Danish emission inventories for agriculture

Scientifi c Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy No. 108 2014 DANISH EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR AGRICULTURE Inventories 1985 – 2011...

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DANISH EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR AGRICULTURE Inventories 1985 – 2011 Scientific Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy

AU

AARHUS UNIVERSITY DCE – DANISH CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY

No. 108

2014

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DANISH EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR AGRICULTURE Inventories 1985 – 2011 Scientific Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy

Mette Hjorth Mikkelsen Rikke Albrektsen Steen Gyldenkærne Aarhus University, Department of Environmental Science

AU

AARHUS UNIVERSITY DCE – DANISH CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY

No. 108

2014

Data sheet Series title and no.: Title: Subtitle:

Scientific Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy No. 108 Danish emission inventories for agriculture Inventories 1985 - 2011

Authors: Institution:

Mette Hjorth Mikkelsen, Rikke Albrektsen, Steen Gyldenkærne Department of Environmental Science

Publisher: URL:

Aarhus University, DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy © http://dce.au.dk/en

Year of publication: Editing completed: Referee(s): Financial support: Please cite as:

September 2014 September 2014 Heidi Ravnborg, Miljøstyrelsen No external financial support Mikkelsen, M.H., Albrektsen, R. & Gyldenkærne, S. 2013. Danish emission inventories for agriculture. Inventories 1985 – 2011. Aarhus University, DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, 142 pp. Scientific Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy No. 108 http://www.dce2.au.dk/pub/SR108.pdf Reproduction permitted provided the source is explicitly acknowledged

Abstract:

Keywords: Layout: Front page photo: ISBN: ISSN (electronic): Number of pages: Internet version:

Regulations in international conventions obligate Denmark to prepare annual emission inventories and document the methodologies used to calculate emissions. The responsibility for preparing the emissions inventory for agriculture is undertaken by the Danish Centre for Environment and Energy (DCE), Aarhus University, Denmark. This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2011 and includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on international guidelines as well as national methodologies. The emission is calculated by using an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA), which covers all aspects of the agricultural inputs and estimates both greenhouse gases and air pollutants; methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants, which mainly are related to the field burning of agricultural residue such as NOx, CO2, CO, SO2, heavy metals, dioxins, PAHs, HCB and PCBs. The largest contribution to agricultural emissions originates from livestock production, which is dominated by production of cattle and swine. The agricultural NH3 emission from 1985 to 2011 has decreased from 116 800 tonnes NH3 to 71 300 tonnes NH3, corresponding to a reduction of approximately 39 %. The emission of greenhouse gases in 2011 is estimated at 9.7 million tonnes CO2 equivalents and reduced from 13.4 million tonnes CO2 equivalents in 1985. Since 1990, which is the base year of the Kyoto protocol a reduction of 23 % is obtained. Improvements in feed efficiency, the utilisation of nitrogen in livestock manure and a significant decrease in the consumption of synthetic fertiliser are the most important explanations for the reduction of NH3. This has furthermore resulted in a significant reduction of N2O emission, which is the main reason for a considerable fall in the total greenhouse gas. Agriculture, NH3, CH4, N2O, emission, ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide, particulate matter, greenhouse gas, inventory, Denmark. Ann-Katrine Holme Christoffersen Ann-Katrine Holme Christoffersen 978-87-7156-083-1 2245-0203 142 The report is available in electronic format (pdf) at http://www.dce2.au.dk/pub/SR108.pdf

Contents

Preface



Summary



Sammenfatning





Introduction

10 



Trends in agricultural emissions 1985-2011

12 

2.1  2.2 

13  18 















Air pollutants Greenhouse gases

Description of the model IDA

21 

3.1  3.2  3.3 

21  21  22 

Methodology Data references – sources of information Integrated database model for agricultural emissions

Livestock population data

25 

4.1  4.2  4.3 

25  34  35 

Livestock population Housing system Number of days in housing and on pasture

NH3 emission

36 

5.1  5.2  5.3  5.4  5.5 

36  43  45  45  46 

Animal manure Synthetic fertilisers Crops Sewage sludge NH3 treated straw

PM emission

47 

6.1  6.2 

47  49 

Livestock production Field operations

Field burning of agricultural residues

51 

7.1  7.2 

Conversion of EF for HCB Emissions

52  52 

HCB emission from use of pesticides

54 

8.1  8.2 

54  55 

Pesticides Emission

NMVOC emission

10  CH4 emission 10.1  Enteric fermentation 10.2  Manure management 10.3  Biogas treatment of slurry 11  N2O emission 11.1  Emission factors

56  57  57  61  66  67  67 

11.2  11.3  11.4  11.5  11.6  11.7  11.8  11.9 

Manure management and grazing Nitrogen applied to agricultural soils Nitrogen-fixing plants Crop residues Atmospheric deposition Leaching and runoff Cultivation of histosols Biogas treatment of slurry

12  Quality assurance and quality control 12.1  QA/QC plan 13  Uncertainties 13.1  Uncertainty values for agricultural air pollutants 13.2  Uncertainty values for agricultural greenhouse gases 14  Conclusion 14.1  Agricultural emissions from 1985 to 2011 14.2  Methodology and documentation

68  69  70  73  76  76  78  78  80  81  83  83  86  88  88  88 

References

90 

Appendixes

98

Preface On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building, Danish Centre for Environment and Energy (DCE) at Aarhus University (AU) is responsible for the calculation and reporting of the Danish national emission inventory to EU directives, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (UNECE CLRTAP). This documentation report for agricultural emissions has been externally reviewed as a key part of the general national inventory QA/QC plan. The report has been reviewed by Heidi Ravnborg from the Danish Environmental Protection Agency.

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Summary International conventions obligate Denmark to prepare annual emission inventories and document the methodologies used to calculate emissions. The responsibility for preparing the emission inventory for agriculture in Denmark is undertaken by DCE - the Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University (AU). This report is an updated version of NERI Technical Report No. 810 published in 2011. The following chapters of the report include a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions. The emissions from the agricultural sector include the greenhouse gases: methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as well as the air pollutants: ammonia (NH3), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants specifically related to the field burning of agricultural residues such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), heavy metals, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The emission calculation is based on the Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA). The model covers all aspects of the agricultural inputs and estimates both greenhouse gases and air pollutants. The largest contribution to agricultural emissions originates from livestock production and most of the input data are sourced from Statistics Denmark and from the Danish Centre for Food and Agriculture (DCA), Aarhus University. These data include the extent of the livestock production, land use, Danish standards for feed consumption and excretion. Furthermore, the estimation of nitrogen from leaching and runoff is based on data collected in connection with the Danish Action Plans for the Aquatic Environment. The emission inventory reflects the actual conditions for the Danish agricultural production. In cases where no Danish data are available, default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) are used. Approximately 96 % of the total NH3 emission originates from the agricultural sector as does approximately 17 % of total greenhouse gas emission. The agricultural ammonia emission from 1985 to 2011 has decreased from 116 800 tonnes of ammonia NH3 to 71 300 tonnes NH3, corresponding to a reduction of approximately 39 %. Converted to ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), the 2011 emission is estimated to 58 700 tonnes NH3-N. Most of this ammonia emission is related to livestock manure and mainly from the production of swine and cattle. Regarding NH3 emission it has to be noted that the reported emission under the EU Directive - National Emissions Ceilings Directive (NECD) does not include emission from growing cops and ammonia treated straw. The NH3 emission from all sectors in Denmark reported under NECD in 2011 is thus estimated to 69 500 tonnes, where the agricultural sector contributes with 65 500 tonnes NH3.

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The emission of greenhouse gases in 2011 is estimated at 9.7 million tonnes CO2 equivalents and is reduced from 13.4 million tonnes CO2 equivalents in 1985. Since 1990, which is the base year of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change a reduction of 23 % is obtained. The emission of CH4 is primarily related to cattle and swine production, which contributed 73 % and 22 %, respectively. The CH4 emission in 2011 is estimated to 198 gigagram (Gg), or given in CO2 equivalents as 4.2 million tonnes. The emission of N2O primarily originates from transformation of nitrogen compounds in agricultural fields. The main sources are related to the use of livestock manure, synthetic fertiliser and nitrogen leaching and runoff. The emission of N2O in 2011 is estimated to 17.8 Gg, corresponding to 5.5 million tonnes CO2 equivalents. Biogas plants that process animal slurry reduce the emission of CH4 and N2O. A methodology to estimate the emission reductions is not provided in the IPCC guidelines. The calculation of a lower emission from biogas treated slurry is based on the content of volatile solids and nitrogen. In 2011 approximately 6 % of all slurry was treated in biogas plants and the lower emission of greenhouse gases as a consequence of biogas treated slurry has resulted in a lower emission of 0.04 million tonnes CO2 equivalents, corresponding to 0,4%. Improvements in feed efficiency, the utilisation of nitrogen in livestock manure and a significant decrease in the consumption of synthetic fertiliser are the most important explanations for the reduction of NH3. This development has furthermore resulted in a significant reduction of N2O emission, which is the main reason for a considerable decrease in the total greenhouse gas emission. There has been a reduction in CH4 emissions as a consequence of a decrease in the number of cattle. However, this trend is partially counteracted by changes in animal housing towards more slurry-based systems.

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Sammenfatning Hvert år opgøres bidraget af ammoniak og drivhusgasser fra Danmark. I forbindelse med en række internationale konventioner har Danmark, udover opgørelsen af emissionerne, også forpligtet sig til at dokumentere hvorledes emissionerne opgøres. Denne rapport er en opdatering af DMU faglig rapport nr. 810 publiceret i 2011. Rapporten omfatter derfor dels en opgørelse, og dels en beskrivelse af metoden for beregning af landbrugets emissioner af drivhusgasserne: metan (CH4) og lattergas (N2O), luftforureningskomponenterne: ammoniak (NH3), partikler (PM), flygtige organiske forbindelser (NMVOC) og andre stoffer, der er relateret til markafbrænding af afgrøderester fra landbruget som kvælstofilter (NOx), kuldioxid (CO2), kulilte (CO), svovldioxid (SO2), tungmetaller, dioxiner, polycykliske aromatiske kulbrinter (PAH’er), hexaklorbenzen (HCB) og polyklorerede bifenyler (PCB’er). Opgørelsen omfatter perioden fra 1985 til 2011. Landbrugets emissioner er beregnet på grundlag af en databasebaseret model kaldet IDA - Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions. Størstedelen af emissionerne er relateret til husdyrproduktionen og langt de fleste inputdata er hentet fra Danmarks Statistik og det Danske Center for Fødevarer og Landbrug (DCA) ved Aarhus Universitet. Disse data omfatter bl.a. omfanget af husdyrproduktionen, arealanvendelse, normdata for foderindtag og dyrenes nitrogenudskillelse via gødningen, som er nogle af de vigtigste parametre for emissionsberegningen. Endvidere er beregningen for udvaskning af kvælstof til vandmiljøet baseret på beregninger foretaget i forbindelse med vandmiljøplanerne. Emissionsopgørelsen tager således højde for de faktiske forhold, der gør sig gældende for den danske landbrugsproduktion. For de områder hvor der ikke forefindes nationale data anvendes standardværdier fra The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) og The European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). Langt størstedelen af den samlede NH3-emission, svarende til ca. 96 %, kan henføres til landbrugssektoren, mens ca. 18 % af den totale drivhusgasemission stammer fra landbruget. Ammoniakemissionen sker i forbindelse med omsætningen af kvælstof. Størstedelen af emissionen kommer fra husdyrgødning, hvor produktionen af svin og kvæg udgør de største bidragydere. Emissionen fra landbrug er fra perioden 1985 til 2011 faldet fra 116.800 tons NH3 til 71.300 tons NH3 svarende til en reduktion på 36 %. Opgjort som ammoniakkvælstof (NH3-N) svarer emissionen i 2011 til 58 700 tons. Det skal bemærkes, at NH3-emissionen afrapporteret til EU´s direktiv for nationale emissionslofter (NEC) ikke omfatter emissionen fra voksende afgrøder og ammoniak behandlet halm. Således er den samlede NH3-emission fra alle sektorer afrapporteret til NEC-direktivet opgjort til 69.500 tons NH3 i 2011, hvoraf landbruget bidrager med 65 500 tons NH3. Den samlede emission af drivhusgasser fra landbrugssektoren i 2011 er 9,7 mio. tons CO2-ækvivalenter. I perioden fra 1985 er emissionen faldet fra 13,4 mio. tons CO2-ækvivalenter. Siden 1990, som er klimakonventionens basisår, 8

er emissionen faldet fra 12,5 mio. tons CO2-ækvivalenter hvilket svaret til en reduktion på 23 %. Emissionen af CH4 stammer primært fra kvæg (73 %) og svin (22 %). Den samlede emission af CH4 er opgjort til 198 gigagram (Gg) i 2011 svarende til 4,2 mio. tons CO2-ækvivalenter. Som for NH3’s vedkommende er emissionen af N2O knyttet til omsætningen af kvælstof. De største bidragsydere er emissionen fra handels- og husdyrgødning samt fra kvælstofudvaskningen fra landbrugsjorden. Den samlede emission i 2011 er opgjort til 17,8 Gg N2O, svarende til 5,5 mio. tons CO2ækvivalenter. Anvendelse af husdyrgødning i biogasanlæg reducerer emissionen af CH4 og N2O. Metoden for hvordan dette skal opgøres, er ikke beskrevet i IPCC guidelines, hvorfor den reducerede emission er opgjort på baggrund af danske antagelser. I 2011 behandles ca. 6 % af den samlede mængde gylle i biogasanlæg. Det forventes, at der fra biogasbehandlet gylle forekommer en lavere emission af drivhusgasser, hvilket er beregnet til at udgøre 0,04 mio. tons CO2-ækvivalenter, svarende til 0,4 %. De væsentligste forklaringer på reduktionen af NH3, er en forbedring i fodereffektivitet, en bedre udnyttelse af kvælstofindholdet i husdyrgødningen og på baggrund heraf, et markant fald i anvendelsen af kvælstof i handelsgødning. Denne udvikling har samtidig betydet et markant fald i N2Oemissionen, hvilket er den væsentligste årsag til reduktion i den samlede udledning af drivhusgasser fra landbruget. Der er sket en reduktion i CH4emissionen fra fordøjelsesprocessen som en konsekvens af faldet i antallet af kvæg. Dog er denne reduktion delvis modvirket af en omlægning i staldtyper fra systemer med fast gødning til flere gyllebaserede systemer, hvorfra der udledes en højere emission.

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1

Introduction

As a signatory to international conventions Denmark is under obligation to prepare annual emission inventories for a range of pollutants. For agriculture, the relevant emissions to be calculated are ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases (GHG): methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and other pollutants such as non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), particulate matter (PM) and a series of other pollutants related to the burning of crop residues on fields. The Danish Centre for Environment and Energy (DCE) under Aarhus University is responsible for calculating emissions and reporting the annual emission inventory. Most of the calculations are based on data collected from Statistics Denmark and the Danish Centre for Food and Agriculture (DCA), Aarhus University. In addition to the reporting of emission data, Denmark is obliged by the conventions to document the calculation methodology. This report, therefore, includes both a review of the emissions for the period 1985–2011 and a description of the methodology on which calculation of emissions is based. The 1999 Gothenburg Protocol, under the UNECE Convention on LongRange Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP), and the EU’s NEC Directive on national emission ceilings (2001/81/EC) commit Denmark to reduce NH3 emissions from all sectors to 69 000 tonnes NH3 by 2010. This ceiling is almost achieved, the NH3 emission is 69 332 tonnes in 2010 and 68 508 tonnes in 2011. In 2011, 96 % of the total NH3 emission in Denmark came from the agricultural sector, the remainder from the energy sector and industrial processes. It is important to point out that the Danish emission inventory reported under the NEC directive does not include the emission of NH3 from crops, or from NH3 treated straw. Denmark has ratified the Kyoto Protocol under the UNFCCC. Under the Kyoto Protocol Denmark committed to reduce the emissions by 8 % compared to the base year. However, between EU Member States a burden sharing agreement was reached. Under this agreement Denmark committed to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, measured in CO2 equivalents, by 21 % from the level in the base year to the annual average in the first commitment period (2008-2012). In 2011, the agricultural sector contributed 17 % to the total emission of greenhouse gases in Denmark, measured in CO2 equivalents. The relatively large contribution is due to the emission of CH4 and N2O from the sector. These gases have a higher global warming effect than CO2. Measured in GWP (Global Warming Potential), the effects of CH4 and N2O are, respectively, 21 and 310 times stronger than that of CO2 (IPCC, 1997). The IPCC has developed guidance documents on how greenhouse gas emissions should be calculated. The two documents relevant to agriculture currently used under the UNFCCC is the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC, 1997) hereafter the IPCC Guidelines and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC, 2000) hereafter the IPCC GPG. The guidelines are prepared for use in all countries based on a division of different climatic regions into different geographic locations. The guidelines, however, do not always represent the best method at the level of the indi10

vidual country due to the different national circumstances. The IPCC, therefore, advocates the use, as far as possible, of national figures where data are available. A good basis for calculating the emissions from the agricultural sector for Denmark is by making use of the extensive databases generated when: a.

calculating the normative values for feed consumption and nitrogen excretion associated with livestock husbandry (Poulsen, 2012; Poulsen et al., 2001; Poulsen & Kristensen, 1997; Laursen, 1994),

b. estimating the nitrogen content in crops (Kristensen & Kristensen, 2002; Kyllingsbæk, 2000; Høgh-Jensen et al., 1998) and c.

estimating nitrogen leaching (Børgesen & Grant, 2003 Waagepetersen et al., 2008, Windolf et al., 2011 and Windolf et al., 2012).

Agricultural emissions are calculated in an integrated national model complex (Integrated Database model of Agricultural emissions, IDA). This means that the calculation of emissions of NH3, greenhouse gases and other pollutants have the same basis, i.e. the number of livestock, the distribution of types of livestock housing, fertiliser type, land use, etc. Changes in the emission of NH3 will therefore have a direct effect on emissions of N2O. The emission inventory is continuously being improved with the availability of new knowledge. Over time, changes will be made to reflect changes in both emission factors and in the methodology in the IPCC Guidelines and in the national inventories. In the emission inventory, the aim is to use national data as far as possible. This causes high requirements for the documentation of data, especially in areas where the method used and the national data differ significantly from the IPCC’s recommended standard values. This report is an updated version of NERI Technical Report No. 810 (Mikkelsen et al., 2011). The report starts with an introductory overview of emissions in the period from 1985 to 2011, describing the changes in agricultural activities that have influenced the emissions. Thereafter, the IDA model used to calculate the emissions is described and a detailed description is provided on how the emissions for the individual pollutants are calculated.

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2

Trends in agricultural emissions 1985-2011

This chapter describes the development in the agricultural emissions of air pollutions and greenhouse gases from 1985 to 2011. The first group includes pollutants involved in air pollution, i.e. ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and other air pollutants (SO2, CO, heavy metals, PAHs, dioxins, PCBs and HCB), which all have to be reported under the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Emissions of other air pollutants are only related to the field burning of agricultural residues. The second group includes the direct greenhouse gases, which have to be reported to the Kyoto Protocol under the Climate Convention, i.e. methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Pollutants that have an indirect effect on greenhouse gas emissions, i.e. NMVOC and (NOx) from growing crops, carbon monoxide (CO) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from field burning, have to be estimated and reported to both the UNFCCC and the CLRTAP. Table 2.1 gives an overview of the conventions, the required reporting format and which pollutants they cover. Table 2.1 Overview of conventions and pollutants. Convention

Report format

Pollutants

The United Nations Framework Data:

Direct greenhouse gases; CH4, N2O, CO21

Convention on Climate Change CRF (Common Reporting Format)

Indirect greenhouse gases; NMVOC, NOx, CO,

(UNFCCC).

Report:

SO21

Including the Kyoto Protocol.

NIR (National Inventory Report)

The UNECE Convention on

Data:

Long-Range Transboundary

NFR (Nomenclature For Reporting) Particulate Matter (TSP, PM10, PM2.5)

Air Pollution.

Report:

Other pollutants (CO)

Including 8 protocols.

IIR (Informative Inventory Report)

Priority metals (Pb, Cd, Hg)

Main Pollutants (NH3, NOx NMVOC, SO2)

Other metals (As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se, Zn) PAHs (benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo-(k)fluoranthene, Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene) Dioxins and furans (PCDD/-F) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) EU’s Directive on national

NFR (Nomenclature For Reporting) NH3 (excl. emission from crops and NH3 treated straw) NMVOC, NOx, SO2

emission ceilings (NECD) (2001/81/EC) 1

In the present CRF format it is not possible to report CO2 and SO2 from field burning of agricultural residues. However,

the CO2 emission from field burning is seen as CO2 neutral.

It must be noted that CO2 removals/emissions from agricultural soils are not included in the emission inventory for the agricultural sector. According to the IPCC guidelines this removal/emission should be included in the LULUCF sector (Land-Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry) (Gyldenkærne et al., 2005). The same comment applies to the emission related to agricultural machinery (tractors, harvesters and other non-road machinery) these emissions are reported in the energy sector.

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It should also be noted that the agricultural emissions include two nonagricultural activities, i.e. emissions from horses in riding schools and from synthetic fertiliser used in parks, golf courses and sports grounds. These emission sources cover approximately 1 % of the total agricultural emissions.

2.1

Air pollutants

Table 2.2 shows the agricultural contribution of emissions to the national total in 2011. The main part of the NH3 emission (96 %) is related to the agricultural sector, while the agricultural part of TSP and PM10 are 32 % and 21 %, respectively. The agricultural contribution to the total emissions of PM2.5, NMVOC, SOX and NOX is low (<1 % - 4 %). Emissions of HCB and PCB will be included in the annual emission inventory from year 2014 and the agricultural emission is expected to contribute with less than 1 % of the total. Table 2.2 Emission 2011, reported to UNECE, January 2013. NH3

TSP

PM10

PM2.5

NMVOC

SOX

NOX

National total, Gg

74

38

29

23

81

15

132

Agricultural total, Gg

71

12

6

1

2

<1

<1

Agricultural part, %

96

32

21

4

2

<1

<1

2.1.1 NH3 Approximately 96 % originates from the agricultural sector and the remainder from the energy sector, industrial processes and waste. Most of the NH3 emissions from agricultural activities relate to livestock production, the remaining 15 % - 20 % from the use of synthetic fertiliser, growing crops, NH3 treated straw, the field burning of agricultural residues and sewage sludge applied to fields as fertiliser. Figure 2.1 shows the emissions divided into the different sources. The emission of NH3 from the agricultural sector decreased from 96 Gg NH3-N in 1985 to 59 Gg NH3-N in 2011, which corresponds to a 39 % reduction. The significant decrease in NH3 emissions is a consequence of an active national environmental policy over the last 20 years. A string of measures have been introduced by action plans to prevent the loss of nitrogen from agriculture to the aquatic environment, for example the NPO (Nitrogen, phosphor, organic matter) Action Plan (1986), Action Plans for the Aquatic Environment (1987, 1998, 2004), the Action Plan for Sustainable Agriculture (1991) and the Ammonia Action Plan (2001). These actions plans and initiated measures have brought about a decrease in animal nitrogen excretion, improvement in use of nitrogen in manure and a fall in the use of synthetic fertiliser, all of which have helped reduce the overall NH3 emission significantly. Emission from ‘Straw’ includes both emissions from NH3 treated straw and from field burning of agricultural residues. As a result of livestock regulations (BEK, 2002) NH3 treatment of straw was banned from 1 August 2004. Field burning of agricultural residues has been prohibited in Denmark since 1990 (BEK, 1991) and may only take place in connection with the production of grass seeds on fields with repeated production and in cases of wet or broken bales of straw.

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Figure 2.1 NH3-N emissions in the agricultural sector, 1985 to 2011. Straw includes NH3 treated straw and field burning of agricultural residues.

The total NH3 emission is strongly correlated to a decrease in the emission from livestock production. It is important to highlight the difference between the NH3 emission expressed in nitrogen NH3-N and that expressed in total NH3. The conversion factor is 17/14, corresponding to the difference in the molecular mass. In appendix A, the trend for NH3 emission from 1985 to 2011 from different sources is expressed in both NH3-N and NH3. NH3 emission from animal manure In 2011, animal manure, including manure disposed on grass, contributed approximately 87 % to the total NH3 emission from agriculture. From 1985 the emission from animal manure has decreased by 36 %. There are several reasons for this decrease. Figure 2.2 shows the annual NH3 emissions from the main livestock categories. Most of the emission from manure originates from the production of cattle and swine. In 1985 approximately 44 % of the emission came from cattle and 46 % from swine. In 2011, the contribution from cattle had decreased to 35 %. The share of the emission from fur farming and poultry production has increased, while that from swine is nearly unaltered (43 %).

Figure 2.2 NH3-N emissions from animal manure contributed by the different livestock categories. ‘Other’ includes horses, sheep, goats and deer.

