q L

D Q OD W R W Q L

V L P HO D VQ Q R LR W LV %

01

Se

2958

731

2

100

100,020

0,169

-10,845

0,477

10,856

02

Se

308

190

2

1000

1000,002

107,712

0,015

0,044

14,849

0,124

14,850

03

Se

1065

842

2

100

100,020

47,787

0,094

0,194

9,410

0,550

9,426

Total Se

4331

1763

Total uncertainties

116

41,460 -0,108

LV Q HV  % H S \ 7

15604,372 Overall uncertainty in the year (%):



427,2243787 Trend uncertainty (%):



Table 77 Uncertainty estimation, Zn.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

Q LRV VL P H

DW D G \ WL YL WF $

V L P H WU DH Q R < LV

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

Input data kg Zn

Input Input data data kg Zn %

F ID  U Q R LV HF VL Q X P UR ( W

W\ Q LD W

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

Input data %

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

OD W WR I OD R  Q R  V WLD D Q

%

LQ V Q LR VV W L UD P H H\

L V Q HV  $ H S \ 7

%

\W LY LW

L V Q HV  % H S \ 7

%

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

\ E  G HF X G

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X U P H R W

W\ Q LD W

%

%

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

F D \ E  G HF X G

WDD G \W LY LW

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

G HF X G UR W Q L

G Q UHW H K W R W Q L

D Q OD W WR  Q L

%

V L P HO D VQ Q R LR W LV %

01

Zn

15534

13636

2

100

100,020

0,680

-2,836

1,923

3,426

02

Zn

2811

2643

2

1000

1000,002

144,113

0,004

0,132

3,573

0,373

3,592

03

Zn

1707

2062

2

100

100,020

11,246

0,025

0,103

2,498

0,291

2,515

Total Zn

20052

18342

Total uncertainties

74,360 -0,028

\W LY LW

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

26424,344

30,967



Overall uncertainty in the year (%):



Trend uncertainty (%):

Table 78 Uncertainty estimation, Benzo(b)fluoranthene.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

Q RL VV L P H Input data kg

WDD G \W LY LW F $

V L P H WU DH Q R < LV

\W LQ DW UH F Q X

Input Input data data kg %

F DI  U Q R LV HF Q LV X  P UR ( W

W\ Q LD W

\W G H LQ Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

\W G H LQ Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

Input data %

%

OD W R W O I D R  Q R WL  VD DQ

LQ V Q R LV W VL U D P H H\ %

\W LY LW

W\ LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q  Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L UR W P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

\ E  G HF X G

F ID  Q UH R LV F VL Q X U P H R W

\W Q LD W

W\ LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q  Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L UR W P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

F D \ E  G HF X G

DW D G \ LWY LW

\W LQ DW UH F Q X

W\ LQ DW UH F Q 8

G HF X G R UW Q L

G Q HU W H K W R W Q L

V L P HO D VQ Q R R LW LV

%

%

%

%

0,004

-1,686

0,012

1,686

0,008

1,476

7,770

4,175

8,820

0,009

0,039

0,902

0,111

10

2

100

100,020

02

2391

3652

2

1000

1000,002

971,520

03

49

97

2

100

100,020

2,574

2474

3760

0,909

943857,442

81,470

 

Overall uncertainty in the year (%):

D Q O DW WR  Q L

%

34

Total uncertainties

\W LY LW

L V Q HV  % H S \ 7

0,275 -0,017

01

Total

L V Q HV  $ H S \ 7



Trend uncertainty (%):

Table 79 Uncertainty estimation, Benzo(k)fluoranthene.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

Q LRV VL P H Input data kg

DW D G \ LWY LW F $

V L P H W UD Q H R < LV

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

Input Input data data kg %

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X P UR ( W Input data %

W\ LQ DW

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X %

01

11

16

2

100

100,020

02

749

1206

2

1000

1000,002

03

23

22

2

100

100,020

783

1244

Total

Total uncertainties

OD W WR I OD R  Q R  V LWD D Q

Q LV Q LR VV W L UD P H H\ %

LV Q HV  $ H S \ 7

\W LY LW %

1,273 -0,003

LV Q HV  % H S \ 7

\W LY LW %

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

D Q LQ  G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

\ E G HF X G

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X U P H R W

W\ LQ DW

%

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

D Q LQ  G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

F D\ E G HF X G

WDD G \W LY LW

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

G HF X G R UW Q L

G Q HU W H K W WR Q L

%

D Q OD W R W Q L

V L P HO D VQ Q R LR W LV %

0,020

-0,308

0,057

0,313

0,021

1,541

21,189

4,359

21,633

1,747 -0,018

0,028

-1,831

0,078

1,832

969,812 940540,842

Overall uncertainty in the year (%):

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8



471,426



Trend uncertainty (%):

117

Table 80 Uncertainty estimation, Benzo(a)pyrene.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

DW D G \ WL YL WF $

V L P H WU DH Q R < LV

Q LRV VL P H Input data kg

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

Input Input data data kg %

F ID  U Q R LV HF VL Q X P UR ( W

W\ Q LD W

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

Input data %

\W G H Q LD LQ E WUH PF R Q &X

OD W WR I OD R  Q R  V WLD D Q

%

LQ V Q LR VV W L UD P H H\

L V Q HV  $ H S \ 7

%

\W LY LW

L V Q HV  % H S \ 7

%

\W LY LW

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

\ E  G HF X G

%

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X U P H R W

W\ Q LD W

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

D Q Q L G Q HU W Q L

V  L R WU P HO Q L D VQ Q R LR W LV

F D \ E  G HF X G

WDD G \W LY LW

%

\W Q LD WU HF Q X

\W LQ DW UH F Q 8

G HF X G UR W Q L

G Q UHW H K W R W Q L

D Q OD W WR  Q L

%

V L P HO D VQ Q R LR W LV %

01

9

10

2

100

100,020

0,361 -0,002

0,005

-0,177

0,015

0,178

02

1880

2804

2

1000

1000,002

987,223 -0,003

1,476

-3,392

4,175

5,379

03

11

26

2

100

100,020

0,014

0,520

0,039

0,521

1899

2840

Total

Total uncertainties

0,917

0,005

974610,747

29,241



Overall uncertainty in the year (%):



Trend uncertainty (%):

Table 81 Uncertainty estimation, Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene.

3 $ 1 6

VD *

UD H\ H VD %

DW D G \ LWY LW F $

V L P H W UD Q H LR < V

Q RL VV L P H Input data kg

W\ Q LD WU HF Q X

Input Input data data kg %

F DI  U Q H LR VV FQ L X  P UR ( W Input data %

W\ Q LD W

W\ G H Q L Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

W\ G H Q L Q LE DWU P HF R Q &X

OD W R W O I D R  Q R  V LWD D Q

Q LV Q R LV W VL U D P H H\

LV Q HV  $ H S \ 7

W\L YL W

LV Q HV  % H S \ 7

W\L YL W

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

D Q  LQ  G Q HU W LQ

V  L R UW P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

\ E G HF X G

F DI  U Q H R LV F Q LV X U P H WR

\W Q LD W

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

D Q  LQ  G Q HU W LQ

V  L R UW P HO Q L D VQ Q R R LW LV

F D\ E G HF X G

DW D G \ WL YL W

W\ Q LD WU HF Q X

\W Q LD WU HF Q 8

G HF X G R UW LQ

G Q HU W H K W WR LQ

D Q OD W R W LQ

V L P HO D VQ Q R R LW LV

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

01

7

11

2

100

100,020

0,539

0,001

0,007

0,130

0,020

0,132

02

1552

2037

2

1000

1000,002

990,755

0,005

1,295

4,910

3,664

6,126

14

8

2

100

100,020

0,386 -0,006

0,005

-0,626

0,014

1572

2056

03 Total

Total uncertainties

118

981596,836 Overall uncertainty in the year (%):



0,626 37,940

Trend uncertainty (%):



Appendix 9 Lower Calorific Value (LCV) of fuels Table 82 Time-series for calorific values of fuels (Danish Energy Authority, DEA 2003b).              Crude Oil, Average Crude Oil, Golf Crude Oil, North Sea Refinery Feedstocks Refinery Gas LPG Naphtha (LVN) Motor Gasoline Aviation Gasoline JP4 Other Kerosene JP1 Gas/Diesel Oil Fuel Oil Orimulsion Petroleum Coke Waste Oil White Spirit Bitumen Lubricants Natural Gas

GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / ton GJ / 1000 mn3 Town Gas GJ / 1000 mn3 Electricity Plant Coal GJ / ton Other Hard Coal GJ / ton Gas Plant Coal GJ / ton Coke GJ / ton Brown Coal Briquettes GJ / ton Straw GJ / ton Wood Chips GJ/cubic metre Firewood, Hardwood GJ / m3 Firewood, Conifer GJ / m3 Wood Pellets GJ / ton Wood Waste GJ / ton Wood Waste GJ/ m3 Biogas GJ / 1000 mn3 Waste Combustion GJ / ton Fish Oil GJ / ton

42,40 41,80 42,70 41,60 52,00 46,00 44,50 43,80 43,80 43,80 43,50 43,50 42,70 40,40 27,60 31,40 41,90 43,50 39,80 41,90 39,00

42,40 41,80 42,70 41,60 52,00 46,00 44,50 43,80 43,80 43,80 43,50 43,50 42,70 40,40 27,60 31,40 41,90 43,50 39,80 41,90 39,00

42,40 41,80 42,70 41,60 52,00 46,00 44,50 43,80 43,80 43,80 43,50 43,50 42,70 40,40 27,60 31,40 41,90 43,50 39,80 41,90 39,00

42,70 41,80 42,70 41,60 52,00 46,00 44,50 43,80 43,80 43,80 43,50 43,50 42,70 40,40 27,60 31,40 41,90 43,50 39,80 41,90 39,30

42,70 41,80 42,70 41,60 52,00 46,00 44,50 43,80 43,80 43,80 43,50 43,50 42,70 40,40 27,60 31,40 41,90 43,50 39,80 41,90 39,30

42,70 41,80 42,70 41,60 52,00 46,00 44,50 43,80 43,80 43,80 43,50 43,50 42,70 40,40 28,13 31,40 41,90 43,50 39,80 41,90 39,30

42,70 41,80 42,70 41,60 52,00 46,00 44,50 43,80 43,80 43,80 43,50 43,50 42,70 40,70 28,02 31,40 41,90 43,50 39,80 41,90 39,30

43,00 41,80 43,00 42,70 52,00 46,00 44,50 43,80 43,80 43,80 43,50 43,50 42,70 40,65 27,72 31,40 41,90 43,50 39,80 41,90 39,60

43,00 41,80 43,00 42,70 52,00 46,00 44,50 43,80 43,80 43,80 43,50 43,50 42,70 40,65 27,84 31,40 41,90 43,50 39,80 41,90 39,90

43,00 41,80 43,00 42,70 52,00 46,00 44,50 43,80 43,80 43,80 43,50 43,50 42,70 40,65 27,58 31,40 41,90 43,50 39,80 41,90 40,00

43,00 41,80 43,00 42,70 52,00 46,00 44,50 43,80 43,80 43,80 43,50 43,50 42,70 40,65 27,62 31,40 41,90 43,50 39,80 41,90 40,15

43,00 41,80 43,00 42,70 52,00 46,00 44,50 43,80 43,80 43,80 43,50 43,50 42,70 40,65 27,64 31,40 41,90 43,50 39,80 41,90 39,99

43,00 41,80 43,00 42,70 52,00 46,00 44,50 43,80 43,80 43,80 43,50 43,50 42,70 40,65 27,71 31,40 41,90 43,50 39,80 41,90 40,06

17,00 17,00 17,00 17,00 17,01 16,88 17,39 25,30 25,40 25,80 25,20 24,50 24,50 24,70 24,96 25,00 25,00 24,80 24,90 25,15 26,10 26,50 26,50 26,50 26,50 26,50 26,50 26,50 26,50 26,50 26,50 26,50 26,50 31,80 29,30 29,30 29,30 29,30 29,30 29,30 29,30 29,30 29,30 29,30 29,30 29,30 18,30 18,30 18,30 18,30 18,30 18,30 18,30 18,30 18,30 18,30 18,30 18,30 18,30 14,50 14,50 14,50 14,50 14,50 14,50 14,50 14,50 14,50 14,50 14,50 14,50 14,50 2,80 2,80 2,80 2,80 2,80 2,80 2,80 2,80 2,80 2,80 2,80 2,80 2,80 10,40 10,40 10,40 10,40 10,40 10,40 10,40 10,40 10,40 10,40 7,60 7,60 7,60 7,60 7,60 7,60 7,60 7,60 7,60 7,60 17,50 17,50 17,50 17,50 17,50 17,50 17,50 17,50 17,50 17,50 14,70 14,70 14,70 14,70 14,70 14,70 14,70 14,70 14,70 14,70 3,20 3,20 3,20 3,20 3,20 3,20 3,20 3,20 3,20 3,20 23,00 23,00 23,00