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It is noteworthy however that while the share of emissions from swine is stable, the total emission from swine has decreased by 40 % despite a considerable increase in pork production from 14.7 million produced fattening pigs in 1985 to 21.9 million in 2011. One of the most important reasons for this is the improvement in feed efficiency. In 1985, the nitrogen excretion for a fattening pig was an estimated 5.09 kg N (Poulsen & Kristensen, 1997). In 2011, that figures were considerably lower at 2.82 kg N per fattening pig produced (Poulsen, 2012). Due to the large contribution from the pig production, the lower level of N-excretion has a significant influence on total agricultural emissions. Figure 2.3 shows the different sources, i.e. from manure handling in animal housing, manure storage, application to fields and from grazing animals. The overall decrease is a consequence of the general requirement to improve the utilisation of nitrogen in the manure - e.g. requirements to a larger part of the nitrogen in manure has to be included in the farmers’ nitrogen accounting. This has forced farmers to consider the manure as a resource instead of a waste product. Especially the emission from application and storage of manure has decreased significantly. Regarding the field application of animal manure, considerable changes have taken place. From the beginning of the 1990s slurry has increasingly been spread using trailing hoses. From the late 1990s the practice of slurry injection or mechanical incorporation into the soil has increased. For 2011 it is estimated that as much as 76 % for cattle slurry and 37 % for swine slurry is applied using injection/incorporation techniques (Birkmose, 2012). This development is in addition to general environmental requirements also a consequence of a ban on broad spreading from 2003. From 2011, slurry applied on fields with grass for feeding or fields without crop cover, has to be injected directly into the soil (BEK no. 915 of 27/06/2013). However, the injection requirements are not required if the slurry has been acid treated either in housing or during application to soil. From 2006 a considerable fall in the emission is seen, which is due to the requirement to cover manure heaps.

Figure 2.3 NH3-N emissions from animal manure, 1985 to 2011.

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The goal of further reduction of the NH3 emission could be achieved by focusing on establishment of emission reduction technologies in animal housing. NH3 emissions from agricultural soils In 2011, NH3 emission related to the agricultural soils contributed 13 % to total agricultural emissions, this mainly stems from the use of synthetic fertiliser and from growing crop as shown in Figure 2.4. The Danish inventory includes the emission from growing crops, although no methodological guidance is provided in the EMEP/EEA Guidebook. Studies have demonstrated that growing crops can emit NH3 (Schjoerring & Mattsson, 2001), but it is quite uncertain how much NH3 is emitted from growing crops under different geographic and climatic conditions. Denmark does not report NH3 from growing crops or from ammonia treated straw under the EU NEC Directive, because these emission sources were not included in the Danish inventory at the time when emission ceilings were negotiated.

Figure 2.4 NH3-N emission from synthetic fertiliser, crops and sewage sludge, 19852011.

Due to the requirement to improve the utilisation of nitrogen in animal manure, the use of synthetic fertilisers has decreased dramatically. The amount of nitrogen applied to soils from synthetic fertilisers in 2011 is almost halved compared with the amount in 1985. Since 2007, is seen a slight increase, which is mainly due to an increase in the use of nitrogen solutions, which have a high emission factor (EF). The emission from growing crops follows a downward trend due to a reduction in the agricultural area.

2.1.2 PM Emission of particulate matter (PM) originates from livestock housing, field operations such as soil cultivation and harvesting, and the field burning of agricultural residues. The current emission inventory does not include emissions from field operations.

16

The PM emissions from the agricultural sector mainly consist of larger particles. In the reporting under CLRTAP PM is reported as the total suspended particles (TSP), PM10 and PM2.5 (Particulate matter with diameter of less than 10 μm and less than 2.5 μm). TSP emission from the agricultural sector contributes 31 % to the national TSP emission in 2011 and the emission shares for PM10 and PM2.5 are 20 % and 6 % respectively. Most of this comes from animal production. The emission from the field burning of agricultural residues, contributes less than 1 % to the agricultural emission. Figure 2.5 shows the TSP emission from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2011. Emission from field burning of agricultural residues decreases significantly from 1989 to 1990 due to a ban of burning agricultural residues. From 1990 burning of residues may only take place in connection with production of grass seeds on fields with repeated production and in cases of wet or broken bales of straw. Since 1985 the emission from livestock increases and this is mainly due to changes in the production of swine. The changes in the total emission for each livestock category mainly reflect the changes in the number of animals, but are also effected by the distribution of animals in subcategories and changes in housing type.

Figure 2.5 Emission of total suspended particles (TSP) from the agricultural sector, 1985 to 2011. Other livestock includes horses, sheep and goats.

2.1.3 NMVOC Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOC) is included in the reporting requirements for emission inventories under both CLRTAP and UNFCCC. The reason for including NMVOC in the reporting requirements to the UNFCCC is that NMVOC are considered an indirect greenhouse gas. NMVOC contribute to the formation of tropospheric ozone, therefore it is included in the reporting requirements under CLRTAP. An estimate of the emission from field burning of agricultural residues and from growing crops and grass is included in the emission inventory. Agriculture contributed with 2.15 Gg NMVOC in 2011, corresponding to 3 % of the national NMVOC emission. From 1985 the emission has decreased mainly due to the ban on field burning. Since 1990 a small decrease in emission has occurred due to a decrease in the farmed area. 17

Currently, the emission inventory only covers NMVOC emission from growing crops. The updated EMEP/EEA guidebook (2013) contains a methodology and default emission factors for NMVOC emissions from animal husbandry and manure management. If applied, a considerably increase of agricultural emissions is expected.

2.1.4 Other air pollutants Other air pollutants include NOx, CO, SO2, heavy metals, dioxins, PAHs, PCBs and HCB. These are estimated from the field burning of agricultural residues and HCB also emits from use of pesticides. In 2011 NOx, CO, SO2, heavy metals and dioxin from field burning contributed less than 1 % to the total national emission, while PAHs contributed with around 2 %. From 1989 to 1990 all emissions decrease significantly due to the banning of field burning. Emissions related to the energy consumption from agricultural plants and machinery, such as tractors, harvesters, etc., is not included in the agricultural sector, but included in the energy sector.

2.2

Greenhouse gases

Table 2.3 shows the agricultural contribution of emissions to the national total in 2011. The agricultural emission contribution of N2O and CH4 is 91 % and 76 %, respectively. Table 2.3 Emission 2011, reported to UNFCCC, January 2013. N2O

CH4

National total, Gg

19

262

Agricultural total, Gg

18

198

Agricultural part, %

91

76

Table 2.4 shows the development in greenhouse gas emissions calculated in CO2 equivalents. The overall emission in 1985 are estimated to 13 420 Gg, decreasing to 9 672 Gg in 2011, corresponding to a 28 % reduction. Since 1990, the base year of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for CH4 and N2O, the emission has been reduced by 23 %. N2O has the highest global warming potential of the two gases and is the largest contributor to the overall agricultural emission of greenhouse gases. CO2 is estimated for field burning of agricultural residues, but it is not reported in the Common Reporting Format (CRF) because this is not possible in the present format. The CO2 emission from field burning is considered biogenic and would therefore not count in the national total, but would only be reported as a memo item, which is also the case for CO2 emissions from combustion of biomass in the energy sector. Table 2.4

Development in the emission of greenhouse gases, 1985-2011, measured in

Gg CO2 equivalents. For all years and distributed on main sources see Appendix B and C

18

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

2009

2010

2011

CH4

4 702

4 242

4 239

4 048

4 043

4 106

4 095

4 165

4 151

N2O

8 718

8 303

7 353

6 423

5 809

5 837

5 503

5 449

5 521

Total

13 420

12 545

11 592

10 471

9 852

9 943

9 598

9 614

9 672

2.2.1 CH4 The CH4 emission primarily originates from livestock digestive processes, with a smaller contribution from animal manure particularly slurry. Field burning of agricultural residues is also included as a source of emission, but contributes less than 1 % to total agricultural CH4 emissions. The trend in CH4 emissions from 1985 to 2011 is presented in figure 2.6 and shows a reduction from 224 Gg CH4 to 198 Gg CH4 in 2011, corresponding to 12 %. From 1985 to 2011 the emission from enteric fermentation has decreased mainly due to a decrease in the number of cattle. A contrasting development has taken place in emission from manure management. Structural changes in the sector have led to a move towards the use of slurry-based housing systems, which have a higher emission factor than systems with solid manure.

Figure 2.6 CH4 emission 1985-2011, Gg CH4 per year.

In 2011 approximately 6 % of slurry was treated in biogas plants. Investigations indicate a lower emission of CH4 and N2O from biogas treated slurry (Sommer et al., 2001) and this effect is included in the emission inventory. In 2011 the biogas treatment has lowered the CH4 emission with 1.11 Gg CH4, which corresponds to 0.6 % of the total CH4 emission from the agricultural sector.

2.2.2 N2O The emission of N2O takes place in the chemical transformation of nitrogen and is therefore closely linked with the nitrogen cycle. There is a direct link between the estimation of the NH3 emission and the estimation of the N2O emission. Figure 2.7 presents the trend in the emissions of N2O in the period 1985 to 2011 and reveals that the emission has decreased from 28.1 Gg N2O to 17.8 Gg N2O, which corresponds to a 37 % reduction. N2O is produced from a range of different sources, which are presented in figure 2.7. The largest sources are animal manure and synthetic fertilisers applied to soil, and nitrogen leaching and runoff. The reduction in total N2O emissions is strongly related to a significant decrease in emissions from the 19

use of synthetic fertiliser and in nitrogen leaching and runoff. This development is primarily a consequence of an improved utilisation of nitrogen in animal manure. Despite the increasing production of swine and poultry, the total amount of excreted nitrogen in manure has decreased by 11 % from 1985 to 2011, which is due to an improved feed efficiency, especially for fattening pigs. A decrease in the total amount of nitrogen also means a decrease in N2O emissions. Another reason for reduction is the change from previous, more traditional, tethering systems with solid manure to a slurry-based system, because the N2O emission is lower for liquid manure than for solid manure.

Figure 2.7 Emission of N2O according to source, 1985-2011.

As mentioned in the section for CH4, the biogas treatment of slurry also has an effect of lower N2O emission. Investigations indicate that biogas treated slurry applied on soil has a lower N2O emission. For 2011, the biogas treated slurry lowered the N2O with 0.06 Gg, which corresponds to a 4 % reduction of the N2O emission from manure management in 2011.

20

3

Description of the model IDA

A comprehensive model complex called “Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions” (IDA) is used to store input data and to calculate the agricultural emissions. The emission calculation includes greenhouse gases, NH3, PM, NMVOC and other pollutants related to the field burning of agricultural residues, namely NOx, CO2, CO, SO2, heavy metals, dioxins, PAHs, PCBs and HCB from use of pesticides.

3.1

Methodology

The main principle in the estimation of the emission is an activity, a, multiplied with an emission factor, EF, set for each activity (i). The overall emission is calculated as the sum of the emissions from all activities, see Equation 3.1.

E total   a i  EFi

(Eq. 3.1)

Activity data for reporting in the agricultural sector could be, e.g. the number of cattle. The activity data for estimating emissions in the database is typically disaggregated into several different subcategories, which for cattle, for example, are dairy cattle, calves, heifers, bulls and suckling cattle and again divided into different breeds and weight classes. The emissions are estimated on the basis of international guidelines. The emission calculations for the greenhouses gases are in accordance with the methods in the IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 1997 and IPCC, 2000). The calculation of air pollutant emissions are in accordance with the methodologies described in the EMEP/EEA Guidebook (EMEP, 2009). National values and methodology approach are used where these better reflect the Danish agricultural conditions.

3.2

Data references – sources of information

Data input for emission calculations are collected, evaluated and discussed in collaboration with a range of different institutions involved in agricultural research and administration. The organisations include, for example, Statistics Denmark, Danish Centre for Food and Agriculture at Aarhus University, the Danish Agricultural Advisory Service, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the Danish AgriFish Agency. Table 3.1 provides an overview of the various institutions and organisations who contribute national data in connection with the preparation of the agricultural emissions inventory.

21

Table 3.1 Organisations contributing input data to the preparation of the emissions inventory. References

Link

Abbreviation Data / information

Danish Centre for Environment and

http://dce.au.dk

DCE

Energy, Aarhus University

- data collecting - emission calculations - responsible for QA/QC - reporting

Statistics Denmark

www.dst.dk

DSt

– Agricultural Statistics

- livestock production - milk yield - slaughtering data - export of live animal - poultry - land use - crop production - crop yield

http://dca.au.dk/

Danish Centre for Food and

DCA

Agriculture, Aarhus University

- N-excretion - feeding situation - animal growth - N-fixing crops - crop residue - N-leaching/runoff - NH3 emission factor

The Danish Agricultural Advisory

www.lr.dk

DAAS

Service

- housing type (until 2004) - grazing situation - manure application time and methods - estimation of extent of field burning of agricultural residue

Danish Environmental Protection

www.mst.dk

EPA

- sewage sludge used as fertiliser - industrial waste used as fertiliser

Agency Danish AgriFish Agency

http://naturerhverv.f DAFA

- synthetic fertiliser (consumption and type)

vm.dk

- housing type (from 2005) - sewage sludge used as fertiliser (from 2005 based on the register for fertilization) - number of animals from the Central Husbandry Register

The Danish Energy Agency

3.3

www.ens.dk

DEA

- manure treated in biogas plants

Integrated database model for agricultural emissions

The Integrated Database for Agricultural emissions (IDA) model complex is designed in a relational database system (MS Access). Input data are stored in tables in one database called IDA_Backend and the calculations are carried out as queries in another linked database called IDA. Most emissions relate to livestock production, which basically is based on information on the number of animals, the distribution of animals according to housing type and, finally, information on feed consumption and excretion. IDA operates with 38 different livestock categories, according to livestock type, weight class and age. These categories are subdivided into different housing types and manure types, which results in 247 different combinations of livestock subcategories and housing/manure types (Table 3.2). For each of these combinations, information on e.g. feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen excretion and CH4 conversion factors is attached. The emission is calculated from each of these subcategories and then aggregated to the main livestock categories. 22

Table 3.2 Livestock categories and subcategories. Main livestock

Subcategories

categories

Number of subcategories divided into housing type and manure type system

1

Dairy cattle

Dairy Cattle

Non-dairy cattle1 Calves (<½ yr), heifers, bulls, suckling cattle

34 120

Sheep

Including lambs

1

Goats

Including kids (meet, dairy and mohair)

3

Horses

<300 kg, 300-500 kg, 500-700 kg, >700 kg

4

Swine

Sows, weaners, fattening pigs

36

Poultry

Hens, pullets, broilers, turkeys, geese, ducks,

42

ostriches, pheasants Other 1)

Mink, fitchew, foxes, finraccoon, deer

7

For all subcategories, large breeds and Jersey cattle are separately identified.

Data are collected from the organisations mentioned above (Table 3.1) and processed and prepared for import to the database. This step is done in spread sheets. The data are imported and stored in the database called “IDA-backend” which also stores the emission factors for all pollutants. All emission calculations are done in IDA, which is linked to IDA-backend. This means that calculations of pollutants all use the same data on number of animals, crop area, amount of synthetic fertiliser, etc. The calculated emissions and additional information are uploaded to the CRF and NFR templates via a conversion database. An overview of the data process is shown in figure 3.1.

23

Data collection, processing and preparing Data collected from: - Statistics Denmark - Danish Centre for Food and Agriculture, DCA - The Danish Agricultural Advisory Service - Danish Environmental Protection Agency - Danish AgriFish Agency - The Danish Energy Agency

IDA-backend Variables: Animals

Crops Synthetic fertiliser N-fixation N-leaching and run-off Sewage sludge and industrial waste used as fertiliser Crop residue Biogas Histosols Field burning of agricultural residues All

Number Housing type distribution N-excretion Amount of straw Days on grass Amount of feed Amount of manure Area Amount of N Amount of N Amount of N Amount of N Amount of N Amount of N2O and CH4 reduced Area Amount of burnt straw Emission factors

IDA

CRF and NFR templates

Emission calculations of:

Output:

- CH4 - N2O - NH3 - PM - NMVOC - CO - CO2

- NOx - SO2 - Heavy metals - PAHs - Dioxins - HCB - PCBs

Emissions and additional information required in the template.

Figure 3.1 Overview of the data process for calculation of agricultural emissions.

24

4

Livestock population data

In 2011 livestock production was the main source of the agricultural emissions, contributing 86 % of the NH3 emission and approximately 61 % of the greenhouse gas emission. To calculate the agricultural emission, a series of input data is used. Some values are obtained as default values from guidelines and some are estimated based on national values, which closer reflect the Danish agricultural conditions. Table 4.1 lists the most important national variables, and shows that some variables are used to calculate both NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions. These variables (number of animals, distribution of housing types and estimated days on pasture and in housing) are described in this chapter. The remaining variables are included in the relevant pollutant chapters. Table 4.1 Pollutants and variables. Pollutants

National variables

NH3, N2O, CH4

- No. of animal - Housing type/manure type - Days in housing and on pasture

NH3, N2O

- N-excretion (depends on feed intake)

NH3

- Conditions for storage and application of manure on agricultural soil

CH4

- Feed intake (amount and composition) - Manure excretion (amount, content of dry matter and volatile solids)

4.1

Livestock population

Livestock production figures are primarily based on the agricultural census from Statistics Denmark (DSt), see appendix D for numbers of livestock 1985-2011. The emissions from bulls, fattening pigs and poultry are based on slaughter data. DSt does not include farms below 5 ha, therefore approximate numbers for horses has been added to the number published by DSt. This procedure is in agreement with the Danish Agricultural Advisory Service (DAAS). In the agricultural census for 2011 the number of horses is estimated at approximately 61 000. Including horses on small farms and riding schools, however, the number rises to approximately 155 000 (Clausen, E., 2012). Data on the number of sheep and goats are based on the Central Husbandry Register (CHR), which is the central register of farms and farm animals of the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries. The inventory furthermore includes emissions from deer, ostrich and pheasants, but these animal categories are not included in DSt. Data on the number of deer and ostrich are based on the CHR, while the number for pheasants is based on expert judgement DCE – formerly NERI (Noer, 2000) and the pheasant breeding association (Stenkjær, 2009). The normative figures for feed intake and N-excretion are for some livestock categories, e.g. dairy cattle and sows, given for a year animal, which means the average number of animals, present within the year. This corresponds to the definition of annual average population (AAP) in the EMEP/EEA Guidebook (EMEP/EEA, 2009). For other livestock categories such as bull 25

calves, bulls, weaners, fattening pigs, pullets and heifers (1985-2002), the normative figures are given per animal produced. Below follows a description of how the livestock production is calculated for each animal category.

4.1.1 Cattle Cattle are divided into six main categories and for each of these categories distinction is made between large breeds and Jersey cattle (Table 4.2). The categories are dairy cattle, bull calves, heifer calves, bulls more than 6 months destined for slaughter, heifers more than 6 months to be used for breeding purposes, and suckling cattle. The categories are further divided into different housing systems and manure types. Data regarding the distinction between large breed and Jersey cattle were, until 2000, collected via special calculations from DSt. From 2001 the figures on Jersey cattle have been provided by DAAS, and are based on registrations from yield control exercises covering approximately 90 % of dairy cattle. Table 4.2 Main categories of cattle. Proportion of Jersey cattle (%) in the total cattle population 20111 Dairy cattle

13.5

Heifer calves, 0 - 6 months

10.3

Heifers, 6 months to calving

9.4

Bull calves, 0-6 months

2.7

Bulls, 6 months to slaughter age

4.0

Suckling cattle 1

0

Source: Flagstad, 2012.

In order to calculate the emission, the number of animals has to be quantified for each of the categories. Dairy cattle The annual average population of dairy cattle is based on DSt. Heifers The number of heifers is calculated by two different methodologies, which is due to a change in the Danish Normative System in 2003. This change in the calculation has no impact on emissions. From 1985 to 2002, the normative figures for N-excretion are given per animal produced, which is described in Mikkelsen et al. (2006). From 2003 and onwards the normative figures are changed so the values of feed intake and N-excretion represent AAP (annual average population), which are based on the number of animals reported by DSt. From 2003, the number of heifer calves (< ½ year) per year is calculated as:

26

a) no L  no DSt  (1 - J)

(Eq. 4.1a)

b) no J  no DSt  J

(Eq. 4.1b)

Example for 2011:

no L  158 101  (1 - 0.103)  141 817 where:

noDSt noL noJ J

= number of heifers <½ year given by DSt = number of large breed heifers <½ year = number of Jersey heifers <½ year = fraction of Jersey heifers

Bulls The normative figures from DCA represent feed intake and N-excretion per animal produced, therefore the emission calculation has been based on the number of animals produced. The production of both bulls and bull calves is based on data on slaughter provided by DSt. Animals discarded during the slaughtering process and export of live animals is taken into account. Number of total bulls and bull calves produced For the calculation of bulls > 6 months is the number of slaughtered young bulls, bulls and steers, exported adult cattle and discard cattle given by DSt. Number of bulls produced per year:

nobulls  noy b  nob  nos  noex a  nodis where:

nobulls noy b nob nos noex a nodis

(Eq. 4.2)

= number of bulls = number of slaughtered young bulls = number of slaughtered bulls = number of slaughtered steers = number of exported adult cattle = number of discarded cattle

Number of bull calves < 6 months is calculated based on the number of bulls:

no bull calves  no bulls  no v c  no ex c where:

nobull calves nobulls nov c noex c

(Eq. 4.3)

= number of bull calves = number of bulls = number of veal calves = number of exported calves

Example from 2011:

no bulls  55 800  190 300  11 600  4 900  3 000  265 600 nobull calves  265 600  3 700  26 500  295 800 Distribution between large breed and Jersey An average slaughter weight for large breed cattle and Jersey cattle of 440 kg and 328 kg, respectively, is assumed in the normative figures (Poulsen et al., 2001).

27

The number of bulls from suckling cattle is counted under the category of bull calves, large breed. It is assumed that the allocation between dairy cattle and suckling cattle is approximately the same for bull and for bull calves. The fraction of suckling cattle is 14.9% in 2011. The number of bulls/bull calves from suckling cattle is estimated. For the remaining part of cattle the distribution between large breed and Jersey is estimated by using the percentage for Jersey cattle given in Table 4.2. Equation 4.4:

Frac  no S, DSt /(no D, DSt  no S, DSt ) where:

Frac noS, DSt noD, DSt

(Eq. 4.4)

= fraction of suckling cattle = number of suckling cattle given by DSt = number of dairy cattle given by DSt

The number of respectively large breed and Jersey bulls and bull calves produced is calculated as follows: Equation 4.5 a) and b): a) no B, L  (no B - no B  Frac)  (1 - J)  (no B  Frac)

(Eq. 4.5a)

b) no B, J  (no B - no B  Frac)  J

(Eq. 4.5b)

where:

noB, L noB noB, J Frac J

= number of large breed bulls produced = number of bulls produced = number of Jersey breed bulls produced = fraction of suckling cattle = percent of Jersey bulls

Calculation example for 2011: Table 4.3 Number of bulls, 2011. No. of

No. of

Fraction of

No. of bulls

animals,

animals

suckling

produced

DSt

produced

cattle

Bull calves < ½ year

132 169

295 800

0,149

Bulls > ½ year

138 386

265 600

0,149

Large breed Jersey 289 000 6 800 256 103

9 497

Suckling cattle The number for suckling cattle is provided by DSt.

4.1.2 Swine There are three different main swine categories: sows (including piglets up to 7.3 kg), weaners (7.3 to 32 kg) and fattening pigs (32 to 107 kg). Sows The number for sows is provided by DSt. Sows include pregnant sows, suckling sows and barren sows.