10,40 7,60 17,50 14,70 3,20 23,00

10,40 7,60 17,50 14,70 3,20 23,00

10,40 7,60 17,50 14,70 3,20 23,00

8,20 8,20 9,00 9,40 9,40 10,00 10,50 10,50 10,50 10,50 10,50 10,50 10,50 37,20 37,20 37,20 37,20 37,20 37,20 37,20 37,20 37,20 37,20 37,20 37,20 37,20

119

Table 83 Fuel category correspondence list, Danish Energy Authority, NERI and Climate convention reportings (IPCC). 'DQLVK(QHUJ\$XWKRULW\

1(5,(PLVVLRQGDWDEDVH ,3&&IXHOFDWHJRU\

Other Hard Coal

Coal

Solid

Coke

Coke oven coke

Solid

Electricity Plant Coal

Coal

Solid

Brown Coal Briquettes

Brown coal briq.

Solid

Orimulsion

Orimulsion

Liquid

Petroleum Coke

Petroleum coke

Liquid

Fuel Oil

Residual oil

Liquid

Waste Oil

Residual oil

Liquid

Gas/Diesel Oil

Gas oil

Liquid

Other Kerosene

Kerosene

Liquid

LPG

LPG

Liquid

Refinery Gas

Refinery gas

Liquid

Town Gas

Natural gas

Gas

Natural Gas

Natural gas

Gas

Straw

Straw

Biomass

Wood Waste

Wood and simil.

Biomass

Wood Pellets

Wood and simil.

Biomass

Wood Chips

Wood and simil.

Biomass

Firewood, Hardwood & Conifer Wood and simil.

Biomass

Waste Combustion

Municip. wastes

Biomass 1)

Fish Oil

Fish & Rape oil

Biomass

Biogas

Biogas

Biomass

Biogas, other

Biogas

Biomass

Biogas, landfill

Biogas

Biomass

Biogas, sewage sludge

Biogas

Biomass

1) CO2 from plastic part included in Other fuels

120

Appendix 10 Adjustment of CO2 emission Table 84 Basis of adjustment calculation of CO2 emission (ref. Danish Energy Authority). 'HJUHH'D\V Actual Degree Days Normal Degree Days Actual emission Adjusted emission

Degree days Degree days 1000 tonnes 1000 tonnes



























2 093

2 515

3 022

3 434

3 148

3 297

3 837

3 236

3 217

3 056

2 902

3279

3011

2 691

2 691

3 370

3 370

3 370

3 370

3 370

3 370

3 370

3 370

3 370

3 370

3370

52724

56713

62728

73075

59400

56464

52468

54025

53024

60903

60823

59652

58468

56151

55488

54468

53907

52427

121

Appendix 11 Reference approach 7$%/($ E 6(&725$/%$&.*5281''$7$)25(1(5*< &2IURP)XHO&RPEXVWLRQ$FWLYLWLHV5HIHUHQFH$SSURDFK ,3&&:RUNVKHHW 6KHHWRI )8(/7<3(6

Liquid Fossil

Primary Fuels Secondary Fuels

8QLW

3URGXFWLRQ

Crude Oil Orimulsion Natural Gas Liquids Gasoline Jet Kerosene Other Kerosene Shale Oil Gas / Diesel Oil Residual Fuel Oil LPG Ethane Naphtha Bitumen Lubricants Petroleum Coke Refinery Feedstocks Other Oil

TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ

780.813,92 0,00 0,00

Anthracite (2) Coking Coal Other Bit. Coal Sub-bit. Coal Lignite Oil Shale Peat BKB & Patent Fuel Coke Oven/Gas Coke

TJ

Natural Gas (Dry)

,PSRUWV

([SRUWV

140.204,04 19.583,49 0,00 44.006,18 24.820,65 0,00 0,00 73.362,94 26.955,06 149,27 0,00 938,25 7.473,56 2.582,63 8.664,83 7.283,68 0,00

######## 0,00 0,00 49.306,91 15.996,45 0,00 0,00 41.739,16 47.901,72 4.558,78 0,00 57,38 41,51 346,85 543,79 0,00 0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ

0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

0,00 158.044,91 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 17,40 1.124,50