28

Weaners and fattening pigs The normative figures for feed intake and N-excretion for fattening pigs and weaners are provided per pig produced; therefore the emission calculation has been based on the number of animals produced. The production of both weaners and fattening pigs is mainly based on data on slaughter provided by DSt. Discarded animals during the slaughtering process and export of live animals are taken into account. The calculated emission from weaners and fattening pigs also include the emission related to breeding of boars and barren sows. The number of fattening pigs is based on the total meat production divided with an average slaughter weight based on the normative figures, which in 2011 was provided to 82 kg (Poulsen, 2012). Number of fattening pigs produced:

no  ( where:

AM )  Ex fattening  Ex breeding AS no AM AS Exfattening Exbredding

(Eq. 4.6)

= number of fattening pigs = amount of meat produced, kg = average slaughter weight, kg = export of live fattening pigs, 1000 = export of live animals for breeding, 1000

Example from 2011:

1 763 M kg no 2011  ( )  358  1000  34  1000  21 892 000  21.9 million 82 kg The number of weaners is calculated as the number of fattening pigs plus the number of exported live weaners, which has increased significantly in the last ten years from 1.1 million in 2001 to 8.1 million in 2011. Number of weaners produced:

no  no fattening  no exported where:

no nofattening noexported

(Eq. 4.7)

= number of weaners, weight 7-32 kg = total number of produced fattening pigs = number of exported living weaners

Example for 2011:

no

2011

 21.9 million  8.1 million  30.0 million

The normative feed intake and excretion values for fattening pigs are in 2011 based on a 107 kg live weight, equivalent to 82 kg slaughter weight (Poulsen, 2012). Slaughtering data are as mentioned based on Statistics Denmark. Information on discarded animals is based on data from DAKA, which is a cooperative owned by 16 members and these members represent most of the Danish meat industry. In 2011, the total meat production is estimated at

29

1 763 million kg meat and the number of living animal exported are 8.5 million (Table 4.4). Table 4.4 Background data for estimating number of produced fattening pigs and weaners, 2011. Fattening pigs to slaughter (million kilo meat) Delivered to slaughterhouse

1 701

Slaughtered for the producer at slaughterhouse

0.1

Slaughtered at home

1.9

Discarded during the production process

4.2

Transfer to sow unit (million kilo meat) 0.5

Gilt to slaughter

1.0

Breeding period of boars

54.5

Breeding period of barren sows

1 763

Total meat production from pigs, million kilo meat Export of living animals (1 000 s)

358

Fattening pigs

34

Animals for breeding

8 121

Weaners No of produced animal (1 000 s) No. of produced fattening pigs

21 892

No. of produced weaners

30 013

Table 4.5 shows the number of swine other than sows reported by DSt, compared to the calculated number of weaners and fattening pigs produced per year. The number of animals given by DSt represent the number given in AAP, while the emission calculations are based on number of produced swine. Table 4.5 Number of weaners and fattening pigs, 2011.

Swine (other than sows)

No. of animal,

No. of produced swine,

DSt, 1 000 s

1 000 s

11 869

Fattening pigs (32-107 kg)

21 892

Weaners (7.5-32 kg)

30 013

4.1.3 Poultry For poultry, there are four main categories: laying hens, broilers, turkeys and other poultry (geese, ducks, pheasants and ostrich). In the following estimation of the numbers of animals are described. Laying hens The category of laying hens includes hens and pullets. The normative figures for hens are based on average annual hens (units of 100). Six main production forms for hens are distinguished between – free-range, organic, barn, battery, aviary as well as production of hens for brooding. The distribution between the different production forms is based on data from DSt.– see Table 4.6. Hens The number of laying hens is based on the egg production. The production of eggs divided on production forms are given by DSt. The number of hens within each category is calculated as follows: 30

no i 

(a i  a h  Pi /100) 1000 000 Yi

where:

noi ai ah P Yi

(Eq. 4.8)

= number of hens within the production form i = amount of eggs produced for sale in the production form i, in million kg = amount of eggs produced for home sale, in million kg = per cent share of the production form i = production of eggs per hen per year within the production form i, in kg

Below is an example calculation of the number of free-range hens in 2011 (100):

no Free - range 

( 4.4  8  7.6 / 100 ) 1 000 000 / 100  2 649 18 .9

Calculations of number of hens for brooding due not include eggs produced for home sale. The category of battery hens is furthermore divided into three different housing systems according to the differences in the handling of manure. These categories are termed manure houses, manure tanks and manure cellar. Table 4.6 Distribution of hens in different categories in 2011. (100s). No of hens, 100s Hens - total

44 258

- of which egg layers for brooding

10 588

- of which egg layers

33 670

Free-range

Pct. distribution on Number of hens production forms

100s 10 588

8

2 554

Organic

16

5 283

Barn

17

5 805

Battery, manure house

45

15 341

Battery, manure tank

8

2 684

Battery, manure cellar

6

2 003

Aviary

0

0

Pullets The normative figure for pullets is based on the production of 100 pullets. The production time for pullets is between 112 and 119 days depending on production form (Poulsen et al., 2001), which corresponds to approximately three production cycles during the year (365/112 = 3.3, 365/119 = 3.1). Pullets for production of consumption egg have a 112 days production time while pullets for brooding eggs have 119 days production time. Annual production is determined using the population figure provided by DSt (chicken for breeding) multiplied by the production cycle. The total number of pullets produced during the year is divided into three main production forms – consumption (net), consumption (floor) and pullets used for brooding eggs. The multiplication factor related to the percentage distribution of the three different production forms is from 1985 to 2004 based on information from the Danish Agriculture & Food Council (Jensen, 2008) and from 2005 based on information from DAFA – see Table 4.7.

31

Calculation of the total number of pullets produced:

no pu  no DSt  where:

365  (P / 100) T

nopu noDSt T P

(Eq. 4.9)

= number of pullets within a given production form = number of pullets given by DSt = production time, days = percent distribution of the production form

Below is, as an example, the calculation of the number of pullets produced for consumption, net production (100), for 2011:

no pu  17 963 

365  (19.3 / 100)  11 298 112

Table 4.7 Calculation of the number of pullets produced in 2011,100s. No. of pullets Distribution on Production given in DSt production forms

time

Production

Number of pullets

runs per year produced per year

100s

100s %

Pullets - total (population DSt)

17 936

days

100

Consumption, floor

76

112

3.259

44 197

Consumption, net

19

112

3.259

11 298

Egg brooding, floor

5

119

3.067

2 865 58 360

Number of pullets produced

Broilers, turkeys, ducks and geese Numbers of broilers, turkeys, ducks and geese are based on the number of animals produced. The calculation of production is based on slaughter data from DSt. Export of animals, farmers’ private consumption of animals, deaths occurring in the production process are all taken into account. Data on both export of live broilers, ducks, geese and turkeys and the farmers private consumption have been obtained from DSt. Calculation method to estimate poultry production:

no po  no DS  no PC  no E where:

nopo noDS noPC noE

(Eq. 4.10)

= number of the given category of poultry (broilers, ducks, geese or turkeys) = number of animals delivered to slaughter = number of animals slaughtered at home for private consumption = number of live animals exported

Example for the number of broilers produced in 2010 (in 1 000s):

no po  106 074  500  9 380  115 954 The calculated number of broilers, turkeys, ducks and geese produced is compared in Table 4.8 with the figures for the number of average annual animals reported by DSt. The number of average annual animals represents the number of housing places. 32

Table 4.8 Number of broilers, turkeys, ducks and geese, 2011. No. of animal,

No. of produced animals

DSt, 1 000s

1 000s

12 528

115 954

Broilers Turkeys

212

961

Ducks

230

721

Geese

7

18

Pheasants and ostriches DSt has no data on the number of pheasants and ostriches produced. The number of pheasants is based on expert judgement (Noer, 2009.) and the pheasant breeding association and is estimated at 1 062 500 in each of the years 1985-2011. Pheasants are bred for hunting and this is estimated as unaltered in the period. The number of ostriches is based on information obtained from the Central Husbandry Register (CHR), which is the central register for farm data of the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, (see Table 4.9). The production of ostrich in Denmark started in 1993 and the number of ostrich from 1985 to 1992 has therefore been set at zero. Table 4.9 Number of ostrich 1985 to 2011. 1985

1995

2000

2005

2008

2009

2010

2011

0

3 333

8 889

3 661

461

358

358

191

Ostrich

4.1.4 Horses There are four different weight classes for horses: small ponies up to 300 kg, lighter breeds – 300-500 kg, medium-weight breeds – 500-700 kg and large breeds – more than 700 kg. DAAS estimates that the distribution in these groups is 25, 34, 38 and 3 %, respectively. The figures from DSt only includes horses on farms larger than 5 ha. However, a study of pets undertaken by DSt has indicated that a significant number of horses are found on smaller hobby farms and riding schools that are below 5 ha. The total number of horses in the inventory is based on the horse breeding register managed by DAAS. In 2011, 61 476 horses were listed by DSt, as opposed to 155 000 according to DAAS figures. DAAS has estimated the number of horses in 2000 to 150 000 and in 2008 to 190 000. The numbers in between are interpolated. Number of horses in 2009 to 2011 is based on a new judgement from DAAS, which shows a decrease in number of horses. Table 4.10 shows the number of horses registered by, respectively, DSt and DAAS. Table 4.10 Number of horses 1985 to 2011 (1 000s). DSt1 DAAS

2

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

2009

2010

2011

32

38

18

40

54

60

58

60

61

140

135

143

150

175

190

178

165

155

1

Agricultural units > 5 ha.

2

Total number of horses incl. horses on small farms and riding schools.

4.1.5 Sheep, goats and deer The normative figures for sheep and goats are based on average annual breeding ewes/goats including lambs and kids, because this corresponds to the unit in the normative data. It is expected that a number of sheep and 33

goats are to be found on farms below 5 ha and thus the actual number is higher than reported by DSt. Therefore, data on the number of sheep and goats are based on the Central Husbandry Register (CHR). The production of deer is included in the Danish inventory and covers animals bred for meat on farms (in enclosures) and not deer in the wild. No data on the number of deer are available from DSt, thus the number of deer is based on CHR.

4.1.6 Fur animals The production of fur animals is calculated as the population of mink, fitchew, foxes and finraccoon as stated by DSt.

4.2

Housing system

For each livestock category, the number of animals is divided into a range of different housing systems. The housing system is a determinant factor for how the animal manure is handled and therefore decisive for the distribution into liquid and solid manure systems. No systematic record of the distribution of the different housing types exists until 2004. Therefore, the distribution from 1985 to 2004 is based on expert judgement. For cattle and swine, the distribution is based on information from Rasmussen (2003) and Lundgaard (2003). The distribution of housing systems for fur animals is obtained from Risager (2003). The housing distribution for poultry is determined on the basis of efficiency controls by the Danish Agriculture & Food Council (Jensen, 2008). From 2005 onwards, the distribution of the different housing types is based on information from the Danish AgriFish Agency (DAFA) on farm nitrogen budgets, which farmers, by law have to submit annually. Appendix E presents the distribution of the different housing types for all livestock categories. Table 4.11 and Table 4.12 show the estimated distribution of housing types from 1985 to 2011 for dairy cattle and fattening pigs, the two most important livestock categories. The structural development in the agricultural sector has influenced the change in housing types. New housing facilities have been built and most of the tethered housings have been replaced by larger loose-housing facilities. In 1985, 85 % of the dairy cattle were kept in tethered stalls and in 2011 this had been reduced to 10 %. In the case of fattening pigs, many solid floor systems have been replaced by a system with slatted floors. The consequence of this development is that, more of the animal manure is handled as slurry. Table 4.11 Dairy cattle distributed on main housing types. 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011 Housing type Tethered housing

85

79

73

46

20

14

12

12

10

Loose-housing with beds

14

18

21

43

70

79

82

82

85

1

3

6

11

10

7

6

6

5

Deep litter

34

%

Table 4.12 Fattening pigs distributed on main housing types. 1985

1990

1995

2000

Housing type

2005

2008

2009

2010

2011

%

Fully slatted floor

29

51

60

58

53

53

54

54

53

Partly slatted floor

30

23

24

31

38

41

41

41

43

Solid floor

40

22

11

5

3

2

2

2

1

Deep litter

1

4

5

6

6

4

3

3

3

4.3

Number of days in housing and on pasture

A proportion of the manure from dairy cattle, heifers, suckling cows, sheep, goats, horses and deer is deposited on the field during grazing. It is assumed that on average 5 % of the manure from dairy cows is excreted directly onto the field during grazing in 2011, which translates to 18 days on pasture. The equivalent estimate for suckling cows is 224 days, with 132 days for heifers, 183 days for horses, 265 days for sheep and goats and 365 for deer (Aaes, 2013, Poulsen et al., 2001), Table 4.13. The number of grazing days for dairy cattle has decreased in the period 2002-2007 and grazing days for heifers has decreased from 1990-2007 due to the structural development towards larger farms (See Appendix F). A production with a large numbers of cattle makes it difficult to drive the animals to pasture because it is time consuming. Table 4.13 Number of grazing days corresponding to the proportion of N in manure deposited on the field during grazing, 2011. Grazing days Cattle: Dairy Cattle Calves and bulls

18 0

Heifers

132

Suckling Cattle

224

Swine: Sows, weaners and fattening pigs Sows, outdoor

0 365

Poultry: Hens, pullets, broilers, turkeys, ducks and ostrich Geese and pheasant

4a 365

Other: Horses

183

Sheep and goats

265

Deer

365

Fur animals a

0

Weighted average for all poultry subcategories

35

5

NH3 emission

Figure 5.1 shows the NH3 emissions from different sources in 2011. The emission from the handling of animal manure constitutes 84 % of the total NH3 emission. The emissions from growing crops and synthetic fertilisers contribute 8 % and 5 %, respectively. The remainder comes from grazing animals (3 %) and less than 1 % is from other sources such as sewage sludge and industrial sludge, applied to agricultural land, the field burning of agricultural residues and NH3 treated straw. Appendix A shows the NH3 emissions from all sources for the period 1985 – 2011.

Figure 5.1 NH3 emissions, 2011.

5.1

Animal manure

5.1.1 Total N and TAN The emission of NH3 from manure management is calculated on the basis on nitrogen excreted from livestock. Most of the N excreted that is readily degradable and broken down to NH4-N is found in the urine. Previously, the emission calculation has been based on the total N content in manure for all manure types. However, the relationship between NH4-N and total N will not remain constant over time due to changes in feed composition and feed use efficiency. In order to be able to implement the effect of NH3-reducing measures such as improvements in feed intake and composition in the emission inventory, it is necessary to calculate the emission based on the Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) content, which has been done to the extent possible. From 2007 the calculation of NH3 emission from liquid manure is based on TAN. For solid manure and deep litter an emission factor for total N is still used. The normative figures for both total nitrogen excretion and the content of TAN are provided by DCA.

5.1.2 Methodology The NH3 emission occurs wherever the manure is exposed to the atmosphere in livestock housings, manure storages, after application of manure to the fields and from the manure deposited by grazing animals. The total NH3 emission from animal manure is calculated as: AMt = AMh + AMs + AMap + Ag 36

(Eq. 5.1)

where:

AMt AMh AMs AMap AMg

= total ammonia emission = emission from manure in livestock housing = emission from manure storage = emission from manure application to fields = emission from manure deposited by animals on grass

For each of the elements above, NH3 losses are calculated for each individual combination of livestock category and housing type. The time the livestock spends indoors and outdoors (grazing), respectively, is taken into account. a) AMh

no∙Nexa ∙ 1

b) AMs

no∙Nexh ∙ 1

c) AMap

no∙Nexs ∙ 1

d) AMg

no∙Nexa ∙

where:

no Nexa Nexh Nexs Dg EF

Dg

Dg

Dg

Dg

∙ EFh

(Eq. 5.2a)

∙ EFs

(Eq. 5.2b)

∙ EFap

(Eq. 5.2c)

∙ EFg

(Eq. 5.2d)

= number of animals = N excretion from animals, kg head-1 yr-1 = N excretion in housing unit, kg head-1 yr-1 = N excretion in storage unit, kg head-1 yr-1 = days on grass during the year (see Table 4.13) = emission factor for the given unit (housing, storage, application or grass)

The emission calculation for fattening pigs in 2011 housed on fully slatted flooring is shown below as an example, based on normative figures and emission factors given in Table 5.1. In 2011, 21.9 million fattening pigs were produced (Table 4.5). Of these, 53 % are housed for 365 days a year in housing systems with fully slatted floor. Table 5.1 Normative figures and emission factors for one produced fattening pigs in 2011 (DCA). Normative figures, Emission factors, EF, kg N per produced animal pct. NH3-N of TAN TAN ex animal TAN ex housing TAN ex storage Housing unit Storage Application 1.86 1.42 1.75 24 2.9 10.78 (slurry)

Calculation of the emission from fattening pigs housed on fully slatted floor: AM h  (21 892 113  0.53) 

1.86 0 24  (1  )  5 179 tonnes NH 3 - N 1 000 365 100

AM s  ( 21 892 113  0.53) 

1.42 0 2 .9  (1  )  478 tonnes NH 3 - N 1 000 365 100

AM ap  (21 892 113  0.53) 

1.75 0 10.78  (1  )  2 189 tonnes NH 3 - N 1 000 365 100

AMtotal  5 179  478  2 189  7 846 tonnes NH3 - N  9 527 tonnes NH3

N-excretion and emissions given in NH3-N for all main livestock categories are shown in appendix G.

37

5.1.3 Normative figures for nitrogen in animal manure The normative values for nitrogen excretion are estimated by DCA based on research results (Laursen, 1994; Poulsen & Kristensen, 1997; Poulsen et al., 2001; Poulsen, 2012). The normative figures are since 2002 adjusted annually to take account of the changes in feed composition and feed use efficiency. Values for N ex animal are provided in Appendix H for the most important livestock categories and in Appendix I based on TAN for 2007 to 2011. For heifers a change in methodology has taken place. From 1985 to 2002 the normative figures for N ex was provided for each produced animal. This has changed form 2003, where the N ex covers N ex per AAP (annual average population – see definition in section 4.1). For animal categories for which N ex is based on produced animal, this is noticed as a footnote in Appendix H and I. Appendix G shows the total N-excretion for the different main livestock categories from 1985 to 2011 as well as the NH3 emission for the different main livestock categories.

5.1.4 Emission factors Housing unit The emission factors for housing vary according to the combination of housing and manure type. As an example, the emission factors for cattle housing units are given in Table 5.2 based on values in the report on normative standards (Poulsen et al., 2001, Poulsen, 2012). For emission factors for other livestock types see appendix J. Table 5.2 NH3 emission factors for housing units. Cattle Urine TAN Housing type Tethered

Slurry TAN

Pct. loss of TAN ex animal urine and solid manure slurry manure

10 -

6

Solid manure Deep litter manure Total N

Total N

pct. loss of N ex animal 5 -

-

Loose-housing slatted floor

-

16

-

-

with beds

slatted floor and scrape solid floor drained floor solid floor with tilt and scrape solid floor with tilt

-

12 20 8 8 12

-

-

Deep litter

all + solid floor + slatted floor + slatted floor and scrape + solid floor and scrape

-

16 12 20

-

6 6 6 6 6

Boxes

sloping bedded floor slatted floor

-

16 16

-

-

Denitrification of the N in animal manure, where the NH4-N undergoes nitrification to N2, N2O and NOX, can occur to a large degree with the use of deep litter bedding. This loss is subtracted from storage. The loss of N2O is included in the calculation of greenhouse gases.

38

Storage The emission factors used for storage are listed in Table 5.3 and are based on normative figures (Poulsen et al., 2001 and Poulsen, 2012). Table 5.3 NH3 emission factors for storage units. Urine

Slurry1

Total N TAN

2 2.2

Total N TAN Total N TAN Total N TAN

Deep litter

2.1 3.5

Solid manure 4 -

1 -

Pct. of solid manure stored in heap on field 35 -

2 2.2 2 2.2 2 2.2

2.4 2.9 2.4 2.9 2.4 2.9

19 19 19 -

6.5 9.8 9.8 -

50 75 -

Hens and pullets Total N

-

2

7.5

4.8

95

Broilers Total N Turkeys Total N Ducks and geese Total N

-

-

11.5 -

6.8 8 6.8

85 -

Fur animals

Total N TAN

0 0

3.1 3.1

11.5 -

-

-

Horses, sheep and goats

Total N

-

-

-

4

-

Cattle Swine

Sows Weaners Fattening pigs

Poultry

1

It is assumed that 5 % of slurry tanks in swine production and 2 % in cattle production are not fully covered or have

an inadequate floating cover. The emission factors were higher in the previous years (see appendix K).

Liquid manure The emission from urine is, according to the normative figures, an estimated 2 % of total N ex housing unit and 2.2 % of TAN ex housing unit from a closed urine tank. Due to legislation from 2003 all slurry tanks have to be fully covered or have established a floating cover. As not all slurry tanks have a fixed cover or a full floating cover, this is taken into account in the inventory (COWI, 1999 and 2000). It is assumed that the covered capacity has increased in recent years as a result of the stricter regulations on the management of slurry tanks. However, it is difficult to achieve full floating cover all day of the year, some emission can take place during filling and mixing of manure in the tank. Therefore, it is assumed that floating/fixed covers are absent on 5 % of slurry tanks in swine production and on 2 % in cattle production. The correction for the lack of floating/fixed covers for total N ex housing unit is based on normative figures (Poulsen et al., 2001), while the correction for TAN is based on Hansen et al. (2008). The emission factor for swine slurry with and without a floating/fixed cover is 2 % and 9 % of total-N ex housing unit and 2.5 and 11.4 % of TAN, respectively. For cattle slurry the factor is approximately 2 % with floating/fixed cover and 6 % of total-N ex housing and 3.4 and 10.3 % of TAN, respectively. Calculation examples of NH3-N emission factor based on TAN for swine and cattle slurry are shown in Equation 5.3. The unit is kg NH3-N per kg TAN. a) Emission

swine slury

 ( 0 .95  2 .5 %)  ( 0 .05  11 .4 %)  2 .9 %

(Eq. 5.3a)

b) Emission

cattle slurry

 (0 .98  3 .4 %)  (0 .05  10 .3 %)  3 .5 %

(Eq. 5.3b)

39

The emission factors for 2011 for swine (corrected), cattle (corrected) and fur animals are 2.9 %, 3.5 % and 3.1 %, respectively. Emission factors for all years are shown in appendix K. Solid manure The volatilization from solid manure is based on normative figures (Poulsen et al., 2001). From august 2006 the law stipulates that manure heaps should be covered, but also here a correction of the emission factor is made for the ones not covered. A calculation example of the correction for swine manure is shown in Equation 5.4. The unit is kg NH3-N per kg TAN.

Emission swine manure  (0.5  0,25%)  (0.5  0,13%)  19%

(Eq. 5.4)

Emission factors for cattle, swine, poultry, and fur animals are 4 %, 19 %, 7.5 % (broilers 11.5 %) and 11.5 %, respectively. See emission factors and factors for correction in appendix L. The emission from deep litter bedding is based on normative figures (Poulsen et al., 2001). The calculation of the emission from cattle, sows, fattening pigs, hens and broilers takes into account that a proportion of the manure is applied directly to the field and, therefore, not stored in the field manure heap. The report containing normative figures estimates percentage of manure stored in the field manure heap (Poulsen, 2012), see Table 5.3. Denitrification Table 5.4 lists the emission factors for denitrification of solid manure and deep litter based on normative figures (Poulsen et al., 2001 and Poulsen, 2012). The emission factors are estimated on the basis of measurements in Danish cattle and swine housing units. The factors for the remaining livestock categories are not measured directly; however, they are estimated relative to the denitrification from cattle and swine units. The fact that a certain proportion of the manure is stored in the field manure heap is taken into account (Poulsen et al., 2001). Table 5.4 Denitrification associated with storage of solid manure and deep litter in the field manure heap. Denitrification in percent of total N ex housing unit Solid manure Deep litter Cattle 10 5 Swine 15 15 Poultry 10 10 Horses, sheep and goats 10

Field application of manure A change in practice of manure application has taken place as a result of change in crop pattern and increasing environmental demands. A rise in growing of winter cereals from 1985 to 2011 has led to a shift from manure application in autumn to early application in spring and changes in application technology. The requirement for an improved N utilisation in manure has also led to a greater proportion of slurry being injected or incorporated directly into the soil. Two further NH3 reducing measures should also be mentioned. Following the legislation (BEK, 2002) a ban on traditional broad spreading of liquid manure was introduced, and manure applied to areas without vegetation had to be incorporated into the soil within six hours of application, both effective from 1 August 2003. From 2011, slurry applied on 40

fields with grass for feeding or fields without crop cover, has to be injected directly into the soil (BEK no. 915 of 27/06/2013). However, the injection can be substituted by acidification of the slurry. In future, acid treated slurry during spreading of manure on fields is expected to expand. Acidification reduce the pH value and thus reduce ammonia emission, because a larger part of the nitrogen is converted to ammonium, which does not evaporate as easy as ammonia. It is expected that the reducing effect of the acid treated slurry will be implemented in the emission inventory, when data are available for how much manure is acidified. To calculate the emission from application of manure to agricultural land, three different weighted emission factors are used. These distinguish between solid manure, liquid manure from swine and liquid manure from cattle and other livestock. Changes in application practices and technological improvements driven by environmental legislation have led to a decrease in the weighted emission factors – see Table 5.5. The emission factor from liquid cattle manure have decreased from 33.0 % in 1985 to 13.1 % in 2011, corresponding to a 60 % reduction due to approximately two thirds of the slurry now being injected/incorporated directly into the soil. A smaller reduction has taken place for liquid swine manure and solid manure. Table 5.5 Percentage loss of NH3 from application of liquid manure (NH3-N of TAN ex storage) and solid manure (NH3-N of N ex storage). Weighted emission 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011 factor Liquid manure Cattle1 33.0 34.3 30.3 27.2 14.1 14.3 14.3 14.3 13.1 Swine 17.3 17.9 15.3 13.8 11.1 11.0 11.0 11.0 10.8 Solid manure 9.6 7.9 7.5 6.8 6.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.7 1

Value for cattle is also used for all other animal types, except for swine.

Calculation of the weighted emission factor The weighted emission factor is calculated for each year and in two stages. EFw is calculated first as the sum of the proportion of manure applied under a given application practice (i) multiplied by the associated emission factor for this application practice.

EFw   MAi  EFi where:

EFw MAi EFi

(Eq. 5.5) = weighted emission factor, kg NH3-N kg N-1 yr-1 = nitrogen in manure applied under a given application practice i, kg N yr-1 = emission factor for the application practice i, kg NH3-N kg N-1 yr-1

Secondly is calculated EFwt which includes emission reducing technology, such as acidification of manure in connection with application. EFwt

pt ∙ EFw

EF

(Eq. 5.6)

41

Where:

EFwt pt EFw EFt

= weighted emission factor including technology, kg NH3-N kg N-1 yr-1 = percentage of the manure treated by the technology t = weighted emission factor by application practice = emission factor for manure treated by the technology t

A given application practice is determined by different combinations of variables such as application time, application methods, length of time between application and incorporation of manure, and stage of crop growth. Application time a. spring-winter (bare soil, crops, grass) b. spring-summer (grass) c. late summer-autumn (rape, seed grass) Application method a. injection/direct incorporation b. trailing hoses c. broad spreading (prohibited for liquid manure from 2003) Length of time between application to land and incorporation of manure a. 6 or 4 hours b. less than 12 hours c. more than 12 hours d. more than a week Stage of crop growth a. bare soil b. growth There is no annual statistical information on how the farmer handles the manure application in practice. The calculations are based on a study of a limited number of farms, sales figures for manure application machinery as well as development trends in LOOP areas (catchments included in the national monitoring programme for the aquatic environment) (Andersen et al., 2001). The estimate for application practice in 2001 and 2002 is, in addition to data from LOOP areas (Grant et al., 2002; Grant et al., 2003), based on information from the organisation for agricultural contractors (Kjeldal, 2002) and a questionnaire survey of application practice implemented by Danish Agriculture (2002) involving 1.600 farmers. From 2003 onwards the estimate of application practice is based on expert judgment (Birkmose, 2012). The assumed application practice for the years 1985 – 2011 is shown in appendix M. Emission factor The emission factor used for each combination of application practice (equation 5.5) is based on information from Hansen et al. (2008), see Table 5.6. The emission will be relatively high in the beginning of the growing season, when the plants, by virtue of their small size, do not contribute significant to 42

shade or shelter. With applications later in the season the emission will be significantly lower, despite the higher air temperatures, as a result of the larger leaf area available. In addition to the shade and shelter effect provided by the leaves, which lowers the emission, a proportion of the NH3 in gaseous form will be absorbed by the leaves themselves. In accordance to Danish livestock regulations, the maximum time between application and incorporation of manure has been reduced from 12 to 6 hours from BEK (2002). It is assumed that the decrease in the emission factor resulting from this reduction will be 33 % (Sommer, 2002). Table 5.6 Emission factors for application of animal manure. Emission factor under application Liquid manure Crop stage A) Application time

+ + + + + -

March

Injected/incorporated direct B) hours NH3-N in pct. of TAN in manure 0

1.6

April March April May Summer Summer Autumn

0 > 1 week > 1 week

1.8 24.5 26.7 32 2.1 28.6

Autumn

0

0 0 0 0

1.9 Liquid manure Broad spreading B) hours NH3-N in pct. of TAN in manure Winter-spring < 12 18.5 Winter-spring > 12 20.1 Winter-spring > 1 week 48.6 + Spring-summer > 1 week 73.5 + Late summer-autumn > 1 week 72.0 Late summer-autumn < 12 23.0 Late summer-autumn > 12 23.0 Late summer-autumn > 1 week 23.0 A) - indicate bare soil + indicate growth. B) Length of time before incorporation into soil.

Trailing hoses B) hours NH3-N in pct. of TAN in manure 4 10.7 4 11.6 > 1 week 26.9 > 1 week 28.6 > 1 week > 1 week

26.0 43.2

4 > 1 week 4

13.8 38.6 12.4

Solid manure Traditional B) hours NH3-N in pct. of total in manure 4 5.0 6 10.0 > 1 week 16.0 > 1 week 20.0 > 1 week 14.0 4 3.0 6 8.0 > 1 week 11.0

Grazing Part of the manure from dairy cattle, heifers, suckling cows, sheep, goats, horses and deer is deposited on the field during grazing (See Chapter 4.3). An emission factor of 7 % of the total nitrogen content is assumed for volatile NH3-N, which is based on studies of grazing cattle in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (Jarvis et al., 1989a; Jarvis et al., 1989b; Bussink, 1994). The emission factor is used for all animal categories.

5.2

Synthetic fertilisers

Data on the use of synthetic fertiliser is based on the sale estimations collected by DAFA (2012). Emission factors are based on the values given in EMEP/EEA Guidebook (EMEP, 2009).

43

The emission from synthetic fertilisers depends on type as well as amount used. Data for consumption (Table 5.7), fertiliser type and nitrogen content (Table 5.8) are obtained from the DAFA (2012), which is based on the total sale from all fertiliser suppliers. The AgriFish Agency estimates that 1–2 % of synthetic fertilisers is used in parks, golf courses and sports grounds, etc. (Knudsen, 2010) – i.e. areas that are not directly associated with agricultural activities. However, the 1–2 % of the emission from these sources is included in the emission from agriculture. Table 5.7 Synthetic fertiliser consumption 1985 – 2011, Gg N. 1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

2009

2010

2011 197

Used in agriculture

398

400

316

251

206

220

200

190

Other

6

6

6

6

2

2

2

2

2

Total

404

406

322

257

208

223

202

192

199

Emission factors for the various fertiliser types are based on the recommendations in the EMEP/EEA Guidebook (EMEP, 2009) – see Table 5.8. The same emission factors are applied for all years. Table 5.8 Consumption and emission factors used for synthetic fertiliser, 2011. Emission factor,

Consumption,

Pct. of N in fertiliser

Gg N

Calcium nitrate + boron

1.4

0.4

Ammonium sulphate

1.4

6.2

Calcium ammonium nitrate and other nitrate types

0.9

94.9

Ammonium nitrate

0.9

8.6

Fertiliser type:

Liquid ammonia

2.0

6.0

Urea

12.8

0.4

Other single fertilisers

6.3

25.2

Magnesium fertiliser

1.4

0.0

NPK fertiliser

0.9

48.1

Diammonium phosphate (18-20-0)

1.4

1.1

Other NP fertilisers

1.4

4.0

NK fertilisers

0.9

2.3 1971

Total consumption of fertiliser Emission factor - weighted average 1

1.6

Including consumption relating to parks, sports grounds etc. – representing approximate-

ly 1 %.

Since 1985, there has been a significant decrease in the use of synthetic fertiliser (Table 5.7). This is mainly due to stricter requirements to the utilisation of nitrogen in manure and requirements to handling of manure applied to the soil. Another reason is changes in the distribution of the different types of fertiliser. Use of urea, which has a high emission factor, has decreased and constitutes today less than 1 % of the total nitrogen used as fertiliser. In average 1.6 % of the total nitrogen used in synthetic fertiliser is emitted as NH3 in 2011.

44

Table 5.9 NH3-N emission from synthetic fertilisers 1985 – 2011, tonnes NH3-N.

Agriculture

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

2009

2010

2011

5 322

5 427

4 573

3 169

2 573

3 005

3 020

2 857

3 243

Other

50

50

50

50

18

19

17

16

17

Total

5 272

5 378

4 523

3 119

2 555

2 986

3 003

2 841

3 226

5.3

Crops

Plants exchange NH3 with the atmosphere both by absorbing and expelling NH3. The amount can vary significantly depending on the plant’s stage of development, conditions surrounding the application of the fertiliser and climatic conditions at the particular location. A study from Schjoerring and Mattsson (2001) indicate an emission of up to 5 kg NH3-N per hectare. Based on a literature study the emission from growing crops is estimated to 2 kg N per ha for crops in rotation and 0.5 kg per ha for grass and clover (Gyldenkærne & Albrektsen; 2013). The size of the cultivated area is based on information from Statistics Denmark. Table 5.10 Emission factor used for crops, kg N per ha. All crops ex grass

2

Grass/clover in a rotation

0.5

Permanent/long-term grass

0.5

From 1985 to 2011 the NH3 emission from growing crops has decreased from approximately 4 900 to 4 500 tonnes of NH3-N corresponding to a small reduction of 9 %, which is due to a decrease in the area with crops.

5.4

Sewage sludge

Some of the sludge from wastewater treatment and the manufacturing industry are applied as fertiliser to agricultural soil. Information on the amount of sewage sludge applied is obtained from reports prepared by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, where the latest one is DEPA, 2009. From 2005 and onwards the amount of N applied from wastewater treatment is based on the fertiliser accounts controlled by DAFA. Farmers with more than 10 animal units1 have to be registered and have to keep accounts of the N content in manure, received manure or other organic fertiliser. The N content varies from year to year and is usually 4–5 % of the total amount of sludge. An emission factor of 3 % of the N content in sludge is used, based on information from the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Bielecki, 2002). For sludge incorporated into soil within six hours of application the emission factor is expected to be halved, i.e. 1.5 %. Concerning the application to fields it is assumed that 25 % of the sludge is not incorporated, while the remaining 75 % is incorporated within six hours. This gives a weighted emission factor of approximately 1.9 %, same for all years.

EFsewage sludge  0.25  0.03  0.75  0.015  0.01875 NH3-N of N applied A Danish animal unit is defined as 100 kg Nex Storage from an average housing system. This corresponds to e.g. 0.75 large breed dairy cattle or 36 fattening pigs.

1

45

Table 5.11 shows an increasing amount of sewage sludge being applied to agricultural soil from 1985 to the mid-1990s, which is replaced by a decrease until 2008 due to use of the product in industrial processes, e.g. in cement production and the production of sandblasting materials. Since 2008 is seen a slight increase of the amount of sewage sludge applied to soils. Table 5.11 Emission from sewage sludge applied to agricultural land 1985-2011. 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011 Sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil, Gg dry matter N-content, pct. N applied to agricultural soila, tonnes NH3-N

78

112

84

46

50

63

57

55

4.0

4.0

4.1

4.3

4.8

4.8

4.8

4.8

4.8

2 000 3 100 4 600 3 600 2 200 2 400 3 000 2 700 2 600

NH3-N emission, tonnes NH3-N a

50

38

58

87

68

41

45

56

50

49

rounded values.

The NH3 emission from industrial sludge is assumed to be negligible because most of it is immobilised in organic matter (Andersen et al., 1999), which is why there is no estimate for this source.

5.5

NH3 treated straw

NH3 treated straw was until 2006 used as cattle feed. By law in 2006 the NH3 treatment of straw was banned. However, due to wet weather conditions a dispensation to the law was given in 2010 and 2011. The addition of NH3 promotes the breakdown of the straw, which aids the digestion processes. It is assumed that the sale of NH3 in the second half of the year is used for the treatment of straw with NH3 and the NH3 sales are obtained from the suppliers. Emissions from NH3 treated straw are not included when it comes to the EU NEC directive. The emission from ammonia treatment of straw is estimated to 65% kg NH3N per kg N added to straw. This estimate is based on few studies and depends on the dry matter content in straw and the storage conditions (Andersen et al., 1999). There is no statistics regarding how the farmers handle the ammonia treated straw in practice, so emission factor at 65 % is highly uncertain. Table 5.12 shows that since 1985 there have been a considerable decrease in the emission from NH3 treated straw until the ban in 2005. Table 5.12 Emission from NH3 treated straw, 1985-2011, tonnes NH3-N. 1995

2000

2010

2011

Consumption of NH3-N 8 285 12 912 8 406

1985

3 125

329

NO

300

300

Emission of NH3-N

2 031

214

NO

195

195

NO – Not occurring.

46

1990

5 385 8 393 5 464

2005 2006-2009

6

PM emission

PM emissions originate from the housing of livestock, from field operations (harvesting and cultivation of soil), the handling of crop products (storage and transport) and from field burning of agricultural residues. In the Danish inventory only PM from livestock and from field burning is included. A methodology, for calculating PM emissions from field operations, is provided in the 2013 edition of the EMEP/EEA Guidebook, but it is needed to investigate if default values in the Guidebook reflect the Danish agricultural conditions. The PM emissions from the agricultural sector mainly consist of larger particles. In the reporting under CLRTAP particulate matter is reported as TSP, PM10 and PM2.5. Tiny airborne particles or aerosols that are smaller than 100 μm are collectively referred to as total suspended particles (TSP). PM10 is the fraction of suspended particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or smaller and PM2.5 represents particles smaller than 2.5 μm. Agriculture accounts for 31 % of the total TSP emission in 2011 and the emission shares for PM10 and PM2.5 are only 20 % and 6 % respectively. Most agricultural emissions originate from livestock and a description of the calculation methodology is set out below. Emissions from the field burning of agricultural residues contribute less than 1 % to the agricultural emissions. The calculation from field burning is described in Chapter 7.

6.1

Livestock production

The emission of PM is estimated for the years 1985-2011, but only reported in the Danish inventory for the years 2000 to 2011 in line with the reporting guidelines (UNECE, 2009). The emissions from animal production include dust from housing systems for cattle, swine, poultry, horses, sheep and goats. In 2011 these emissions, expressed as TSP, were an estimated 11.29 Gg. Of this, 79 % relates to swine production. The emission from cattle and poultry contributed 11 % and 10 %, respectively.

6.1.1 Calculation method The estimation of the PM emission is based on the EMEP/EEA Guidebook (EMEP, 2009) part B, chapter 4B, where the scientific data are based mainly on an investigation of PM emissions from North European housings (Takai et al., 1998). The PM emission is calculated using equation 6.1 and thus distinguishes between emission from liquid and solid manure.



 D  PM10  no  1  G   EFPM10  B  EFPM10  B  365  where:

PM10 no DG EFPM10, S or L



(Eq. 6.1)

= emission of PM10 = number of average annual population (AAP – see definition in section 4.1) = actual days on grass = emission factor for solid or liquid manure 47

BS or L

= percent of solid or liquid manure

The main types of housing are divided into subcategories with a distinction for each category between solid and slurry-based housing systems. Besides the distinction between liquid and solid manure, the PM emission is furthermore related to the number of days the animal is housed. The PM emission from grazing animals is considered negligible. Number of grazing days 2011 is listed in Table 4.13. Table 6.1 shows emission of PM from livestock, see appendix N for PM emission for all years distributed on the different animal categories. PM emission is reported in the inventory for the years 2000-2011. Table 6.1 PM emission from livestock 1985-2011, Gg. TSP

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

2009

2010

2011

9.33

9.25

10.33

11.18

11.74

11.01

10.86

11.43

11.29

PM10

4.64

4.64

5.26

5.70

5.86

5.44

5.50

5.73

5.68

PM2.5

1.22

1.15

1.21

1.24

1.21

1.16

1.16

1.20

1.20

The main part of the emission of PM from livestock originates from swine housings. The emission increases from 1985 to 2000 mainly due to increase in number of animals. In the period 2000 to 2011, the emission of PM from livestock is almost unaltered, but from 2009 to 2010 the emission increased (TSP increases 5 %), mainly due to an increase in the number of swine.

6.1.2 Emission factors The emission factors for PM10 and PM2.5 are those recommended in the EMEP/EEA Guidebook, (EMEP, 2009). However, calves and weaners are not included and therefore the 2006 edition of the Guidebook (EMEP, 2006) is used for these. Emission factors for sheep and goats are based on Fontelle et al. (2011). The same emissions factors are used for all years. In Takai et al. (1998), dust emission from housings is categorised as “inhalable dust”. This is defined as particles that can be transported into the body via the respiratory system. “Inhalable dust” equates approximately to TSP (Hinz, 2002). Estimation of TSP is based on the conversion factors for inhalable dust into PM10 given in the Guidebook (EMEP, 2009). The conversion factor for cattle, horses, sheep and goats is 0.46, for swine 0.45 and poultry 1.00. Table 6.2 shows the emission factors for livestock. The emission factors are given for the various housing systems and separated into solid or slurrybased systems.

48

Table 6.2 PM emission factors from animal housing systems, kg per AAP (defined in section 4.1). Emission factor Livestock category

Manure type

TSP

PM10

PM2.5

Solid

0.78

0.36

0.23

Slurry

1.52

0.70

0.45

Solid

0.35

0.16

0.1

Slurry

0.33

0.15

0.1

Solid

0.52

0.24

0.16

Slurry

0.70

0.32

0.21

Solid

0.57

0.26

0.17

Slurry

0.93

0.43

0.28

Solid

0.52

0.24

0.16

Slurry

0.70

0.32

0.21

Solid

1.29

0.58

0.094

Slurry

1.00

0.45

0.073

Cattle: Dairy cattle Calves < ½ year Beef cattle 1

Heifer

Suckling cattle2 Swine: Sows

3

0.40

0.18

0.029

Slurry

0.40

0.18

0.029

Solid

1.11

0.50

0.081

Slurry

0.93

0.42

0.069

Solid

0.017

0.017

0.002

Slurry

0.270

0.270

0.052

Broilers

Solid

0.350

0.350

0.045

Turkeys

Solid

0.032

0.032

0.004

Other poultry

Solid

0.032

0.032

0.004

Weaners

Solid

Fattening pigs Poultry: Laying hens

Other: Horses

Solid

0.39

0.18

0.12

Sheep

Solid

0.133

0.061

0.018

Goats

Solid

0.133

0.061

0.018

1

Average of “calves” and “dairy cattle”.

2

Assumed the same value as for “Beef cattle”.

3

Same as slurry-based systems.

6.2

Field operations

In the EMEP/EEA Guidebook a methodology is provided to account for PM emissions from field operations, which includes emissions from crop harvesting, cultivation of soil, and the cleaning and drying of crops (EMEP, 2009). Harvesting is the predominant source of PM and the emission depends on crop and soil type, cultivation method and the weather before and during work.

6.2.1 Calculation method The methodology provided in the EMEP/EEA Guidebook on emission calculations from field operations is shown below:

EPM  EFPM  AR no where:

(Eq. 6.2)

EPM = emission of PM10, PM2.5 or TSP, kg a-1 EFPM = emission factor for crop and operation type, kg ha-1 AR = area of crops, ha 49

no

= production cycles, the number of times the operations are performed, a-1

Emission calculations should be made for each crop and operation type. Data needed to complete the emission calculations are crop production, operation types and operation procedures. A first estimate is not yet provided, so the quantification of the agricultural contribution is still unknown.

6.2.2 Emission factors Emission factors for crops and operation type are given in Table 6.3 (EMEP, 2009). Emission factors for wet climate conditions are the most comparable for Danish conditions. Emission factors for TSP are not available. Table 6.3 Emission factor for PM10 and PM2.5 for agricultural crop operations, kg per ha. Crop

Soil cultivation

Harvesting

Cleaning

Drying

PM10 Wheat

0.25

0.49

0.19

0.56

Rye

0.25

0.37

0.16

0.37

Barley

0.25

0.41

0.16

0.43

Oat

0.25

0.62

0.25

0.66

Other arable

0.25

NAV2

NAV2

NAV2

Grass1

0.25

0.25

NO

NO

PM2.5 Wheat

0.015

0.02

0.009

0.168

Rye

0.015

0.015

0.008

0.111

Barley

0.015

0.016

0.008

0.129

Oat

0.015

0.025

0.0125

0.198

Other arable

0.015

NA

NA

NA

Grass1

0.015

0.01

NO

NO

1

Grass includes hay making only.

2

NAV = not available.

Information on how the field operations typically are performed for each crop type in Denmark is needed. This includes e.g. estimates on the average number of field operations and type of machinery used during production of the different crop types. Furthermore, it has to be considered if the default values provided in the EMEP/EEA Guidebook reasonably reflect Danish agricultural conditions or if national values are available.

50

7

Field burning of agricultural residues

The field burning of agricultural residues has been prohibited in Denmark since 1990 (LBK, 1989; BEK, 1991) and may only take place in connection with the production of grass seeds on fields with repeated production (straw from seeds of grass) and in cases of wet or broken bales of straw (mixed cereals). The amount of burnt straw from the grass seed production is estimated at 15 % of the total amount produced. The amount of burnt bales or wet straw is estimated at 0.1 % of the total amount of straw. Both estimates are based on an expert judgement provided by the Danish Agricultural Advisory Service (Feidenhans'l, 2009). The total production is based on data from DSt. Field burning produces emissions of a series of different pollutants: NH3, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, CO2, SO2, NMVOC, PM, heavy metals, dioxins, PAHs, HCB and PCBs. Default values given by the EMEP/EEA Guidebook (EMEP, 2009) are used for NH3, NOx, CO, SO2, NMVOC, PM, heavy metals (except for Cu) and dioxins. For Cu and for PAHs, emission factors are based on Jenkins (1996) and for N2O, CH4 and CO2 the emission factors are based on Andreae & Merlet (2001). Emission factors for HCB are based on Hübner (2001) and for PCBs on Black et al. (2012). The equation for calculating the emission is shown below. The parameters used for the calculation of emissions are given in Table 7.1Error! Reference source not found. and the EF’s are provided in Table 7.3. EF is the same for all years. Emi BB∙

BB

EF

∙ FO

(Eq. 7.1)

CP∙FB∙FR DM 1 000

where

Emi BB CP FB FRDM EF FO

= emission of pollutants, Gg = total burned biomass, Gg dry matter (DM) = crop production, t = fraction burned in fields = dry matter fraction of residue = emission factor, g per kg DM = fraction oxidized

Table 7.1 Parameters for estimating emissions from field burning, 2011. Crop

Fraction burned

Dry matter

production

in fields

fraction of residuea

tonnes Mixed cereals Straw from seeds of grass a

DAAS (2005).

b

IPCC (1997).

Fraction Total biomass

oxidizedb

burned Gg DM

5 436 000

0.001

0.85

4.62

0.90

281 975

0.15

0.85

35.95

0.90

51

7.1

Conversion of EF for HCB

The emission factor for HCB from field burning of agricultural residue is given by Hübner (2001) as 10 000 µg per ha. This factor has been converted to the unit g per tonnes by following equation: EF

EF



Where:





EFUsed EFHubner Y

(Eq. 7.1) = emission factor in g per tonnes = emission factor given by Hübner (2001), 10 000 µg per ha = yield in tonnes per ha

Table 7.2 Emission factor for HCB from field burning of agricultural waste. Yield, tonnes per ha Straw from cereals Straw from seed production

7.2

EF, g per tonnes

3.4

0.003

5

0.002

Emissions

Figure 7.1 shows the trend of the emission of NH3, PM10, PM2.5, CH4 and NMVOC from field burning for 1985-2011. The large decrease of the emissions in 1990 is due to the ban on field burning of agricultural residues. The trend of the emission of the remaining pollutants is similar to the ones shown. Emissions for all pollutants and all years are shown in appendix T.

Figure 7.1 Trend of the emission of selected pollutants from field burning of agricultural residues.

Table 7.3 shows the emission of all pollutants from field burning of agricultural residues for the year 2011. See Appendix T for emissions for all years.

52

Table 7.3 Emission factors and emissions for the different pollutants from field burning of agricultural residues, 2011. Emission

Unit for

Pollutant

EF

Unit for EF

2011

emission

NH3

2.4

g per kg DM

0.09

Gg

CH4

2.7

g per kg DM

0.10

Gg

N2O

0.07

g per kg DM

0.003

Gg

NOx

2.4

g per kg DM

0.09

Gg

CO

58.9

g per kg DM

2.15

Gg

CO2

1.515

kg per kg DM

55.32

Gg

SO2

0.3

g per kg DM

0.01

Gg

NMVOC

6.3

g per kg DM

0.23

Gg

TSP

5.8

g per kg DM

0.21

Gg

PM10

5.8

g per kg DM

0.21

Gg

PM2.5

5.5

g per kg DM

0.20

Gg

PM

Metals Pb

0.865

mg per kg DM

0.03

Tonnes

Cd

0.049

mg per kg DM

Tonnes

Hg

0.008

mg per kg DM

0.002 0.0003

As

0.058

mg per kg DM

0.002

Tonnes

Cr

0.22

mg per kg DM

0.01

Tonnes

Ni

0.177

mg per kg DM

0.01

Tonnes

Tonnes

Se

0.036

mg per kg DM

0.001

Tonnes

Zn

0.028

mg per kg DM

0.001

Tonnes

Cu

0.0003

mg per kg DM

0.00001

Tonnes

500

ng TEQ per t

0.02

g/TEQ

Benzo(a)pyrene

2 787

g per kg DM

0.10

Tonnes

benzo(b)fluoranthene

2 735

g per kg DM

0.10

Tonnes

benzo(k)fluoranthene

1 073

g per kg DM

0.04

Tonnes

Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene

1 017

g per kg DM

0.04

Tonnes

HCB - mixed cereals1

0.003

g per t

HCB - grass seed1

0.002

g per t 0.09

kg

3

g TEQ per t

0.05

g TEQ per t 0.00002

kg

Dioxins PAHs

HCB PCBs - mixed cereals PCBs - grass seed PCBs 1

See Chapter 11.2 for conversion of EF from the unit ha to g per t.