0,00 4.235,26 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

TJ

318.323,54

,QWHUQDWLRQDO EXQNHUV

25,34 29.090,37 0,00 21.579,48 17.546,65

110,41

6WRFNFKDQJH

$SSDUHQW FRQVXPSWLRQ

&RQYHUVLRQ IDFWRU 7-8QLW  



Primary

Fossil

Fuels

Secondary Fuels Solid Fuel Totals Gaseous Fossil

3.657,13 ########

0,00 0,00

1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV

333.677,81 23.782,63 0,00 -5.463,68 -20.930,67 0,00 0,00 14.010,44 -37.249,26 -4.385,59 0,00 887,86 7.348,67 2.082,81 8.214,81 6.859,33 0,00 328.835,15

20,00 22,00 17,20 18,90 19,50 19,60 20,00 20,20 21,10 17,20 16,80 20,00 22,00 20,00 27,50 20,00 20,00

6.673,56 523,22 0,00 -103,26 -408,15 0,00 0,00 283,01 -785,96 -75,43 0,00 17,76 161,67 41,66 225,91 137,19 0,00 6.691,16

0,00

0,00

1,00

0,00

26,80

0,00

0,00 -19.912,86 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 -1,52 57,66

0,00 173.722,51 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 18,92 1.066,84

1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV NCV

25,80 25,80 26,20 27,60 29,10 28,90 25,80 29,50

-367,42

193.737,53

1,00

NCV

0,00 173.722,51 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 18,92 1.066,84 174.808,28 193.737,53

0,00 4.482,04 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,49 31,47 4.514,00 2.964,18

NCV NCV NCV

85.516,30 82.154,51 0,00 3.361,79

Biomass total

122

TJ TJ TJ

77.945,91 0,00 3.361,79

4.208,61 0,00 0,00

0,00 0,00 0,00

&DUERQ FRQWHQW *J&

333.677,81 23.782,63 0,00 -5.463,68 -20.930,67 0,00 0,00 14.010,44 -37.249,26 -4.385,59 0,00 887,86 7.348,67 2.082,81 8.214,81 6.859,33 0,00

7RWDO Solid Biomass Liquid Biomass Gas Biomass

&DUERQHPLVVLRQ IDFWRU W&7-

-2.898,93 -4.199,15 0,00 137,61 664,51 0,00 0,00 -3.966,14 -1.244,05 -23,92 0,00 -6,99 83,38 42,57 -93,76 424,35 0,00

Liquid Fossil Totals Solid

$SSDUHQW FRQVXPSWLRQ 7-

0,00 0,00 0,00

82.154,51 0,00 3.361,79

1,00 1,00 1,00



15,30

29,90 20,00 22,80

&DUERQ VWRUHG *J&

0,00 0,00 0,00 13,21 171,60 21,89

206,71 0,00

0,00 0,00

1HWFDUERQ HPLVVLRQV *J& 6.673,56 523,22 0,00 -103,26 -408,15 0,00 0,00 283,01 -785,96 -75,43 0,00 4,54 -9,93 19,76 225,91 137,19 0,00 6.484,45

)UDFWLRQRI FDUERQ R[LGL]HG 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

$FWXDO&2 HPLVVLRQV  *J&2 24.469,71 1.918,47 0,00 -378,63 -1.496,54 0,00 0,00 1.037,71 -2.881,85 -276,58 0,00 16,66 -36,41 72,47 828,33 503,02 0,00 23.776,33

0,00

1,00

0,00

0,00 4.482,04 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,49 31,47 4.514,00 2.964,18

1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

0,00 16.434,15 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,79 115,40 16.551,34 10.868,68

1,00 1,00 1,00

9.287,92 9.006,87 0,00 281,05







2.533,07 2.456,42 0,00 76,65

0,00

2.533,07 2.456,42 0,00 76,65



7$%/($ F &203$5,6212)&2(0,66,216)520)8(/&20%867,21 6KHHWRI 5HIHUHQFHDSSURDFK &2 (QHUJ\ FRQVXPSWLRQ HPLVVLRQV 3- *J

)8(/7<3(6

Liquid Fuels (excluding international bunkers) Solid Fuels (excluding international bunkers) Gaseous Fuels Other (3)

7RWDO



Denmark 2002 2004, Mar 15

1DWLRQDODSSURDFK  &2 (QHUJ\ FRQVXPSWLRQ HPLVVLRQV 3- *J

'LIIHUHQFH  &2 (QHUJ\ FRQVXPSWLRQ HPLVVLRQV  

328,84 174,81 193,74 -10,87

23.776,33 16.551,34 10.868,68 599,05

316,54 175,73 193,61 1,00

23.451,78 16.707,92 11.089,99 672,21

3,88 -0,52 0,07 -1.184,61

1,38 -0,94 -2,00 -10,88













(1)

"National approach" is used to indicate the approach (if different from the Reference approach) followed by the Party to estimate its CO2 emissions from fuel combustion reported in the national GHG inventory. (2) Difference of the Reference approach over the National approach (i.e. difference = 100% x ((RA-NA)/NA), where NA = National approach and RA = Reference approach). (3) Emissions from biomass are not included.