References: EMEP, 2009, Jenkins, 1996, Andreae & Merlet, 2001, Hübner, 2001

53

8

HCB emission from use of pesticides

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a poisonous substance, which is dangerous to human and animal health. HCB is used as agent in pesticides and some of the pesticides used in Denmark contain HCB, but pure HCB used as pesticide is banned. There are two sources for HCB emission in the agricultural sector; field burning of agricultural residue and the use of pesticides. Emissions of HCB from field burning of agricultural residues are described in Chapter 7.

8.1

Pesticides

A range of pesticides are used in Denmark. In the period from 1990 to 2011 six types of pesticides containing HCB have been identified as used in Denmark. These are atrazine, chlorothalonil, clopyralid, lindane, pichloram and simazine. Data of amounts of effectual substance used in Denmark are collected from Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), see Table 8.1. The use of atrazine and lindane stopped in 1994 and the use of chlorothalonil and simazine ceased in 2000 and 2004, respectively. Table 8.1 Amounts of effectual substance used in Denmark, 1990-2011, kg.

Atrazine

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

2009

2010

2011

91 294

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5 137 20 846

9 126

11 841

Chlorothalonil

10 512

10 980

7 340

-

Clopyralid

16 461

22 587

7 446

5 874

8 356

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

723.6

1 350

19 865 23 620

-

-

-

-

-

Lindane Pichloram Simazine

30 234

The emission is calculated using following equation: E



∙ EF

Where:

Epes ai EFi

(Eq. 8.1) = emission of HCB from pesticides = amount of effectual substance in the pesticide i = emission factor for the pesticide i

No default emission factors are given in EMEP/EEA Guidebook. Emission factors given in Yang (2006) are used in the calculation of the emissions, see Table 8.2. Table 8.2 Emission factors for HCB from pesticides, 1990-2011, g per tonnes.

54

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

2009

2010

2011

Atrazine

100

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Chlorothalonil

500

40

40

10

10

10

10

10

Clopyralid

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

Lindane

100

50

50

1

1

1

1

1

Pichloram

100

50

50

8

8

8

8

8

Simazine EPA, 2011.

100

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

8.2

Emission

Table 8.3 shows the emission of HCB from the agricultural sector for the years 1990-2011. The emission has decreased significantly from 1990 to 2011 due to decrease in use of pesticides containing HCB. Table 8.3 Emission of HBC, 1990-2011, kg.

Pesticides

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

2009

2010

2011

18.28

0.50

0.33

0.01

0.01

0.04

0.02

0.03

55

9

NMVOC emission

Around 2 % of the total NMVOC emission originates from the agricultural sector. Three emission sources are known: agricultural soils (crops), manure management and field burning of agricultural residues. For the emission from field burning see Chapter 7. In 2011, the emission from agricultural soils contributed 89 % and field burning 11 % to the agricultural emission. Currently, the emission inventory does not include the NMVOC emissions from manure management. The emission of NMVOC from agricultural soils is included in the Danish inventory and cover emissions from arable crops and grassland. NMVOC emissions can be influenced by a series of factors, such as temperature and light intensity, plant growth stage, water stress, air pollution and senescence (EMEP, 2009). Because of sparse information on emissions, the EMEP/EEA Guidebook only provides a Tier 1 methodology.

E pollutant  AR area  EFpollutant where:

Epollutant ARarea EFpollutant

(Eq. 9.1)

= amount of pollutant emitted, kg a-1 = area covered by crop, ha = EF of pollutant, kg ha-1 a-1

Activity data, area with arable crops or grassland, are obtained from DSt. In the Danish inventory a national emission factor for NMVOC is used. Emission factors for crops and grass are based on assessments carried out in the beginning of the 1990s (Fenhann & Kilde 1994 and Priemé & Christensen, 1991). The estimated emission factor for arable crops is 393 g NMVOC per ha and 2 120 g NMVOC per ha for grassland. The total emission of NMVOC from agricultural soils 1985-2011 is listed in Table 9.1. Table 9.1 NMVOC emission from agricultural soils 1985 – 2011. 1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

2009

2010

2011

Arable crops, 1000 ha 2 336 2 322 2 064 2 043 2 086 2 107 2 103 2 096 2 102

56

Grassland, 1000 ha

498

466

446

413

446

490

498

521

516

NMVOC emission, Gg

1.97

1.90

1.76

1.68

1.77

1.87

1.88

1.93

1.92

10 CH4 emission

The digestive processes in ruminants, predominantly cattle, are the largest source of agricultural CH4 emissions. The remainder comes from the bacterial breakdown of animal manure under anaerobic conditions (primarily in slurry). The field burning of agricultural residues is also included as a source of emissions, but contributes less than 1 % to total agriculture emissions of CH4. The emission from manure management includes a reduction of emissions due to biogas-treatment of slurry, which is described in section 8.3. The methodology used to calculate the CH4 emission is based on guidance given in the 1996 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 1997) and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC, 2000).

10.1 Enteric fermentation The CH4 emission from enteric fermentation can be regarded as an energy loss under the digestion process. It is mainly ruminants that produce CH4, whereas monogastric animals – i.e. swine, horses, poultry and fur animals – produce CH4 to a much smaller degree. The emission is primarily from cattle, which, in 2011, contributed 85 % of the emission from enteric fermentation. The emission from swine production is the second largest source at 11 % and the rest of the animals; horses, sheep, goats, poultry and deer make up the remaining 4 %. The relative contribution from swine production has increased over the years as a result of a production expansion as well as a reduction in the number of cattle. The calculation of CH4 production from the digestive system is based on the animal’s total gross energy intake (GE) and the CH4 conversion factor, which is the fraction of gross energy in feed converted to CH4 – see Equation 10.1.

EFCH4 

GE  Ym  365 55.65

(Eq. 10.1)

Where: EFCH4 GE Ym 55.65

= emission factor of CH4, kg head-1 yr-1 = gross energy intake, MJ head-1 day-1 (national data) = methane conversion factor, percent of gross energy in feed converted to methane (IPCC, 1997) = conversion factor – from MJ to kg CH4 (IPCC, 1997)

The conversion of MJ to kg CH4 the value recommended by the IPCC is used. The CH4 conversion rate Ym is the extent to which feed energy is converted to CH4 and varies depending on the breed of animal and the respective feed strategy (IPCC, 1997). Values of Ym recommended by the IPCC are used for all livestock categories except for dairy cattle and heifers, where a national value is used. 57

In the Danish emission inventory the difference between summer and winter feed intake is taken into account. Summer feed plans is based on energy content in grass whereas winter feed plans is based on energy content in roughage and concentrates.

CH4 enteric, total CH4 enteric, winter  CH4 enteric,summer

(Eq. 10.2)

10.1.1 Emission calculation for poultry and fur animals For fur animals, poultry, ostrich and pheasants, data on gross energy are not available in the IPCC Guidelines. Based on country-specific information (Hansen, 2010) CH4 emission from enteric fermentation from fur farming is considered to be not applicable. The emission calculation for poultry, ostrich and pheasants is calculated by a Tier 1 methodology: CH4, enteric Where:

∑ EF ∙no EFi noi

(Eq. 10.3)

= emission factor for animal category i = number of animals, category i

Emission factors used for poultry, ostrich and pheasants are based on the emission factors given by Wang & Huang (2005) (see Table 10.1). EF for broilers with a life cycle of 30-56 days is scaled in proportion to 42 days for broilers given by Wang & Huang (2005). Organic broilers with a life cycle of 81 days are scaled in proportion to the Taiwan country chicken with 91 days of life cycle and pullets with a life cycle of 112-119 days is scaled in proportion to the 140 days given for pullets by Wang & Huang (2005). EF for ducks, geese, turkeys, ostrich chickens and pheasant chicken are scaled by weight in proportion to a broiler with 40 days of life cycle. For laying hens EF for laying hens given by Wang & Huang (2005) is used and for ostrich hens and pheasant hens EF is scaled by weight in proportion to a laying hen. Table 10.1 EF for poultry in mg CH4 per head per lifecycle. CH4 emission factor Broilers, 42 days

15.87

Taiwan country chicken, 91 days

84.82

Pullets, 140 days

3 561

Laying hens, 365 days

10 610

10.1.2 Gross energy intake (GE) The actual feeding plans provide data for feed units (FU)2 for each livestock category. To calculate the total gross energy intake, the gross energy per feed unit – defined as GEFU – needs to be estimated.

GE total  FU  GE FU

(Eq. 10.4)

A feed unit in Denmark is defined as the feed value in 1.00 kg barley with a dry matter content of 85 % (Statistics Denmark, yearbook 2010). For other cereals e.g. wheat and rye one feed unit is 0.97 kg and 1.05 kg, respectively. 2

58

The estimate for GEFU is unaltered for all years from 1985 to 2011, while feed units vary from year to year. Feeding with sugar beets is taken into account because sugar beet feeding gives a higher methane production rate compared to grass and maize due to the high content of easily convertible sugar. Sugar beets are only included in feeding plans for dairy cattle and heifers. The parts of the equation concerning sugar beets are left out for the other livestock categories. The CH4 emission from enteric fermentation for each livestock category is calculated as shown in the following equations: a) EFwinter: EFwinter

FU∙

GEFU winter .

∙ Ym, excl. SB ∙ 1

DG

DSB

GEFU winter .

∙ Ym, incl. SB ∙

DSB

(Eq. 10.5a)

b) EFsummer: GEFU summer

EFsummer

FU∙

Where:

FU GEFU Ym DG DSB

.

∙ Ym, grazing ∙

DG

(Eq. 10.5b)

= feeding units = gross energy per feeding unit, MJ per FU = methane conversion factor, feeding with or without sugar beet = grazing days = days with sugar beet

The calculation of GEFU is based on the composition of feed intake and the energy content in proteins, fats and carbohydrates. For free-range swine, hens, etc., it is assumed that grazing does not contribute to feed intake; therefore, the GEFU of the feed is based entirely on feeding in housing. For dairy cows, the energy intake comes out at 18.3 MJ per FUcattle in a standard winter feed (Hvelplund, 2004 and Olesen et al., 2001), regardless of whether the animal grazes or not. For bull calves (< ½ year), as well as bulls older than ½ year, the same energy content value is used as for dairy cows. For horses, heifers, suckling cattle, sheep and goats an average winter feed plan is provided (Refsgaard Andersen, 2003; Clausen, 2004; Bligaard, 2004; Holmenlund, 2004), on which the calculation of the gross energy content is based - see appendix O. Gross energy for deer is based on feed plans for goats, as their feeding conditions resemble those of deer the most. The GEFU content in feeds is measured as the energy content per FU, which is assumed not to have changed since 1985. Therefore, changes in feed efficiency are reflected in changes in feed consumption.

10.1.3 CH4 conversion rate (Ym) Studies from DCA have shown a change in feeding practice with maize (whole crop) replacing sugar beet. Higher CH4 production from sugar beets compared to grass and maize, result in change of the average Ym for dairy cattle and heifers from 6.78 in 1990 to 5.95 in 2011. 59

The estimation of the national values of Ym uses the model “Karoline” developed by DCA with its database of average feeding plans for 20 % of all dairy cows in Denmark obtained from the DAAS (Olesen et al., 2005). DCA has estimated the Ym for a winter feeding plan for two years, 1991 (Ym=6.7) and 2002 (Ym=6.0). Ym for the years between 1991 and 2002 is estimated by interpolation and for 1990 and 2003 to 2011 by extrapolation where the actual sugar beet area is taken into account. Data for the actual sugar beet and maize area and Ym for dairy cattle and heifers for 1990-2011 are given in appendix P. Sugar beets are only included in the winter feeding plan and the Ym is therefore also adjusted for days on the winter and summer feeding plans. It is assumed that the winter feeding plan covers 200 days (Olesen et al., 2005).

10.1.4 CH4 emission from enteric fermentation An overview of the most important variables and the implied emission factor (IEF) is shown in Table 10.2. A distinction is made between animals which emissions are calculated based on an annual average population (AAP) (see Table 10.2a) and animals where the emission is based on one produced animal (see Table 10.2b). Table 10.2a Feed consumption and conversion factors to determine the CH4 emission from livestock enteric fermentation, Values per AAPa, 2011. Livestock category

Feed intake

Gross energy (BE) Winter

FU

Feed on grass

Ym

IEFb

Pct.

Kg CH4

Summer MJ per FU

Pct.

per AAP Cattle (large breed): Dairy cattle

6 944

18.30

18.30

5

5.94

135.65

Heifer calves, < ½ year

1 047

18.30

18.83

-

5.92

20.38

Breeding calves, ½ year to calving

2 094

25.75

18.83

30

5.94

52.15

Suckling cows > 600 kg

2 502

34.02

18.83

61

5.92

66.15

1 535

17.50

17.50

-

0.6

2.88

Swine: Sows incl. piglets < 7.3 kg Other: Horses, 600 kg

2 555

29.83

18.83

50

2.5

27.93

Sheep incl. lambs

728

29.95

18.83

73

6

17.17

Dairy goats incl. kids

667

29.95

18.83

73

5

13.11

Deer

668

30

18.83

100

5

11.30

kg feed Battery hens (100 unit) Mink incl. young

60

MJ per kg feed

4 020

17.46

17.46

-

-

1.06

229

11.47

11.47

-

-

0

a

IEF – implied emission factor.

b

AAP - annual average population – see definition in Section 4.1

Table 10.2b Feed consumption and conversion factors to determine the CH4 emission from livestock enteric fermentation, Values per produced animal, 2011. Feed on IEF Livestock category Feed intake Gross energy (BE) Ym grass Winter FU

Summer MJ per FU

Pct.

Pct.

kg CH4 per prod. animal

Cattle (large breed): Bulls calves, < ½ year Bulls, ½ year to slaughter, 440 kg

619

18.30

18.83

-

4

8.14

1 280

18.30

18.83

-

4

20.38

48

16.46

16.46

-

0.6

0.09

214

17.25

17.25

-

0.6

0.40 0.01

Swine: Weaners, 7.3-32 kg Fattening pigs, > 32 kg

kg feed Broilers, 40 days (1 000)

MJ per kg feed

4 280

18.99

18.99

-

-

Ostrich

-

-

-

-

-

0.66

Pheasant (100 unit)

-

-

-

100

-

0.47 0.005

Geese (100 unit) Turkeys, cock/hen (100)

2 800

18.19

18.19

100

-

5 070/2 430

18.55

18.55

-

-

0.01

975

18.19

18.19

-

-

0.003

Ducks (100)

The total CH4 emission from enteric fermentation 2011 is estimated to 135 Gg CH4 and the major part is related to the dairy production - see Table 10.3 Table 10.3 CH4 emission from enteric fermentation Emission 2011 Gg CH4 Cattle: Dairy cattle Heifer calves, < ½ year

75.11 3.14

Heifer, ½ year to calving Bull, calves < ½ year

24.22 2.39

Bulls, ½ year to slaughter Suckling cows

4.44 6.31

Swine: Sows incl. piglets < 7.3 kg Weaners, 7.3-32 kg Fattening pigs, > 32 kg Poultry: Hens Broilers Other poultry Other: Horses Sheep (incl. lambs) Goats (incl. kids) Deer Mink incl. Young Total

3.06 2.58 8.70 0.06 0.0015 0.0004 3.38 1.61 0.16 0.09 0 135.25

10.2 Manure management CH4 gas production from animal manure is calculated on the basis of the energy in animal manure, taking into account housing conditions as manure 61

type and use of straw for bedding based on information from Poulsen et al. (2001). Housing type determines the manure type and the CH4 production varies depending on the manure type. Anaerobic conditions, as found in slurry, promote CH4 formation, while CH4 production is low in solid manure. Developments in recent years, where more livestock are housed in open housing units and in slurry-based housing systems, have led to a relatively high CH4 production. CH4 formation from manure management is calculated on the basis of the IPCC Guidelines, where the proportion of volatile solids (VS) of the organic matter is determined. The determination of VS is country-specific and based on the amount of manure excreted (Equation 10.6 and 10.7). VShousing

VSmanure m

VSmanure

(Eq. 10.6a)

∙ DMM ∙ VSDM ∙ 365

VSstraw

s∙DMS ∙ 1

VSgrass

m

Where:

VSstraw

ash

∙ 365

g

(Eq. 10.6b)

g

(Eq. 10.6c)

∙ DMM ∙ VSDM ∙ g VS m DM VSDM g1 g2 s ash

(Eq. 10.7)

= volatile solids, kg animal-1 year-1 = amount of manure excreted, kg animal-1 year-1 = dry matter of (M) manure or (S) straw, pct = volatile solids of dry matter, pct = feeding days on grass, days year-1 3 = actual days on grass, days year-1 = amount of straw, kg animal-1 year-1 = ash content in straw, %

The ash content in straw is set to 4.5 % (DAAS, 2005). Dry matter content in manure is based on the normative data (Poulsen, 2012). The VS of dry matter is 78 % for cattle, horses, sheep, goats and deer. For swine, poultry and fur animals the VS of dry matter is 75 %. The number of days on grass is shown in Table 10.5. The amount of manure excreted and straw used depends on housing type and is given in the normative figures table (Poulsen, 2012). The amount of CH4 produced is determined from Equation 8.8, where VS is multiplied with the maximum CH4 formation capacity B0, which varies for each livestock type. The maximum CH4 conversion factor, MCF depends on the actual temperature and storage conditions. Denmark has a cold climate and, therefore a relatively low MCF. CH Where:

VShousing ∙ CH4

MCF ,

∙B

,

VSgrass ∙

MCF ,

∙B

,

(Eq. 10.8)

= CH4 emission for the given livestock category, kg CH4 animal-1 year-1

3 Actual days on grass are the number of days the heifer is out of the housing. Feeding days on grass is higher than actual days on grass due to a higher feed intake during grazing compared to the period in housing. Feeding days on grass is a conversion of this higher feed intake to days on grass.

62

VShousing = volatile solids from housings, kg dry matter animal-1 year-1 VSgrass = volatile solids from grazing, kg dry matter animal-1 year-1 B0 = maximum CH4 producing capacity for manure produced by livestock category (i) (IPCC, 1997) MCF = CH4 conversion factor for a given livestock category (i) and a given manure type (j) (IPCC, 1997) Table 10.4 lists the MCF factors used. Default values for MCF provided in the IPCC guidelines for the CH4 production are used. For liquid systems, the MCF of 10 % in the Reference Manual (IPCC, 1997) is used. The revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines contains a default MCF of 10 % for liquid manure/slurry, which is based on the research of Hashimoto & Steed (1993) and Woodbury & Hashimoto (1993). This MCF value was changed to 39 % in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (2000), without any scientific argumentation, documentation or specific references. The IPCC 2006 Guidelines (IPCC, 2006) has reverted to an MCF value of 10 % with reference to judgement of the IPCC Expert Group in combination with Mangino et al. (2001) and Sommer et al. (2000). The CH4 emission from liquid systems is very sensitive to temperature effects. Basically most of the manure in Denmark is stored under cold conditions (5-10°). The CH4 formation practically stops at 5° C (Mangino et al., 2001) and therefore there are no plausible arguments for why 39 % of the total CH4 capacity should be released under Danish conditions. Danish studies confirm this assumption (Husted, 1994; Sommer et al., 2000). Furthermore, scientific articles based on measurements in Canada, where conditions are similar to those in Denmark, support the 10 % value (Massé et al., 2003, Massé et al., 2008). A Swedish review taking into account both the cold climate and the fact that the slurry containers usually have a surface cover, also supports a MCF for liquid manure of 10 % (Dustan, 2002). Considering the agricultural conditions in Denmark and the present scientific knowledge as described above, an MCF of 10 % for urine/slurry is more appropriate under Danish conditions than the MCF of 39 % recommended by the IPCC GPG (IPCC, 2000). The Danish decision to use an MCF of 10 % is, as demonstrated above, backed by several scientific papers as well as both the 1996 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 1997) and the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006). Several countries with comparable climatic conditions use an MCF for urine/slurry at the same level as the recommended in the revised IPCC 1996 Guidelines. Sweden and Finland use the same value as Denmark (10 %), Belgium uses 19 %, Germany 13-16 % and Norway and the Netherlands use an MCF below 10 %.

63

Table 10.4 Values used for CH4 conversion factor (MCF). Solid manure

MCF, % 1

Solid manure, poultry

1.5

a

Deep litter

10

Urine and slurry

10

Manure excreted outside

10

a

For farmyard manure < 1 month the MCF is listed as zero (IPCC, 2000 – Table 4.13).

Farmyard manure is a system where the manure is accumulated on floor and mixed with straw bedding, which in Denmark is use e.g. in housing of cattle calves.

Animal manure applied to farmland should, according to the IPCC, have the same MCF as solid manure in storage. Table 10.5 gives an overview of data used to calculate the CH4 emission and the implied emission factor (IEF) from animal manure covering different categories of livestock. No emission from calves is registered because the MCF factor is zero. The B0 values used in the inventory, based on IPCC standard values. Here it is demonstrated that the maximum CH4 formation is significantly higher in swine manure than in cattle manure. Table 10.5a Conversion factors to determine the CH4 emission from animal manure handling, values per AAPa, 2011. CH4 formation Livestock category Days on grass IEFb capacity g

B0

(act grazing days) m3 CH4 per kg VS kg CH4 per AAPa Cattle (large breed): Dairy cattle

18

0.24

0

0.17

0

Heifer, ½ year to calving

132 (111)

0.17

9.04

Suckling cows, > 600 kg

224

0.17

11.98

0

0.45

6.87

0

0.32

4.36

182.5

0.33

2.95

Sheep incl. lambs

265

0.19

2.82

Goats incl. kids

265

0.17

2.45

Deer

365

0.17

0.30

0

0.48

1.03

Heifer calves, < ½ year

33.59

Swine: Sows incl. piglets < 7.3 kg Poultry: Hens, battery (100 units) Other: Horses, 600 kg

Fur animals

64

Table 10.5b Conversion factors to determine the CH4 emission from animal manure handling, values per produced animal, 2011. CH4 formation Livestock category Days on grass IEFb capacity g B0 m3 CH4 per kg CH4 per (act grazing days) kg VS prod. animal Cattle (large breed): Bull calves, < ½ year 0 0.17 0 Bull, ½ year to slaughter, 440 kg 0 0.17 16.34 Swine: Weaners, 7.3-32 kg 0 0.45 0.16 Fattening pigs, > 32 kg 0 0.45 0.85 Poultry: Broilers, 40 days (1 000 units) 0 0.32 2.29 Ostrich 0 0.32 1.70 Pheasant (100 units) 365 0.32 1.23 Geese (100 units) 365 0.32 1.80 Turkeys (100 units) 0 0.32 2.46 Ducks (100 units) 0 0.32 1.25 a AAP - annual average population – see definition in Section 4.1 b

IEF – implied emission factor

The total CH4 emission from manure management 2011 is estimated to 63 Gg CH4 and the main emission originates from the production of dairy cattle and fattening pigs, which has a high proportion of slurry based housing system - see Table 10.6. Table 10.6 CH4 emission from animal manure. Livestock category Emission 2011 Gg CH4 Cattle Dairy cattle Heifer calves, < ½ year Heifer, ½ year to calving Bull, calves < ½ year

18.83 0a 4.28 0a

Bulls, ½ year to slaughter

4.29

Suckling cows

1.17

Swine: Sows incl. piglets < 7.3 kg Weaners, 7.3-32 kg Fattening pigs, > 32 kg

7.30 4.90 18.52

Poultry: Hens

0.22

Broilers

0.26

Other poultry

0.03

Other: Horses

0.46

Sheep incl. lambs

0.26

Goats incl. kids Deer Mink incl. Young Total a

0.03 0.002 2.85 63.42

The MCF for housings with deep litter < 1 month is considered negligible and therefore

estimated 0 % in IPCC (2000).

65

10.3 Biogas treatment of slurry In Denmark the first biogas plant was established in 1984 and there are currently around 20 joint plants and around 60 plants operating on farms. In 2011, 2.4 million tonnes of animal manure were treated (Tafdrup, 2009), equivalent to approximately 6 % of all animal manure. Treating slurry in biogas plants has a lower emission of both CH4 and N2O. No description on how to include biogas treated slurry in the inventories is provided in the IPCC guidelines. Therefore, the Danish inventory uses data based on a Danish study (Sommer et al., 2001; Nielsen et al., 2002). The lower CH4 emission in biogas treated slurry is based on the amount of organic matter VS. The amount of VS in treated slurry is calculated as the VS percentage of dry matter (DM) which 80 % for both cattle and pig slurry. It is assumed that slurry from cattle stems from dairy cattle and that slurry from swine stems from fattening pigs. The Danish Energy Agency estimates that cattle slurry makes up 45 % and pig slurry 55 % of the total amount of biogas-treated slurry (Tafdrup, 2003).

CH4 lower  VS treated Where:

slurry

CH4, R VStreated slurry B0 MCF ECH4, lower

0.67

 B 0  MCF  0 .67  E CH 4 ,lower

(Eq. 10.9)

= The amount of lower CH4 emission from a given livestock type (cattle or swine) = amount of volatile solids from treated slurry = maximum CH4-forming capacity = CH4 conversion factor = a lower emission from biogas treated slurry. It is assumed that treated cattle slurry is 0.77 compared with untreated slurry and 0.60 for pig slurry = conversion from m3 to kg

Table 10.7 provides the background data used in the calculation of the CH4 reduction resulting from biogas production. Table 10.7 Data used in the calculation of VS in biogas-treated slurry and the reduction in the CH4 emission in 2011. 2011

Cattle slurry Pig slurry

Slurry biogas treated 1000 Gg

DMa

VS in MCF B0 treated slurry Pct. 106 kg VS Pct. m3 CH4 pr kg VS

ECH4, CH4 emission lower in untreated slurry Gg CH4

1.08 1.31

10.3 6.1

0.77 0.60

Lower emission Poulsen et al. (2001 and 2012).

88.62 64.15

10 10

0.24 0.45

1.43 1.93

CH4 emission Lower the in biogas total CH4 treated slurry emission with Gg CH4 Gg CH4 1.09 1.16

0.33 0.78 1.11

a

In 2011, the total effect of biogas plants result in a lower CH4 emission by 1.11 Gg CH4, which corresponds to 0.6 % of the total CH4 emission from the agricultural sector. The reduction is expected to rise in the coming years due to increased focus on biogas production as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural activities. The effect of the biogas treatment of slurry is subtracted from the emission from dairy cows and fattening pigs in the emission inventory.

66

11 N2O emission

The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) occurs in the chemical transformation of nitrogen and, therefore, is closely linked with the animal manure management. The emission of N2O comes from a range of different sources as showed in figure 11.1. The major sources originate from application of animal manure and synthetic fertilisers on soil, and nitrogen leaching and runoff, which in 2011 contributes with 68 % of the total N2O agricultural emission. The emission from nitrogen leaching represents the largest single emission source at around 26 %.

Figure 11.1 Distribution of the N2O emission in 2011 on sources.

The N2O emission, given in CO2 equivalents, contributes 57 % to the total greenhouse gas emission from the agricultural sector in 2011. The following chapters give a survey of the emission factors used and a more detailed description of each emission source. The emission from manure management includes a reduction of emissions due to biogas-treated slurry, which is described in section 11.9. The calculation of N2O emission from field burning of agricultural crop residues, which contributes less than 1 % to total agricultural N2O emissions, is described in Chapter 7. The methodology used to calculate the N2O emission is based on guidance given in the 1996 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 1997) and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC, 2000). Please note that convert from N2O-N to N2O, the emission is multiplied by 44/28.

11.1 Emission factors The emission of N2O is determined as a fraction of the amount of nitrogen. These fractions vary between sources and are often highly uncertain because the emission to a great extent depends on the local biological and climatic conditions. The N2O emission is calculated according to equation 11.1. N 2 O  N i  EFi 

44 28

(Eq. 11.1)

67

Where:

Ni EFi

= N content in the source, i = emission factor applicable for source, i

The conversion from N2O-N to N2O is carried out by multiplying the respective molecular weights. Table 11.1 shows the sources from which the N2O emission is calculated. The calculations are based on standard values for emission factors recommended by IPCC Reference Manual (IPCC, 1997 and 2000). Table 11.1 Emission factors used to determine the N2O emission. Source

Emission factor Unit

IPCC – default values

Handling of manure: Solid manure, poultry

EF1a

kg N2O-N per kg N

Solid manure, other

EF1b

kg N2O-N per kg N

0.005 0.02

Slurry and urine

EF2

kg N2O-N per kg N

0.001

Deep litter

EF3a

kg N2O-N per kg N

0.02

Deep litter, farmyard manure < 1 month1

EF3b

kg N2O-N per kg N

0.005

Manure deposited under grazing

EF4

kg N2O-N per kg N

0.02

Synthetic fertiliser applied to agricultural soils2 EF5

kg N2O-N per kg N

0.0125

Animal manure applied to agricultural soils 3

EF6

kg N2O-N per kg N

0.0125

Sewage sludge applied to agricultural soils

EF7

kg N2O-N per kg N

0.01

Nitrogen applied to agricultural soils:

Other: N-fixing crops

EF8

kg N2O-N per kg N

0.0125

Crop residues returns to soils

EF9

kg N2O-N per kg N

0.0125

Atmospheric deposition (NH3 volatilization)

EF10

kg N2O-N per kg N

0.01

Nitrogen leaching, groundwater

EF11a

kg N2O-N per kg N

0.015

Nitrogen leaching, rivers

EF11b

kg N2O-N per kg N

0.0075

Nitrogen leaching, estuaries

EF11c

kg N2O-N per kg N

0.0025

Cultivation of histosols

EF12

kg N2O-N per ha

8

1

Farmyard manure, which is faeces and urine mixed with large amounts of bedding (usu-

ally straw) on the floors of cattle or swine housing. 2

Calculated as the amount of N sold in synthetic fertilisers minus NH3 emission.

3

Calculated as N ex storage minus NH3 emission from application of manure on soils.

The estimated emissions from the different sources are described in the following text.

11.2 Manure management and grazing The amount of nitrogen in animal manure is based on the normative figures (Poulsen et al., 2001; Poulsen, 2012). Besides animal type, the emission depends on housing type which decides the manure type. Under the anaerobic conditions in slurry and urine the emission of N2O is considered to be relatively low, while the emission from deep litter systems and solid manure in the housing units is higher. The emission from animal manure management is calculated as shown in equation 11.2. N 2 O MM   Nex j,i  EF j ,i 

Where:

68

N2OMM

44 28

(Eq. 11.2)

= emission of N2O from manure management and grazing animals

Nexj,i

= N excretion from the given animal category (j) and manure type (i) EFj,i = emission factor for a given manure animal category (j) and manure type (i). As recommended in the IPCC guidelines, an emission factor of 0.005 (EF1a) is used for solid poultry manure and 0.02 (EF1b) for solid manure from other livestock categories. For urine and slurry is used 0.001 (EF2) and for deep litter is used 0.02 (EF3a). However, for deep litter system with animal manure placed in housing less than one month a lower emission factor of 0.005 is used (EF3b). Farmyard manure is a system where the manure is accumulated on a floor and mixed with straw bedding, which in Denmark is used e.g. in housing of calves. For animal manure applied to grass an emission factor of 0.02 (EF4) is used. The distribution of nitrogen excretion into housing and grass for each animal category is shown in Chapter 4.3. Due to a lower emission factor for liquid manure, the development from 1985 to 2011 towards slurry-based housing systems and less cattle on grass has led to a reduction in the emission of N2O. The total amount of nitrogen in animal manure (N ex animal) is shown for 1985 to 2011 in figure 11.2 and illustrates a decrease from 311 Gg N in 1985 to 260 Gg N in 2011, which equates to a reduction of 16 %. This reduction should be seen in the light of a significant increase in the swine and poultry production since 1985 and can be explained by the improvements in feed efficiency, which has resulted in a lower N excretion, especially for fattening pigs.

Figure 11.2 Total amount of nitrogen in animal manure (N ex animal).

11.3 Nitrogen applied to agricultural soils The calculation of N2O from the application of nitrogen is the sum of N in synthetic fertilisers, N in animal manure and N in the different types of sludge.

N 2 O AS  ((N SF  NH3, SF )  EF5  ( N AM  NH3, A )  EF6  ( NSS  NH3, SS )  EF7 ) 

44 28

(Eq. 11.3)

69

Where:

N2OAS NSF NH3, SF NAM NH3, A NSS NH3, SS EF7

= N2O emission from nitrogen sources applied to agricultural soils = consumption of N in synthetic fertiliser = NH3 emission from synthetic fertiliser = amount of nitrogen in animal manure ex storage = NH3 loss from application of animal manure = amount of nitrogen in sewage or industrial sludge applied to agricultural soils = NH3 emission from application of sewage sludge = emission coefficient (see Table 11.1)

All calculations concerning the content of nitrogen in manure ex storage, synthetic fertiliser and sewage sludge are incorporated in the NH3 emission and therefore described in Chapter 5, likewise the estimates of NH3 emission. Table 11.2 shows the total amount of nitrogen from synthetic fertilisers, animal manure and sewage sludge applied to agricultural soils, as well as the emission of N2O given as both total N2O and CO2 equivalents from 1985 to 2011. The N2O emission from applications to soils fell from 7.4 Gg N2O-N in 1985 to 4.9 Gg N2O-N in 2011 – i.e. 33 % over the period. The reduction is primarily due to the reduction in the use of synthetic fertilisers as a consequence of improvements in the utilisation of nitrogen in animal manure. Table 11.2 The calculation of N2O emission from sources of nitrogen applied to agricultural soils. 1985

1990

1995

2000

2008

2009

2010

2011

398

400

316

251

5

5

5

3

206

220

200

190

197

3

3

3

3

227

214

200

3

197

212

213

206

208

208

34

31

4

5

26

23

17

17

17

17

16

9

9

8

7

7

7

NH3-N, sewage sludge

0.05

7

0.06

0.09

0.07

0.04

0.04

0.06

0.05

0.05

N-total applied to soils

590

582

495

431

407

420

394

385

392

N applied to soils N in synthetic fertilisers NH3-N, synthetic fertiliser N in animal manure (ex storage) NH3-N, animal manure N in sewage sludge

2005 Gg N

Emission Gg N2O-N

7.37

7.28

6.19

5.39

5.08

5.24

4.92

4.81

4.90

Gg N2O

11.58

11.43

9.72

8.47

7.99

8.24

7.74

7.56

7.71

Gg CO2 equivalents

3 590

3 545

3 015

2 626

2 476

2 555

2 399

2 343

2 389

11.4 Nitrogen-fixing plants According to the IPCC guidelines, the total amount of nitrogen from nitrogen-fixing plants should be included as an N2O emission source. The estimates regarding the amount of nitrogen fixed in crops are made by DJF (Kristensen & Kristensen, 2002, Kyllingsbæk, 2000, Høgh- Jensen et al., 1998). The calculation of the emission from nitrogen-fixing plants is based on the nitrogen content and the fraction of dry matter for each crop type harvested. The calculation of N-fixation from legumes, peas/barley (wholecrop), peas for conservation, lucerne, grass-clover and catch crop is based on the harvest yield. The calculation for seeds of legume grass crops is based on the cultivated area. Values of yield and area are based on data from DSt. Information on dry matter content and N-content are from the feedstuffs table 70

(DAAS, 2000). The N-content in roots and stubble is taken into consideration in the calculation as well as the proportion of plant N that can be attributed to nitrogen fixation. The emission is calculated according to equation 9.4.

N 2 O N -fix  ( ((DM i, yield  N i, pct )  (1  N i, pct in Where:

N2ON-fix DMi, yield Ni, pct Ni,pct root + stub Pct fix EF8

root and stub

) )  Pct fix  EF8 ) 

44 28

(Eq. 11.4)

= N2O emission from N-fixing crops = dry matter, yield, kg per ha for crop i = nitrogen percentage in dry matter = nitrogen percentage in root and stubble = percentage of nitrogen that is fixed = emission coefficient (see Table 11.1)

The Danish inventory includes emissions from grass-clover, despite the fact that this source is not mentioned in the IPCC reference manual (IPCC, 1997) or Good Practice Guidance (IPCC, 2000). The area with grass and clover made up approximately 20 % of the total agricultural area in 2011, and is for this reason an important source to the national emission from N-fixing crops. Table 11.3 provides background data for the calculation of the amount of nitrogen from nitrogen-fixing crops. Table 11.3 Background data for calculation of N content in nitrogen fixing crops. Crop

DM

N-content Straw yield Share,

content1 in DM1 pct.

pct.

of grain

root+

yield2

stubble3

pct.

pct.

N in crop

N-fixed

(fixed)3 pct.

kg N per tonnes harvested

Based on yield Field peas, grain

85

3.97

-

25

75

-

Field peas, straw

87

1.15

60

-

-

-

Legumes grown to maturity, in total

-

-

-

-

-

37.3

Peas/barley- whole-crop for silage

23

2.64

-

25

80

6.1

Legumes, marrow-stem kale and green fodder

23

2.64

-

25

80

6.1

Lucerne

21

3.04

-

60

75

7.7

13

4.00

-

75

90

8.2

Grass, clover fields and fields with an under sown crop Peas for conservation4

23

2.64

-

25

80

6.1

Fields with catch crop

13

4.00

-

75

90

8.2

Based on area

kg N per ha

Seeds: Red clover

200

White clover

180

Black medic

180

1

Feedstuff table (DAAS, 2000).

2

Kyllingsbæk (2000).

3

Kristensen (2002) and Kyllingsbæk (2000).

4

Assumed that nitrogen fixing from peas for conservation is 80 % compared to field peas.

Changes in the percentages of nitrogen-fixing plants during the years are taken into account (Table 11.4). Since 1985, there has been a growing production of peas and grass-clover as a result of stricter regulations on the use of 71

nitrogen. The information on nitrogen-fixing crops is provided by DCA (Kyllingsbæk, 2000). Table 11.4 Estimated share of nitrogen-fixing plants in crops, pct. 1985

1990

1995

1999-2011

Share of peas (whole-crop)a

15

30

40

50

Share of peasb

40

40

40

40

Crops for silage

Legumes, marrow-stem kale and other green fodder Share with legumes:

60

60

60

60

-of which share with peas

40

40

40

40

Peas for conservation

80

80

80

80

Grass in rotation Share of grass-clover fields

64

74

84

88

Clover pct. in grass-clover fields

20

20

22

30

5

5

5

5

Share with grass-clover

64

74

84

88

Clover pct.

30

30

30

30

Grass not in a rotation Clover percentage Fields with catch crop

Source: Kyllingsbæk, 2000. a

share of peas (whole crop) in proportion to total area of crops for silage.

b

share of peas in proportion to peas (whole crop).

The nitrogen fixation for each crop type is estimated and presented in Table 11.5. The N-fixation per hectare varies significantly from year to year as a consequence of changes in yield level due to the climatic conditions. Table 11.5 Variations in N-fixation 1985 – 2011. N-fixation per hectare 1985-2011 Legumes to maturity Crops for silage

2011

kg N per ha kg N per ha 95-179 142 10-38

24

N- fixation 2011 N- fixation Distribution tonnes N fix 1 010

pct. 2

1 385

3 NO

0-1

NO

NO

Lucerne

302-517

385

2 669

6

Grass and clover in rotation

40-107

103

33 859

80

6-11

7

1 352

3

Legumes/marrow-stem kale

Grass not in rotation Fields with catch crop

6-16

11

1 198

3

Peas for conservation

76-144

114

334

1

Seeds of leguminous grass crops

181-186

182

680

2

42 487

100

Total N-fix NO = Not occurring.

As illustrated in figure 11.3 and Table 11.6, the level of nitrogen fixation has changed between 30-48 Gg N in 1985 to 2011, which is due to changes in crop types. There is seen a change in increase of the area with grass-clover and a reduction in the area with legumes to maturity (see appendix Q).

72

Figure 11.3 Total nitrogen fixation distributed on different crop types 1985-2011.

In 2011, the N content in N-fixing crops is estimated to 42.5 Gg N, which correspond to a N2O emission of 0.83 Gg. Grass-clover fields were responsible for approximately 80 % of the total N-fixation. Table 11.6 Emission of N2O from N-fixing crops, 1985-2011. 1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

2009

2010

2011

N, Gg

40.3

44.3

37.2

38.3

34.1

N2O, Gg

0.79

0.87

0.73

0.75

0.67

34.9

40.7

39.1

42.5

0.69

0.80

0.77

CO2 eqv., 1 000 Gg

0.83

0.25

0.27

0.23

0.23

0.21

0.21

0.25

0.24

0.26

11.5 Crop residues According to the IPCC guidelines, the nitrogen from crop residues left on the field after harvest should be included as an N2O emission source. Emissions from crop residues are calculated as the N content in the total aboveground biomass of crop residues returned to the soil in the form of stubble, husks, tops and leaves. Furthermore, the amount of straw left in the field after harvest is taken into account. The emission from agricultural crop residues is calculated according to Equation 11.5. N OCR

∑ AR∙

Where:

N2OCR AR NST NHU NPT NLR noPF

NST noPF

NHU

NPT

NLR ∙ EF



(Eq. 11.5)

= emission of N2O from crop residue = area on which a given crop is grown = nitrogen derived from stubble, kg per ha = nitrogen derived from husks, kg per ha = nitrogen derived from plant tops, kg per ha = nitrogen derived from leaf litter kg per ha = number of years between ploughing 73

EF9 44/28

= emission factor (see Table 11.1) = conversion from N2O-N to N2O

Data concerning the cultivated area, unharvest plant tops from beets and potatoes and the amount of unharvest straw are based on information from DSt (2012).

11.5.1 N-content in crops National values for nitrogen content are provided by DCA (Djurhuus & Hansen, 2003). Calculations are based on relatively few observations, but are at present the best available data. Same values are used for all years. Table 11.7 shows the estimated N-content in crop residues, ploughing frequency and total N-content in all crop residues from 2011. It is assumed that grass fields on average are ploughed in every other year, lucerne every three years and set-aside fields every 10 years. In 2011, the N content in residues from crop is estimated to approximately 40 Gg N, where winter wheat and grass/clover is the largest contributors. Table 11.7 Overview of the N-content in residues from agricultural crops under conditions of normal fertilisation, 2011. Stubble Husks Tops Leaf Ploughing N-content in litter frequency Crop

kg N per ha

kg N

kg N

kg N

per ha per ha per ha

years

crop residues kg N per

Gg N

between ha per year per year ploughing

Winter wheat

6.3

Spring wheat

6.3

7.4

-

-

1

13.7

0.28

Winter rye

6.3

10.7

-

-

1

17.0

0.95

Triticale

6.3

10.7

-

-

1

17.0

0.77

Winter barley

6.3

5.9

-

-

1

12.2

1.60

Spring barley

6.3

4.1

-

-

1

10.4

4.90

Oats

6.3

4.1

-

-

1

10.4

0.44

Winter rape

6.3

-

-

-

1

4.4

0.66

Spring rape

4.4

-

-

-

1

4.4

0.01

Potato (tops)

4.4

-

48.7

-

1

48.7

1.97

-

-

-

-

3

10.8

0.07

Maize for silage

32.3

-

-

-

1

6.3

1.09

Grain for silage

6.3

-

-

-

1

6.3

0.36

Catch crop

6.3

-

-

-

1

6.3

0.74

Peas for conservation

6.3

-

-

-

1

11.3

0.03

Vegetables

11.3

-

-

-

1

11.3

0.09

Grass field legumes

11.3

-

-

-

2

5.7

0.02

Legume seed

11.3

-

-

-

1

11.3

0.08

Grass seed

11.3

10.7

-

-

2

13.9

0.78

Other plants for seed

6.3

10.7

-

-

2

13.9

0.02

Grass and clover + rotation

6.3

-

-

10.0

2

26.2

8.61

Grass and clover - rotation

32.3

-

-

20.0

-

20.0

3.73

Set-aside

38.8

-

-

15.0

10

18.9

Total

38.8

Lucerne

74

10.7

-

-

1

17.0

12.32

0.08 39.61

11.5.2 N-content in straw and plant tops from fodder beets The amount of nitrogen in straw and tops from fodder beets, which are left in the field after harvest, is based on yield levels from DSt, and DM and raw protein contents from the feedstuff table published by DAAS (2000). Wheat is the largest source of unharvested straw. The amount of N is calculated as the total amount of unharvest straw, multiplied by the DM percentage (85 %) and the raw protein content of the DM (3.3 %). Converting raw protein to N-content uses a conversion factor of 6.25 (Jones, 1941). For beet tops, it is assumed that factory and fodder beets have the same top yield. The nitrogen content is calculated in the same way as straw. The DM content is 12 % and the raw protein content of the DM is 16.4 %. The basic data used for calculating the N-content in straw and fodder beet tops are shown in Table 11.8 for year 2011. Table 11.8 Data used for calculation of N-content in straw and fodder beet tops, 2011. Yield

DM Raw protein Conversion Crop residue of DM factor to N

Straw – not harvested Fodder beet (tops) – not harvested

Gg

Pct.

Pct.

2 162

85

3.3

6.25

791

12

16.4

6.25

Total

Gg N per year 9.70 2.49 12.19

11.5.3 Emission Figure 11.4 shows the distribution of nitrogen in crop residues between stubble, husks, plant tops and leaf litter. The total N content in crop residues from 1985 to 2011 is nearly unaltered at approximately 50 Gg N and N2O emission at approximately 0.3 Gg N2O (see Table 11.9). However, there has been a little variation for some of the years, particularly for straw and leafs remained.

Figure 11.4 N content in crop residues, 1985 – 2011.

75

Table 11.9 Emission of N2O from crop residues, 1985-2011. 1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

2009

2010

2011

N, Gg

47.7

59.3

56.2

55.3

54.4

50.1

51.2

51.8

51.8

N2O, Gg

0.94

1.17

1.10

1.09

1.07

0.98

1.01

1.02

1.02

CO2-eqv.,1000 Gg

0.29

0.36

0.34

0.34

0.33

0.31

0.31

0.32

0.32

11.6 Atmospheric deposition Volatilization of NH3 and NOX and their deposition of these gases and products onto soils and the surface of lakes and other water environment cause N2O emission. Emission of N2O is calculated based on all NH3 emission sources; manure management, synthetic fertiliser, sewage sludge used as fertiliser, crops and ammonia treated straw. Around 96 % of the total NH3 emission stems from agriculture (Nielsen et al., 2013a). In addition to the formation of N2O, a release of N2 and NOX also occurs. Neither the IPCC Reference manual (IPCC, 1997) nor the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC, 2000) has a methodology for their quantification and neither are there currently any Danish data. The emission is calculated as illustrated in Equation 9.6 - i.e. as the total NH3 emission multiplied by the IPCC standard value for the emission factor of 0.01 (EF10). N Odep

NH

Where:

, MM

NH

, SF

N2Odep NH3, MM NH3, SF NH3, SS NH3, C NH3, A-straw EF10

NH

NH

, SS

, C

NH

, A‐straw

∙ EF



(Eq. 11.6)

= N2O emission from atmospheric deposition = NH3 emission from manure management = NH3 emission from synthetic fertiliser = NH3 emission from sewage sludge = NH3 emission from crops = NH3 emission from ammonia treated straw = emission factor (see Table 11.1).

The total NH3 emission from all emission sources is shown in Table 11.10 together with the calculated N2O emission. From 1985 to 2011 the N2O emission has decreased from 1.5 Gg N2O to 0.9 Gg N2O, which equates to a fall of 39 %. As mentioned in Chapter 5 regarding the NH3 emission, this emission reduction is a consequence of an active environmental policy to reduce the loss of nitrogen to the aquatic recipients. Table 11.10 Total NH3 emission and the N2O emission, 1985 – 2011. Emission per year

1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011

NH3 emission, Gg NH3-N

96.2 93.4 80.0 71.7 65.2 60.9 58.9 59.2 58.7

N2O emission, Gg N2O

1.51 1.47 1.26 1.13 1.02 0.96 0.93 0.93 0.92

CO2 emission, 1000 Gg CO2 eqv. 0.47 0.46 0.39 0.35 0.32 0.30 0.29 0.29 0.29

11.7 Leaching and runoff Nitrogen, which is transported through the soil, can be transformed to N2O. The IPCC recommends an N2O emission factor of 0.025 used, of which 0.015 76

is for leaching to groundwater, 0.0075 for transport to watercourses (in IPCC definition called rivers) and 0.0025 for transport out to sea (in IPCC definition called estuaries). The N2O emission from nitrogen leaching is a sum of the emission for all three parts calculated as given in equation 11.7. N Oleaching

Nleach‐ground ∙EF11a Nleach‐rivers ∙EF11b Nleach‐estuatires ∙EF11c ∙

(Eq. 11.7)

In connection with the Action Plans for the Aquatic Environment, nitrogen leaching to groundwater, to the watercourses and to the sea has been estimated. The calculation of N to the groundwater is based on two different models; SKEP/Daisy and N-LES (Børgesen & Grant, 2003) carried out by DCA and DCE (see overview of model in appendix R. SKEP/DAISY is a dynamical crop growth model taking into account the growth factors, whereas N-LES is an empirical leaching model based on more than 1500 leaching studies performed in Denmark during the last 15 years. The models produce rather similar results for nitrogen leaching on a national basis (Waagepetersen et al., 2008). The SKEP/Daisy model has estimated the total N leached from 2003-2007 to be from 172 to 159 thousand tonnes N, whereas the N-LES model has estimated the total N leached to be from 163 to 154 thousand tonnes in the same period. An average of the results from the two models is used in the emission inventory. Data concerning the N-leaching to watercourses and to the sea is estimated based on a national model concept called DK-QN develop by Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University as a part of the National Environmental monitoring Program (NOVANA). DK-QN simulates the monthly runoff and nitrogen loading and is developed based on a two other models. The groundwater/surface model MIKE-SHE, which describes the national and regional water balance and the interaction flow between groundwater and streams and the empirical model DK-N, which includes simulations of monthly sources, loads and skinks of total nitrogen. The model DK-QN has been validated and shows robustness. For a more detailed description refer to Windolf et al. (2011). Since 1985, the amount of nitrogen leached has almost halved as a result of the significant decrease in consumption of synthetic fertilisers and the improved utilisation of the nitrogen content in animal manure (Table 11.11). The same trend is reflected in the N2O emission by a decrease from 9.1 Gg N2O in 1985 to 4.7 Gg N2O in 2011, or 1 456 Gg CO2 equivalents in 2011. Table 11.11 Leaching of nitrogen and associated emissions, 1985 - 2011. 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011 N-leachinggroundwater, Gg N

304

267

235

179

160

163

154

151

153

N-leachingrivers, Gg N

128

102

104

95

67

80

59

68

73

N-leachingestuaries, Gg N

120

100

91

81

56

65

49

55

59

N2O, Gg

9.13 7.89

7.13

5.66

4.77

5.04

4.52

4.57

4.70

CO2 eqv.,1 000 Gg

2.83 2.45

2.21

1.75

1.48

1.56

1.40

1.42

1.46

Figure 11.5 illustrates on the first axis the total amount of nitrogen applied as fertiliser on agricultural land in the form of animal manure, synthetic fertiliser and sewage sludge, while the second axis show the amount of N leached to the groundwater. It can be seen that the percentage of N leached compared with the total N applied on soil has been decreased from 43 % in 1985 to 33 % in 2007. From 2008 is used an N-leaching fraction at 33 %. 77

Figure 11.5 Leaching of nitrogen from 1985 to 2011.