1RWH

In addition to estimating CO2 emissions from fuel combustion by sector, Parties should also estimate these emissions using the IPCC Reference approach, as found in the IPCC Guidelines, Worksheet 1-1(Volume 2. Workbook). The Reference approach is to assist in verifying the sectoral data. Parties should also complete the above tables to compare the alternative estimates, and if the emission estimates lie more than 2 percent apart, should explain the source of this difference in the documentation box provided.

'RFXPHQWDWLRQ%R[ Non-energy use of fuels is not included in the Danish National Approach. Fuel consumption for non-energy is subtracted in Reference Approach to make results comparable. Inclusion of these fuels in future inventories will be considered. CO2 emission from plastic part of municipal wastes is included in the Danish National Approach. CO2 emission from the plastic part of municipal wastes is added in Reference Approach. (Other fuels of sources 1A1, 1A2 and 1A4)

123

Table 85 Fuel category correspondence list for the reference approach.

5HIHUHQFHDSSURDFK Biomass Biomass Biomass Biomass Biomass Biomass Biomass Biomass Biomass Biomass Biomass Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Liquid fossil Solid fossil Solid fossil Solid fossil Solid fossil Solid fossil Solid fossil Solid fossil Solid fossil Solid fossil

124

Gas Biomass Gas Biomass Gas Biomass Solid Biomass Solid Biomass Solid Biomass Solid Biomass Solid Biomass Solid Biomass Solid Biomass Solid Biomass Bitumen Crude oil Ethane Gas/diesel oil Gasoline Gasoline Jet Kerosene Jet Kerosene LPG Lubricants Naphtha Naphtha Natural gas Natural gas liquids Orimulsion Other kerosene Other oil Petroleum coke Refinery feedstocks Residual fuel oil Shale oil anthracite BKB & Patent fuel Coke oven/gas coke Coking Coal Oil Shale Other Bit. Coal Other Bit. Coal Peat Sub-bit. coal

'DQLVKHQHUJ\VWDWLVWLFV Biogas, other Biogas, landfill Biogas, sewage sludge Fish oil Waste combustion, plastic Waste combustion, other Firewood Straw Wood Chips Firewood Wood Pellets Bitumen Crude Oil Gas/Diesel Oil Aviation Gasoline Motor Gasoline JP1 JP4 LPG Lubricants White Spirit Naphtha (LVN) Natural Gas Orimulsion Other Kerosene Waste oil Petroleum Coke Refinery Feedstocks Fuel Oil Brown Coal Briquettes Coke Other Hard Coal Electricity Plant Coal -

Appendix 12 Emission inventory 2002 based on SNAP sectors Table 86 Emission inventory 2002 based on SNAP sectors. 61$3 7RWDO

62 >[email protected] 

0101 010101 010102 010103 010104 010105 0102 010201 010202 010203 010204 010205 0103 010301 010302 010303 010304 010305 010306 0104 010401 010402 010403 010404 010405 010406 010407 0105 010501 010502 010503 010504 010505 010506

0 7231 920 524 258 44 60 900 0 5 922 8 0 1 -

1 29079 4034 1344 3051 5694 82 1680 100 397 1057 6501 31 24 -





0201 020101 020102 020103 020104 020105 020106 0202 020201 020202 020203 020204 020205 0203 020301 020302 020303

247 296 0 10 1786 0 0 1276 2 0

615 8 5 448 4674 1 234 822 1 8

612 1 0 136 10801 0 163 1294 3 0

7RWDO



12; 1092& >[email protected] >[email protected]  

&+ &2>[email protected] &2 >[email protected] >*[email protected]   