11.8 Cultivation of histosols The cultivation of histosols (humus-rich soils) breaks down organic matter and, thereby, releases both CO2 and N2O. The size of the emission depends on the circumstances surrounding cultivation (crop type, rotation, soil management, saturation, pH, etc.). The cultivated area of organics soils is estimated by the Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University. The calculation of the N2O emission is based on IPCC guidelines, which recommend an emission of 8 kg N2O-N per hectare of cultivated organic soils. N OHIS

AR ∙ EF12 ∙

Where:

AR EF12

(Eq. 11.5) = area of histosols = emission factor (see Table 11.1)

The emission from cultivation of histosols is decreased from 1.00 Gg N2O in 1985 to 0.66 Gg N2O in 2011, which is due to the decrease in the cultivated area. Table 11.12 Area and N2O emission for histosols, 1985-2011. 1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

2009

2010

2011

Cultivated area, ha 79 664 74 473 69 282 64 092 58 901 55 786 54 748 53 710 52 687 N2O, Gg

1.00

0.94

0.87

0.81

0.74

0.70

0.69

0.68

0.66

11.9 Biogas treatment of slurry The lower emissions achieved from biogas treated slurry is included in the N2O emission from manure management (housing and storage). The digestive process of the biogas treatment reduces the dry matter content of the slurry and this leads to a reduced N2O emission under and after the spreading of the biogas treated slurry. There is no methodology available in the IPCC Reference Manual (IPCC, 1997) or the IPCC GPG (IPCC, 2000) on how to calculate this reduction. 78

Therefore is the estimation based on Danish studies (Nielsen et al., 2002, Sommer et al., 2001). The lower N2O emission is calculated according to equation 11.8: N Olower

Streated slurry ∙ Nc ∙ EN

where:

N2Olower Streated slurry NC EN2O, lower

EFN2O

O, lower

∙ EFN

O



(Eq. 11.8)

= the amount of lower N2O emission from a given livestock type (cattle or swine) = amount of treated slurry, tonnes = content of N in the treated slurry, pct = a factor to express the lower emission from biogas treated slurry. It is assumed that treated cattle slurry is 64 % compared with untreated slurry and 60% for pig slurry = emission factor for N2O

The background data for the calculation of the reduction in N2O emission is shown in Table 11.13. Table 11.13 Data used in calculation of the reduction in N2O emission in 2011. 2011

Slurry

Average EN2O, lower N2O emission

1000 Gg

N2O emission Decrease the

in untreated

in biogas

total N2O

in slurry

slurry

treated slurry

emission by

Pct.

Gg N2O

Gg N2O

Gg N2O

treated N-content

slurry Cattle slurry

1.08

0.00538

0.64

0.07

0.04

0.02

Swine slurry

1.31

0.00541

0.59

0.07

0.05

0.03

Total

0.05

For 2011, the N2O reduction was 0.05 Gg, which corresponds to a 5 % reduction of the N2O emission from manure management in 2011. The reduction is subtracted from the emissions from dairy cattle and fattening pigs, respectively. The total reduction in N2O from 1990 to 2011, which stems from biogas treatment of manure, is shown in appendix S.

79

12 Quality assurance and quality control

A first step of development and implementation of a general QA/QC plan for the Danish emission inventory initiated in 2004, which is described in a manual (Sørensen et al., 2005, Nielsen et al, 2012). The manual describes the concepts of quality work and how to handle quality management by using Critical Control Points and a list of Point of Measurements (PM). PM related to the agricultural inventory is listed below in Chapter 12.2 and are primarily connected to data storage and data processing level 1. This report describes in detail the methods and the data foundation used to estimate the agricultural emissions and together with the National Inventory Report (NIR) and the Informative Inventory Report (IIR), a high degree of transparency is ensured. The check of comparability with the reporting of other countries is ensured through the international review processes, where a lot of parameters are compared across countries and also compared to the IPCC default. Additionally Denmark has carried out a project of verification, where the emissions from key categories in the Danish inventory were compared against other countries with similar circumstances. (Fauser et al., 2006 and 2013). One of the key elements to assess the accuracy of the inventory is estimating the uncertainties of the emission estimates. The procedure for estimating the uncertainties is described in Chapter 13. As quality assurance the most importing aspects are external reviews of the inventory by independent experts. For the Danish agricultural inventory the external review consists of two main elements. The first element is the international reviews carried out under the UNFCCC and UNECE, these reviews consists of review teams of internationally appointed experts, who are assigned to review the reporting of the different countries. These review teams consists of experts within all sectors and therefore cover the entire emission inventory. The recommendations received by the review teams form an important basis for improving both the inventories themselves but also the documentation. The second element is the external review of the sectorial reports, such as this one. The sectorial reports are externally reviewed by national or international experts in the field. The first version of this report (Mikkelsen et al., 2006) was reviewed by Statistics Sweden, who is responsible for the Swedish agricultural inventory and the first updated rapport (Mikkelsen et al., 2011) was reviewed by Nicholas J. Hutchings from the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus University and by Johnny M. Andersen from the Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen. This report was reviewed by Heidi Ravnborg from the Danish Environmental Agency.

80

12.1 QA/QC plan The overall framework regarding a QA/QC plan are constructed in form of six stages and each stage focus on quality assurance and quality check in different part of the inventory process. A more detailed set up for stage I, II and III are provided, refer to Appendix U. The QA/QC procedure is divided in six stages as listed below: Table 12.1 Stages of QA/QC procedure. Stage I

Check of input data - check of data input in IDA are consistent with data from external data suppliers

Stage II

Check of IDA data – overall - check of recalculations for total emissions compared with the latest submission (2012) - check of total emissions for the total CO2 eqv. and for each compound

Stage III

Check of IDA data – specific - check of annual changes of activity data, emission factors, IEF and other important variables as GE, N ex, housing system distribution, grazing days

Stage IV

Check by comparing calculation with estimates from other institutions - the total N ex for all livestock production estimated by DCA - the Register for fertilisation controlled by the Danish AgriFish Agency

Stage V

Check of data registered in the Common Reporting Format (CRF) reported to UNFCCC and Nomenclature For Reporting (NFR) to UNECE - compare data in CRF or NFR with data from IDA

Stage VI Check of the inventory in general (external review) - check that data is used correctly - check the methodology and the calculations

Stage I: Check of input data

At stage I it is checked that all input data in IDA is consistent with data from the external data suppliers. Data from the Statistics Denmark has to be checked for the livestock production, slaughter data for poultry and pigs, check of land use and crop yield. Data input from the DCA has to be checked for feed intake, N-excretion, manure production, dry matter content and grazing days. Data from the DAFA: distribution of housing systems and the use of nitrogen in synthetic fertiliser. Stage II: Check of IDA data - overall

Stage II includes check of the overall calculations in IDA. The first step is to compare the inventory with the last reported emission inventory - submission 2012. In the case where an error cover all time series, it can be difficult to identify this error by checking the changes in inter annual values. Therefore, a check of recalculations is needed. Next step in stage II is a check of total emissions of NH3, CH4, N2O, NMVOC and the other compounds which are related to the field burning of agricultural residues and use of pesticides. For each compound a check of trends of times series 1985-2011 and inter annual changes is provided. Significant jumps or dips from one year to another could indicate an error - otherwise it has to be explained. Stage III: Check of IDA data - specific

At stage III a check of specific variables in IDA is provided for both inter annual changes and trends for the entire time series. Variables includes activity 81

data, emission factors, IEF and other important key variables such as feed intake, GE, Nex and housing systems distribution. Stage IV: Check by comparing calculation with estimates from other institutions

The purpose of stage IV is to verify the calculations in IDA, as far as external data estimations are available. For other purposes DCA for some years calculate the overall N excretion from the total livestock production in DK, which could be compared with the survey given in the emission inventory. Another possibility to check some of the IDA estimations is the information in the fertiliser accounts controlled by DAFA. Farmers with more than 10 animal units have to be registered and have to keep accounts of the N content in manure, received manure or other organic fertiliser. These comparisons will properly show some differences, which not necessarily indicate an error, but the most important cause of the difference has to be identified. Stage V: Check of data registered in CRF and NFR

Stage V primarily focuses on the last reported year and the base year (CRF 1990/NFR 1985), where all activity data, emissions and IEFs are checked. Furthermore, CRF and NFR sum emissions are checked with sum emissions in IDA. If an error is detected a more detailed check is done to find the reason for the error. Stage VI: Check of the inventory in general

General checks of the inventory include considerations of which data input is used, how they are used in the calculations and whether more accurate data are available. The review of this sectorial report addresses these issues and is a most valuable part of the QA of the agricultural sector. As a part of the report “Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories” (IPCC, 2000) a verification of emission estimates are provided, which include an inter-country comparison for EU15 countries excluding Luxemburg and including Norway and Switzerland and for some verification steps also including Australia, Canada, Japan, Russian Federation and USA (Fauser et al., 2013). The verification covers 1990, 2000 and 2010 emissions, reported in 2012, for 29 Danish verification key categories, identified by a Tier 1 key source analysis. The agricultural sector contributes with 14 of the verification key categories. For most of the verification categories the implied emission factor (IEF) show constant time series indicating consistent IEFs from 1990 to 2010 and imply robustness in methodology and underlying data. Comparability of IEF between countries is found for most of the agricultural categories. Some verification categories differ from other countries but can be explained by use of national data, which leads to a larger variation of the IEF values. In general, the Danish IEF is in line with other countries that have comparable agricultural conditions

82

13 Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates are based on the methodology described in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC, 2000) and the EEA/EMEP Guidebook (EMEP, 2009). The total uncertainty depends on uncertainty values for activity data and uncertainty values for the emission factor.

13.1 Uncertainty values for agricultural air pollutants 13.1.1 Activity data As mention before, the main part of the emissions depends on the livestock production and uncertainties such as number of animals, feeding consumption, normative figures etc. are relatively low. Uncertainties regarding animal production are very small. Numbers of animals are based on DSt, which has estimated the uncertainties for year 2011 for the main livestock categories swine and cattle as 1.2 % and 0.7 %, respectively. The uncertainty for other categories such as poultry, horses, sheep and goats is a higher. The uncertainty for activity data, which only depends on number of animals the uncertainty value, is estimated to 2 %. When it comes to NH3 emission from manure management, the activity data not only includes the number of animal, but also includes estimates for type of housing and thus type of manure, which higher the uncertainty. The uncertainty value is estimated to 5 %. The overall uncertainty for N-excretion on grass is estimated to 5 %. Besides the number of animal, the uncertainty depends on the assumed number of days on grass and the N-excretion, which is estimated by DAAS and DCA, Aarhus University. The activity data for synthetic fertiliser depends on the amount of sold fertiliser and the nitrogen content, which is based on information given by the DAFA. Uncertainty for this is considered to be low and is estimated to 3 %. The uncertainty regarding the ammonia emission sources growing crops, sewage sludge and ammonia treated straw, which is included in the reporting format under “4G Other” (see Table 13.2), is assumed to be 20%. The uncertainty for land use data based on Statistics Denmark is low, while the uncertainty regarding the amount of sewage sludge based on the register for fertilization. The uncertainty for the amount of ammonia used to treatment of straw is also relative high. An uncertainty of 25 % for the activity for field burning of agricultural wastes is used. The uncertainty is a combination of the uncertainty for area of grass for seed production, which has a low uncertainty, amount of burnt straw and yield, which have a high uncertainty. For the NMVOC emissions the activity data depends on hectares of arable crops and grassland, which is estimated by Statistics Denmark. For the most common crops the uncertainties are below 5 % and thus the overall uncertainty value is estimated to 2 %. 83

Activity data for the PM emission depends on the number of animal, why the uncertainty is assumed to be 2 %. The uncertainty for activity data regarding use of pesticides with HCB is based on annual sales statistic provided by the Environmental Protection Agency and is considered with relatively low uncertainty; 5 %.

13.1.2 Emission factor The uncertainty regarding the NH3 emission factor from manure management includes estimates for N–excretion depending on feed intake and emission from three different places in the livestock production; in housing, stored manure and application of manure. The Danish Normative System for animal excretions is based on data from the Danish Agricultural Advisory Services (DAAS), which is the central office for all Danish agricultural advisory services. DAAS engages in a great deal of research as well as the collection of efficacy reports from Danish farmers for dairy production, meat production, pig production, etc., to optimise productivity in Danish agriculture. Feeding plans from 15-18 % of the Danish dairy production, 25-30 % of pig production, 80-90 % of poultry production and approximately 100 % of fur production are collected annually. These basic feeding plans are used to develop the standard values of the “Danish Normative System”. However, due to the large number of farms included in the norm figures, the arithmetic mean can be assumed as a very good estimate with a low uncertainty. In the normative standards (Poulsen et al., 2012) uncertainty values are indicated for emission measurements in housing and varies from 15 -25 %, but there is no specified uncertainty estimates for emission factors for storage and application of manure. The overall uncertainty value for NH3 emission factor for manure management is estimated to 25%. The ammonia emission from grazing animals depends on the number of grazing days, the animal type, the temperature and other climatic conditions. No statistics exit on grazing days and are therefore based on an estimated provided of the by The Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. The uncertainty value is estimated to 25 %. No uncertainty values for the emission factor regarding the synthetic fertiliser are given in the EEA/EMEP guidebook. The Danish inventory assume an uncertainty value of 25 %, which indicated an uncertainty in the translation of the Danish fertiliser types to types specified in the guidebook, but also indicate an uncertainty of the emission factors specified in the guidebook. The uncertainty regarding the emission from the ammonia emission sources growing crops, sewage sludge and ammonia treated straw is all based on the relative few data and therefore assumed to have a high uncertainty estimated to 50 %. Uncertainties for field burning are relatively high. The uncertainties for the emission factors for field burning of agricultural residues are based on the EMEP/EEA Guidebook (EMEP, 2009) and Jenkins et al. (1996). The uncertainty regarding the NMVOC emission from agricultural soils is in the EMEP/EEA Guidebook mentioned as being very a high – may be uncertain by a factor of 30. The uncertainty is set to 500 %. 84

The uncertainty estimates regarding the PM emission factors from manure management are based on the EMEP/EEA guidebook 2009. No uncertainty value is provided in EMEP for HCB and PCBs, the uncertainty is assumed to be high and thus estimated to 500 %.

13.1.3 Result of the uncertainty calculation Table 13.1 shows uncertainty values for activity and emission factors and combined and total uncertainties for the air pollutants. The total uncertainty for the NH3 emission inventory is calculated at 19 %, which is primarily affected by the main emission source manure management. The higher uncertainty values for the field burning of crop residues have only minor effect on the total uncertainty estimate. A high total uncertainty of around 500 % and 300 % is associated with NMVOC emission, PM emission and almost all pollutants related to field burning of agricultural residues. The high uncertainty level is due to the emission factors uncertainty. An uncertainty between 60 - 35 % is seen for NOx and Pb from field burning. The uncertainty is lowest for the ammonia emissions and the agricultural ammonia emission inventory thus have an uncertainty at 25 %. Table 13.2a Uncertainty values for air pollutants, 2011. Activity Emission Combined Pollutant

Total

data

factor

%

%

%

% 19

Uncertainty Uncertainty

NFR category

Emission

NH3, Gg

4. Agriculture

71.30

NH3, Gg

4.B Manure management 4 D1a Synthetic N-fertilisers

59.74

5

20

22

3.94

3

25

25

1

4 D2c N-excretion on pasture

1.81

5

25

25

<1

25

4.F Field burning

0.09

25

50

56

<1

4.G Agriculture other

5.71

20

50

54

4

4.F Field burning

0.23

25

100

103

4.G Agricultural other

1.92

2

500

500

4.B Manure management

11.21

2

300

300

4.F Field burning

0.21

25

50

56

NMVOC, Gg

446

TSP, Gg

294

PM10, Gg

289 4.B Manure management

5.60

2

300

300

4.F Field burning

0.21

25

50

56

4.B Manure management

1.18

2

300

300

4.F Field burning

0.20

25

50

56

PM2.5, Gg

HCB

256

4.G Agriculture other

NE 5 500 NE: Not estimated. Emission inventory for 2012 include a first estimate of HCB and PCB emissions.

85

Table 13.3b Uncertainty values for air pollutants – field burning other than PM, 2011. Activity Emission Combined Pollutant

NFR category

data

factor

Emission

%

%

Total

Uncertainty Uncertainty %

%

PCB

4.F Field burning

NE

25

500

HCB

4.F Field burning

NE

25

500

NOx, Gg

4.F Field burning

0.09

25

25

35

35

CO, Gg

4.F Field burning

2.15

25

100

103

103

SO2, Gg

4.F Field burning

0.01

25

100

103

103

Pb, tonnes

4.F Field burning

0.03

25

50

56

56

Cd, tonnes

4.F Field burning

0.002

25

100

103

103

Hg, tonnes

4.F Field burning

0.0003

25

200

202

202

As, tonnes

4.F Field burning

0.002

25

100

103

103

Cr, tonnes

4.F Field burning

0.01

25

200

202

202

Cu, tonnes

4.F Field burning

0.00001

25

200

202

202

Ni, tonnes

4.F Field burning

0.01

25

200

202

202

Se, tonnes

4.F Field burning

0.001

25

100

103

103

Zn, tonnes

4.F Field burning

0.001

25

200

202

202

Dioxin, g I-Teq

4.F Field burning

0.02

25

500

501

501

Benzo(a)pyrene, tonnes

4.F Field burning

0.10

25

500

501

501

Benzo(b)fluoranthen, tonnes 4.F Field burning

0.10

25

500

501

501

Benzo(k)fluoranthen, tonnes 4.F Field burning

0.04

25

500

501

501

13.2 Uncertainty values for agricultural greenhouse gases 13.2.1 Activity data The activity data regarding CH4 emission from enteric fermentation and manure management only depends on number of animal, which is based on very reliable data from Statistics Denmark thus a low uncertainty at 5 % is used. Activity data for manure management besides number of animal also depends on the housing- and manure type. The uncertainty estimate is assumed to 5 %. Uncertainty for N2O activity data which depends on the ammonia emission such as manure management, synthetic fertilizer, manure applied to soils, grassing animal and the atmospheric deposition, the uncertainty reflects the uncertainty value estimated in the ammonia emission inventory – see the combined uncertainty provided in Table 13.1a. Activity regarding N-fixing crops, crop residue and cultivation of histosols depends on land use data from Statistics Denmark, which has a low uncertainty. However, activity data also depends on the yield and crops Ncontent, which is much more uncertain. An uncertainty value at 20 % is used. Same uncertainty level is use for application of sewage sludge to agricultural soil and data for the amount of nitrogen leached to groundwater, watercourses and to the sea. As for the air pollutants an uncertainty of 25 % for field burning of agricultural wastes is used.

13.2.2 Emission factor The uncertainty value for enteric fermentation is in IPCC guidance estimated to 20 %. Uncertainty regarding the emission factor used for manure management depends on the uncertainty for each variable such as manure excre86

tion, distribution of housing type, content of dry matter in manure and use of straw for bedding. National data is used for these variables, which may reduce the uncertainty compared with use of IPCC default value. It is considered that an uncertainty of 20 % is reliable. A CH4 and N2O uncertainty for field burning is estimated to 50 %, which is based on IPCC guidelines (IPCC, 1997). The IPCC default value is used to calculate the N2O emission. The uncertainty estimates mentioned in IPCC guidance is very high, from 200% and for most of the emissions sources up to 500%. A lower uncertainty value at 100% is used in the Danish inventory. This could be considered as an underestimation, but on the other hand an uncertainty N2O estimate of 500% results in a total uncertainty for agricultural greenhouse gases at 120%, which indicate a very uncertain emission inventory.

13.2.3 Result of the uncertainty calculation Table 13.2 shows uncertainty values for activity and emission factors and combined and total uncertainties for the air pollutants. The overall uncertainty calculation for agricultural greenhouse gases is calculated to 25 %. Especially emission sources as N2O from N-leaching, synthetic fertiliser, animal waste applied to soil and CH4 from enteric fertiliser affects the total uncertainty. This is due to a combination of large contribution to total emissions and high uncertainty for the emission factor. Table 13.4 Uncertainty values for agricultural greenhouse gases - N2O and CH4, 2011. Combined Activity Pollutant

CRF category

Gg CO2 eqv.

4. Agriculture total

CH4, Gg CO2 eqv. 4.A Enteric fermentation

Emission data,%

Total

Emission Uncertainty, Uncertainty, factor, %

%

9 672

% 25

2 840

5

20

20

1 308

5

20

21

6

2

25

50

56

<1

N2O, Gg CO2 eqv. 4.B Manure management

403

22

100

55

4

4.D.1.1 Synthetic fertiliser

1180

25

100

103

22

to soils

1169

22

100

102

22

4.D.1.3 N-fixing crops

259

20

100

102

5

4.D.1.4 Crop residue

315

20

100

102

6

4.D.1.5 Cultivation of histosols

205

20

100

102

4

39

20

100

102

<1

208

25

100

103

4

4.D.3.1 Atmospheric deposition

286

19

100

102

5

4.d.3.2 N-leaching and runoff

1456

20

100

102

27

1

25

50

56

<1

4.B Manure management 4.F Field burning

14

4.D.1.2 Animal waste applied

4.D.1.6 Sewage sludge/industrial waste 4.D.2 Animal production (grazing)

4.F Field burning

87

14 Conclusion

In response to a number of international conventions, Denmark is committed to calculate the Danish emissions to the atmosphere of a range of different pollutants. For the agricultural sector, the emissions to be calculated are ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), the indirect greenhouse gases non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), particulate matter (PM), a series of other pollutants related to the field burning of crop residues (NOx, CO, SO2, heavy metals, PAHs, dioxins, HCB and PCBs) and HCB from use of pesticides. Danish Centre for Environment and Energy (DCE) is responsible for preparing and reporting the annual emissions inventories. In addition to the emissions inventories themselves, requirements in the various conventions call for documentation of the calculation methodology. This report should be viewed in the light of the reporting requirements of these conventions. The report includes the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2011, a description of the methodology used and a description of background data used in the emission calculations.

14.1 Agricultural emissions from 1985 to 2011 In 2012, the agricultural sector contributes 96 % of the total NH3 emission, while the agricultural part of the greenhouse gases are estimated to 17 %. The emission of NH3 and greenhouse gases from the agricultural sector stems primarily from livestock production, while a smaller part of the emission is from the fertilisation and cultivation of crops. The NH3 emission has decreased from 96.2 Gg NH3-N in 1985 to 58.7 Gg NH3-N in 2011. By using the conversion factor 17/14, the emission in pure NH3 corresponds to 116.8 Gg NH3 in 1985 and 71.3 Gg NH3 in 2011. In percentage terms the reduction is 39 %. Similarly, for the greenhouse gas emissions there has been a reduction from 13.4 million tonnes to 9.7 million tonnes CO2 equivalents, which corresponds to a reduction of 28 %. The significant decrease of emissions of both NH3 and greenhouse gases is a consequence of an active national environmental policy over the last 20 years. A string of measures have been introduced by action plans to prevent loss of nitrogen from agriculture to the aquatic environment. The focus on improvement of nitrogen utilisation in manure has led to a decrease in consumption of synthetic fertiliser. The improvement in the utilisation of nitrogen has occurred via improvements in feed efficiency and stricter legal requirements especially concerning the handling of animal manure during storage and application. In addition, these environmental measures have a significant effect on the total greenhouse gas emission, which is due to the close correlation between nitrogen turnover and the emission of N2O, which has a strong global warming potential.