0 373 46 16 64 3307 15 419 4 52 0 2 -

0 448 39 18 66 15127 12 296 2 157 0 19 -

0 2532 591 216 391 5386 92 2320 15 37 211 734 2 13 -

0 19430 3027 1163 2383 1755 68 1271 57 140 752 1502 14 4 -







244 1 0 729 3755 0 724 461 1 0

578 6 0 326 146801 1 244 886 2 0

860 14 2 104 5699 2 80 777 1 4

21 0 0 2 161 0 2 22 0 0

167 35 2 3095 1 111 0 0

 

12 >[email protected] 

763 >[email protected] 

30 >[email protected] 

30 >[email protected] 

$V >[email protected] 

&G >[email protected] 

&U >[email protected] 

&X >[email protected] 

+J >[email protected] 

1L >[email protected] 

3E >[email protected] 

6H >[email protected] 

0 570 43 13 81 37 2 46 2 5 25 26 1 0 -

0 755 96 56 72 26 7 175 5 12 125 3 0 0 -

0 615 78 42 71 6 5 126 5 12 111 3 0 0 -



0 511 64 34 59 5 4 101 5 12 104 3 0 0 -



0 145 142 80 11 0 2 16 19 -



0 29 77 38 3 0 3 61 18 -



0 243 82 28 11 0 4 98 45 -



0 192 209 95 11 0 3 118 18 -



0 195 107 153 1 0 3 200 6 -



0 1562 193 87 1302 0 78 428 875 -



0 350 1122 541 14 0 4 267 32 -



0 635 62 1 5 0 2 9 17 -

















165 30 1 2936 0 91 0 -

156 24 0 2770 0 74 0 -

10 10 38 25 0 -

12 2 111 21 0 -

15 5 35 51 0 -

16 4 141 26 0 -

13 30 156 24 0 -

226 7 118 885 1 -

21 25 134 50 0 -

23 0 138 29 0 -

180 5 0 2377 81 0 -

777 0 1 12171 0 490 1 -

216 0 0 3319 0 117 0 -

72 0 1106 0 28 0 -

164 0 2534 105 0 -

223 0 0 3431 0 130 0 -

117 0 0 1789 0 131 0 -

=Q )ORXUDQ %HQ]R E %HQ]R N %HQ]R D %HQ]R >[email protected] WKH>[email protected] >[email protected] >[email protected] >[email protected] J >[email protected]       0 2518 7020 2539 1 1 34 1520 4 -

0 54 2 4 14 4 4 190 2 -

14 0 0 3 1 1 20 1 -

3 0 0 1 1 0 11 0 -

3 0 0 1 0 0 6 0 -

8 0 0 2 0 0 13 0 -

,QGHQR >[email protected]  5 0 0 1 0 0 4 0 -

125

020304 020305

7RWDO

6 -



629 -



360 -



0301 4884 4038 500 030101 030102 708 513 120 030103 33 64 21 030104 2 623 9 030105 1 270 181 030106 0 2 0 0302 030203 030204 030205 0303 030301 030302 030303 030304 030305 030306 030307 030308 030309 030310 030311 935 8903 95 030312 030313 030314 030315 67 417 1 030316 030317 030318 030319 030320 030321 030322 030323 030324 030325 030326 030327 1) Including CO2 emission from biomass 2) SNAP sector codes are shown in appendix 3

126

1649 -

591 -

193 -

4 -

3 -

1 -

1 -

0 -

0 -

0 -

0 -

0 -

2 -

0 -

0 -

0 -

1 -

0 -

0 -

0 -

0 -

0 -













































508 101 14 10 809 0 191 -

3030 582 104 42 276 1 1169 8 -

3710 428 49 385 90 2 1361 -

93 14 2 15 2 0 44 -

322 56 9 1 1 0 175 2 1 31 185 37 25 114 81 -

234 39 6 0 0 0 52 1 0 27 166 18 23 103 73 -

168 29 5 0 0 0 8 1 0 12 74 4 20 80 57 -

119 13 1 0 26 54 18 -

152 25 4 12 0 19 23 -

259 26 2 0 96 27 370 -

161 27 4 0 1 27 92 -

92 19 3 0 162 8 -

4791 477 41 0 113 54 293 -

228 29 3 0 629 9 27 172 -

106 9 1 0 437 19 271 -

1105 303 58 0 0 437 135 25 -

196 20 2 0 0 0 3212 -

15 4 1 0 77 -

13 4 1 0 0 4 -

2 0 0 0 24 -

5 1 0 0 0 3 -

4 1 0 0 0 3 -

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