14.2 Methodology and documentation Preparation of the Danish emission inventories is based on the international guidelines EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 88

(EMEP/EEA, 2004; EMEP/EEA 2009), Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC, 1997) and Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC, 2000). In Denmark, a relatively large amount of data and information is available on agricultural production, including livestock populations, slaughter data, feed intake, N-excretion, etc. Where data relevant for Danish agricultural production are not available, standard values recommended in the international guidelines are used. Data used to calculate the agricultural emissions are collected, assessed and discussed in cooperation with a range of different institutions involved in research or administration within the agricultural sector. Especially of relevance are Statistics Denmark, Danish Centre for Food and Agriculture at Aarhus University and the Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. Furthermore, the following institutions have been involved: the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Danish AgriFish Agency and the Danish Energy Authority. Calculation methodology and background data will be continually evaluated and, where necessary, adjusted as part of developments in research on a national scale, as well as on an international scale via changes in the guidelines.

89

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IPCC, 1997: Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Available at: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gl/invs1.html (Sept. 2014). IPCC, 2000: Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Available at: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gp/english/ (Sept. 2014). IPCC, 2006: 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (eds). Published: IGES, Japan. Available at: http://www.ipccnggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/index.html (Sept. 2014). Jarvis, S.C., Hatch, D.J., Roberts, D.H., 1989a: The effects of grassland management on nitrogen losses from grazed swards through ammonia volatilization; the relationship to excretal N returns from cattle. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 112, pp 205-216. 93

Jarvis, S.C., Hatch, D.J. & Lockyer, D.R., 1989b: Ammonia fluxes from grazed grassland annual losses form cattle production systems and their relation to nitrogen inputs. J. Agric. Camp. 113, pp 99-108. Jenkins, B.M., 1996: Atmospheric Pollutant Emission Factors from Open Burning of Agricultural and Forest Biomass by Wind Tunnel Simulations; Final Report (3 Vols.); CARB Project A932-126; California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California. Jensen, Henrik Bang, 2008: Pers. Comm. (mail 23.10.2008). Danish Agriculture & Food Council, Environment & Energy Division. Jones, D.B., 1941: Factors for converting percentages of nitrogen in foods and feeds into percentages of protein. United States Department of Agriculture, Circular No. 183. Slightly revised edition 1941 (Original version 1931). Kjeldal, Mogens, 2002: Pers. Comm. Technical advisor at Danish Agricultural Contractor. Knudsen, Troels, 2010. Pers. Comm. Danish AgriFish Agency. Kristensen, I.S. & Kristensen, T., 2002: Indirekte beregning af N-fiksering, In: Temadag arrangeret af Afd. for Jordbrugssystemer, p 31-39, report no. 157, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus University. (In Danish). Kyllingsbæk, A., 2000: Kvælstofbalancer og kvælstofoverskud i dansk landbrug 1979-1999. Report no. 36, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus University. (In Danish). Laursen, B., 1994: Normtal for husdyrgødning – revideret udgave af rapport nr. 28. Report no. 82, Institute of Food and Ressource Economics, University of Copenhagen (previously referred to as Statens Jordbrugsøkonomiske Institut). (In Danish). LBK, 1989: LBK nr. 68 af 24/01/1989. Bekendtgørelse af lov om miljøbeskyttelse. Lundgaard, Niels H., 2003: Pers. Comm. Department for Building and Technology, The Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. Mangino, J., Bartram, D. & Brazy, A., 2001: Development of a methane conversion factor to estimate emissions from animal waste lagoons. Presented at U.S. EPA’s 17th Annual Emission Inventory Conference, Atlanta GA, April 16-18, 2002. Massé, D.I., Croteau, F., Patni, N.K. & Masse, L., 2003: Methane emissions from dairy cow and swine manure slurries stored at 10°C and 15°C. Canadian Biosystems Engineering, 45: 6.1-6.6. Massé, D.I., Masse, L., Claveau, S, Benchaar, C. & Thomas, O., 2008: Methane Emissions from Manure Storage. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, Vol. 51(5): 1775-1781. Mikkelsen, M.H., Gyldenkærne, S., Poulsen, H.D. Olesen, J.E. & Sommer, S.G. 2006: Emission of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from Danish 94

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Poulsen, H.D., 2012: Normative figures 2000-2012. Danish Centre for Food and Agriculture. Available at (in Danish): http://anis.au.dk/forskning/sektioner/husdyrernaering-ogmiljoe/normtal/ (Sept. 2014). Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard, DCA: Pers. Comm. Danish Centre for Food and Agriculture, Aarhus University. Poulsen, H.D., Børsting, C.F., Rom, H.B. & Sommer, S.G., 2001: Kvælstof, fosfor og kalium i husdyrgødning – normtal 2000. Report no. 36, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus University. (In Danish). Poulsen, H.D. & Kristensen, V.F., 1997: Normtal for husdyrgødning – en revurdering af danske normtal for husdyrgødningens indhold af kvælstof, fosfor og kalium. Beretning nr. 736, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus University. (In Danish). Priemé, A. & Christensen, S., 1991: Emission of methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds in Denmark. NERI Technical Report no. 19. National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University. Rasmussen, Jan Brøgger, 2003: Pers. Comm. Department for Building and Technology, The Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. Refsgaard Andersen, H., 2003: Pers. Comm. Department of Animal Health and Bioscience, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus University. Risager, Hans Jørgen, 2003: Pers. Comm. Midtjylland Pelsdyravlerforening (Central Jutland fur animal breeding association). Schjoerring, J.K., & Mattsson, M., 2001: Quantification of ammonia exchange between agricultural cropland and the atmosphere: Measurement over two complete growth cycles of oilseed rape, wheat, barley and pea. Plant and Soil 228: 105-115. Sommer, Sven G. 2002: Pers. Comm. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus University, Department of Biosystems Engineering. Sommer, S.G., Møller, H.B. & Petersen, S.O., 2001: Reduktion af drivhusgasemission fra gylle og organisk affald ved Biogasbehandling. Report no. 31, 53 pp. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus University. (In Danish). Sommer, S.G., Petersen, S.O. & Sogaard, H.T., 2000: Greenhouse gas emissions from stored livestock slurry. Journal of Environmental Quality, 29: pp. 744-751. Stenkjær, K., 2009: Pers. Comm (phone 06.11.2009). Department of Forest and Landscape, Faculty of Life Science. Sørensen, P.B., Illerup, J.B., Nielsen, M., Lyck, E., Bruun, H.G., Winther, M., Mikkelsen, M.H., & Gyldenkærne, S. 2005: Quality manual for the greenhouse gas inventory Version 1. National Environmental Research Institute, 96

Denmark. 25 pp. – Research Notes from NERI no. 224. Available at: http://www2.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Publikationer/3_arbrapporter/rapporter /AR224.pdf (Sept. 2014). Tafdrup, Søren, 2003 and 2009: Personal communication (mail 15.10.2009). Danish Energy Agency. Takai. H., Pedersen. S., Johnsen. J.O., Metz. J.H.M., Grott Koerkamp. P.W.G., Uenk. G.H., Phillips. V.R., Holden. M.R., Sneath. R.W., Short. J.L., White. R.P., Hartung. J., Seedorf. J., Schröder. M., Linkert. K.H. & Wathers. C.M., 1998: Concentrations and Emissions of Airborne Dust in Livestock Buildings in Northern Europe. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, Volume 70 no. 1. May 1998. UNECE, 2009: Guidelines for reporting emission data under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. ECE/E-B.AIR/97. UNFCCC, 2006: Updated UNFCCC reporting guidelines on annual inventories following incorporation of the provisions of decision 14/CP.11. FCCC/SBSTA/2006/9. Available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2006/sbsta/eng/09.pdf (Sept. 2014). Waagepetersen, J., Grant, R., Børgesen, C.D. & Iversen, T.M., 2008: Midtvejsevaluering af Vandmiljøplan III. Available at (In Danish): http://pure.agrsci.dk:8080/fbspretrieve/2617161/VMPIII_midtvejs_2008.p df (Sept. 2014). Wang, S.-Y. & Huang, D.-J., 2005: Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Poultry Enteric Fermentation, Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 18, No. 6: 873-878. Windolf, J., Thodsen, H., Troldborg, L., Larsen, S.E., Bøgestrand, J., Ovesen, N.B. & Kronvang, B., 2011: A distributed moddeling system for simulation of monthly runoff and nitrogen sources, loads and sinks for ungauged catchments in Denmark. J. Environ. Monit., 2011, 13, 2645. Windolf, J., Blicher-Mathiesen, G., Carstensen, J. & Kronvang, B., 2012: Changes in nitrogen loads to estuaries following implementation of governmental action plans in Denmark: A paired catchment and estuary approach for analyzing regional responses. Environmental Science & Policy, 24, 24-33 Woodbury, J.W. & Hashimoto, A., 1993: Methane Emissions from Livestock Manure. In International Methane Emissions, US Environmental Protection Agency, Climate Change Division, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. Yang, C., 2006: Estimating HCB Releases from Pesticide Applications, HCB Releases from Pesticide Applications in USA and Canada – All Years. Environment Canada.

97

Appendixes

A) Ammonia emission from Danish agriculture 1985 – 2011. NH3-N

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Gg NH3-N Agricultural sector - total

96.17

97.39

95.40

93.38

93.68

93.43

90.25

89.11

87.38

84.99

80.00

77.30

76.27

76.69

Manure management

76.67

77.13

74.83

74.37

73.38

72.21

70.53

70.53

69.09

66.45

62.96

62.28

62.11

63.09

Agricultural soils - total

7.90

7.60

7.24

7.36

7.19

7.83

7.64

7.31

7.13

7.30

7.07

6.32

5.84

5.93

-Synthetic fertiliser

5.32

5.07

4.82

4.97

4.80

5.43

5.18

4.85

4.63

4.85

4.57

3.81

3.39

3.49

-Pasture, range and paddock

2.58

2.52

2.42

2.39

2.38

2.40

2.46

2.46

2.50

2.45

2.49

2.51

2.45

2.44

Field burning of agricultural residue

1.26

1.08

1.03

0.77

0.81

0.06

0.07

0.06

0.07

0.07

0.08

0.07

0.08

0.10

10.34

11.58

12.30

10.88

12.30

13.33

12.02

11.21

11.08

11.17

9.90

8.63

8.24

7.57

-Sewage sludge used as fertiliser

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.06

0.07

0.09

0.08

0.09

0.09

0.07

0.07

-Growing crops

4.92

4.92

4.91

4.86

4.84

4.88

4.85

4.82

4.75

4.41

4.35

4.38

4.48

4.45

-NH3 treated straw

5.39

6.62

7.35

5.97

7.41

8.39

7.12

6.32

6.24

6.67

5.46

4.17

3.69

3.05

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Agricultural sector - total

72.77

71.74

70.23

69.15

68.38

67.90

65.19

62.56

61.85

60.86

58.93

59.17

58.72

Manure management

60.94

59.68

59.14

58.99

58.68

58.36

56.04

53.59

52.93

51.62

49.73

50.00

49.20

Agricultural soils - total

5.63

5.58

5.27

4.92

4.57

4.61

4.40

4.43

4.45

4.65

4.59

4.40

4.74

-Synthetic fertiliser

3.24

3.17

2.82

2.56

2.46

2.66

2.57

2.70

2.82

3.01

3.02

2.86

3.24

-Pasture, range and paddock

2.39

2.41

2.45

2.36

2.11

1.95

1.82

1.73

1.64

1.64

1.57

1.54

1.49

Field burning of agricultural residue

0.09

0.09

0.10

0.08

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.09

0.08

0.10

0.07

0.07

Agriculture Other - total

6.10

6.39

5.72

5.17

5.04

4.83

4.65

4.44

4.37

4.50

4.51

4.70

4.71

-Sewage sludge used as fertiliser

0.07

0.07

0.07

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.06

0.05

0.05

-Growing crops

4.33

4.29

4.33

4.33

4.32

4.34

4.40

4.40

4.33

4.46

4.46

4.45

4.46

-NH3 treated straw

1.71

2.03

1.33

0.77

0.66

0.43

0.21

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.20

0.20

Agriculture Other - total

Gg NH3-N

98

A) Continued…

NH3

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

116.78

118.25

115.84

113.38

113.75

113.45

109.59

Manure management

108.21

106.10

103.20

97.14

93.86

92.61

93.13

93.09

93.65

90.86

90.31

89.10

Agricultural soils - total

9.59

9.22

8.79

8.93

8.73

87.68

85.64

85.64

83.90

80.69

76.45

75.62

75.42

76.61

9.51

9.27

8.88

8.66

8.87

8.58

7.67

7.09

-Synthetic fertiliser

6.46

6.16

5.86

6.03

7.20

5.83

6.59

6.29

5.89

5.62

5.89

5.55

4.63

4.12

-Pasture, range and paddock

3.13

3.06

2.94

2.90

4.24

2.90

2.92

2.99

2.99

3.04

2.97

3.03

3.05

2.98

2.96

Gg NH3 Agricultural sector - total

Field burning of agricultural residue

1.53

1.32

1.25

0.93

0.98

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.09

0.09

0.10

0.12

12.56

14.06

14.93

13.21

14.94

16.18

14.60

13.61

13.46

13.56

12.02

10.48

10.00

9.19

-Sewage sludge used as fertiliser

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.07

0.09

0.11

0.10

0.11

0.10

0.09

0.09

-Growing crops

5.97

5.97

5.96

5.91

5.88

5.92

5.88

5.85

5.77

5.36

5.28

5.31

5.44

5.41

-NH3 treated straw

6.54

8.04

8.92

7.25

9.00

10.19

8.64

7.67

7.58

8.10

6.63

5.06

4.48

3.70

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Agricultural sector - total

88.36

87.11

85.28

83.97

83.04

82.45

79.16

75.96

75.10

73.90

71.56

71.85

71.30

Manure management

74.00

72.46

71.81

71.63

71.25

70.87

68.05

65.07

64.28

62.68

60.38

60.72

59.74

Agricultural soils - total

6.84

6.77

6.39

5.97

5.55

5.59

5.34

5.38

5.41

5.64

5.57

5.34

5.75

-Synthetic fertiliser

3.93

3.85

3.42

3.11

2.99

3.23

3.12

3.28

3.42

3.65

3.67

3.47

3.94

-Pasture, range and paddock

2.90

2.92

2.97

2.86

2.57

2.36

2.21

2.09

1.99

1.99

1.91

1.87

1.81

Field burning of agricultural residue

0.12

0.11

0.12

0.10

0.12

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.11

0.10

0.12

0.09

0.09

Agriculture Other - total

7.41

7.76

6.95

6.28

6.12

5.86

5.65

5.39

5.31

5.47

5.48

5.71

5.71

-Sewage sludge used as fertiliser

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.07

0.06

0.06

-Growing crops

5.25

5.21

5.25

5.26

5.24

5.27

5.34

5.34

5.26

5.41

5.41

5.41

5.42

-NH3 treated straw

2.08

2.47

1.62

0.94

0.80

0.53

0.26

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.24

0.24

Agriculture Other - total

Gg NH3

99

B) Development in the emission of greenhouse gases, 1985-2011, measured in Gg CO2 equivalents. 1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

CH4 N2O

4 702 8 718

4 596 8 548

4 382 8 390

4 266 8 223

4 217 8 227

4 242 8 303

4 274 8 111

4 280 7 881

4 347 7 721

4 244 7 713

4 239 7 353

4 232 6 814

4 148 6 789

4 171 7 012

Total

13 420

13 144

12 772

12 489

12 444

12 545

12 385

12 161

12 068

11 957

11 592

11 046

10 937

11 184

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

CH4 N2O

4 038 6 706

4 048 6 423

4 142 6 236

4 136 6 163

4 108 5 729

4 055 5 912

4 043 5 809

4 021 5 638

4 100 5 787

4 106 5 837

4 095 5 503

4 165 5 449

4 151 5 521

Total

10 744

10 471

10 378

10 299

9 837

9 966

9 852

9 659

9 888

9 943

9 598

9 614

9 672

100

C) Development in the emission of greenhouse gases, 1985-2011, measured in Gg CO2 equivalents, distributed on main sources. CH4 Enteric Fermentation Manure Management

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

3 703 962

3 585 980

3 390 963

3 277 967

3 222 972

3 247 993

3 251 1 021

3 212 1 066

3 237 1 107

3 144 1 098

3 134 1 103

3 113 1 117

3 017 1 129

3 004 1 164

Field burning N2O Crop Residue Atmospheric Deposition

36

31

30

22

23

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

290 468

287 474

288 465

287 455

312 456

361 455

351 440

306 434

315 426

340 414

330 390

348 377

344 372

344 374

N-fixing Crops Grazing Manure Management Field burning

246 359 609 14

242 351 614 12

231 337 602 11

249 333 607 8

241 332 612 9

269 334 600 1

236 342 596 1

199 343 601 1

256 348 598 1

241 341 582 1

226 347 566 1

218 349 565 1

264 341 572 1

292 340 580 1

Synthetic fertiliser Histosols Manure on soil Sewage sludge

2 392 310 1 177 21

2 296 306 1 182 21

2 292 302 1 146 22

2 205 298 1 135 23

2 266 294 1 125 26

2 405 290 1 112 28

2 373 286 1 108 36

2 220 282 1 117 41

1 999 278 1 133 57

1 957 274 1 094 54

1 896 270 1 064 55

1 748 266 1 066 55

1 731 262 1 061 51

1 703 258 1 084 54

Leaching and run-off CO2 Field burning

2 832

2 762

2 692

2 623

2 553

2 447

2 342

2 336

2 311

2 415

2 209

1 821

1 791

1 983

967

830

789

590

621

49

51

48

53

51

58

57

61

77

101

C) Continued… CH4 Enteric Fermentation Manure Management

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2 891 1 144

2 861 1 184

2 911 1 229

2 872 1 262

2 833 1 272

2 753 1 299

2 737 1 303

2 740 1 278

2 805 1 293

2 830 1 273

2 823 1 270

2 862 1 300

2 840 1 308

Field burning N2O Crop Residue Atmospheric Deposition

3

3

3

2

3

3

3

3

3

2

3

2

2

333 354

337 349

345 342

325 337

320 333

325 331

331 318

329 305

320 301

305 296

312 287

316 288

315 286

N-fixing Crops Grazing Manure Management Field burning

237 333 568 1

233 335 537 1

217 341 539 1

222 328 537 1

192 294 521 1

183 271 533 1

208 254 512 1

211 240 478 1

212 228 479 1

213 229 457 1

248 218 423 1

238 215 423 1

259 208 403 1

Synthetic fertiliser Histosols Manure on soil Sewage sludge

1 580 254 1 080 48

1 512 250 1 061 53

1 406 246 1 100 65

1 268 242 1 136 63

1 210 238 1 141 58

1 243 234 1 177 52

1 240 230 1 189 47

1 151 226 1 151 44

1 168 221 1 213 41

1 324 217 1 191 40

1 201 213 1 156 42

1 139 209 1 164 40

1 180 205 1 169 39

Leaching and run-off CO2 Field burning

1 917

1 754

1 634

1 704

1 422

1 562

1 480

1 502

1 603

1 564

1 401

1 417

1 456

73

72

75

63

75

79

80

81

70

65

77

56

55

102

D) Number of livestock. 1) Number of livestock given in AAP (average annual production), thousands. 1985 Dairy Cattle Non-Dairy Cattle1 Pigs2

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

896

864

811

774

759

753

742

712

714

700

702

701

670

669

1 721

1 631

1 540

1 488

1 462

1 486

1 480

1 478

1 481

1 405

1 388

1 393

1 334

1 308

9 089

9 321

9 266

9 217

9 190

9 497

9 783

10 455

11 568

10 923

11 084

10 842

11 383

12 095

Poultry

16 282

16 282

16 603

16 586

18 257

17 311

16 995

20 103

20 962

20 916

20 685

20 955

20 062

19 743

Horses

140

139

138

137

136

135

137

138

140

141

143

144

146

147

Sheep

40

52

59

73

83

92

107

102

88

80

81

94

96

101

Goats

8

8

8

8

8

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

8

1 906

2 194

2 402

2 877

3 055

2 264

2 112

2 283

1 537

1 828

1 850

1 918

2 212

2 345 10

3

Fur farming Deer

9

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

640

636

623

610

596

563

564

550

545

558

563

568

565

1 247

1 232

1 284

1 187

1 128

1 082

1 006

984

1 021

1 006

977

1 003

1 003

11 626

11 922

12 608

12 732

12 949

13 233

13 534

13 361

13 723

12 738

12 369

13 173

12 932

Poultry

22 080

22 902

22 308

21 649

18 911

17 716

18 699

18 491

17 805

16 469

20 738

19 794

20 382

Horses

149

150

155

160

165

170

175

180

185

190

178

165

155

Sheep

106

112

119

117

121

124

126

128

124

117

116

111

94

Goats

8

8

9

9

10

11

11

12

13

14

16

16

13

2 089

2 199

2 304

2 422

2 361

2 471

2 552

2 708

2 837

2 810

2 721

2 699

2 757

10

10

11

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

9

10

8

Dairy Cattle Non-Dairy Cattle1 Pigs2 3

Fur farming Deer 1

Non-Dairy Cattle includes: Calves, bulls, heifers and suckling cattle. 2 Pigs includes: Sows, weaners and fattening pigs. 3 Poultry includes: Hens, pullets, broilers, turkeys, ducks, geese, pheasants and ostrich.

103

D) Continued… 2) Number of livestock given in produced number of animals, thousands. 1985 Dairy Cattle

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

896

864

811

774

759

753

742

712

714

700

702

701

670

669

3 314

3 182

2 993

2 890

2 807

2 856

2 862

2 893

2 849

2 737

2 712

2 704

2 623

2 532

30 420

32 145

32 222

32 770

32 648

33 803

35 532

38 640

42 535

43 039

42 394

42 732

43 964

47 570

Poultry

95 264

94 625

93 892

100 677

107 846

109 782

114 815

124 651

130 655

140 804

137 057

130 461

133 554

140 350

Horses

140

139

138

137

136

135

137

138

140

141

143

144

146

147

Sheep

40

52

59

73

83

92

107

102

88

80

81

94

96

101

Goats

8

8

8

8

8

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

8

1 906

2 194

2 402

2 877

3 055

2 264

2 112

2 283

1 537

1 828

1 850

1 918

2 212

2 345

9

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Non-Dairy Cattle1 Pigs2 3

Fur farming Deer Dairy Cattle Non-Dairy Cattle1 Pigs2

640

636

623

610

596

563

564

550

545

558

563

568

565

2 400

2 345

2 325

2 264

1 406

1 385

1 264

1 238

1 284

1 283

1 234

1 244

1 294

48 087

47 382

49 478

51 148

51 278

53 080

51 853

51 428

51 788

51 079

49 364

51 619

52 967

Poultry3

151 376

147 971

150 217

149 882

144 373

145 129

136 340

119 006

119 042

120 342

120 220

129 723

129 046

Horses

149

150

155

160

165

170

175

180

185

190

178

165

155

Sheep

106

112

119

117

121

124

126

128

124

117

116

111

94

Goats

8

8

9

9

10

11

11

12

13

14

16

16

13

2 089

2 199

2 304

2 422

2 361

2 471

2 552

2 708

2 837

2 810

2 721

2 699

2 757

10

10

11

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

9

10

8

Fur farming Deer 1

Non-Dairy Cattle includes: Calves, bulls, heifers and suckling cattle. 2 Pigs includes: Sows, weaners and fattening pigs. 3 Poultry includes: Hens, pullets, broilers, turkeys, ducks, geese, pheasants and ostrich.

104

E) Housing type distribution in percent, 1985-2011. Cattle: Dairy cattle: Livestock categories

Housing type

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Dairy cattle

Tethered with liquid and solid manure

40

39

38

37

36

35

35

34

33

32

31

30

30

30

Tethered with slurry

45

45

44

44

44

44

43

43

43

43

42

42

36

30

Loose-holding with beds, slatted floor

9

10

11

11

12

13

14

15

15

16

17

18

21

24

Loose-holding with beds, slatted floor, scrapes

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

3

Loose-holding with beds, solid floor

4

4

4

4

4

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

Loose-holding with beds, drained floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Loose-holding with beds, solid floor with tilt

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Deep litter (all)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Deep litter, slatted floor

1

1

1

2

2

3

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

8

Deep litter, slatted floor, scrapes

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Deep litter, solid floor, scrapes

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1 0

Deep litter, long eating space, solid floor Dairy cattle

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Tethered with liquid and solid manure

30

18

15

12

8

6

12

12

7

6

5

5

4

Tethered with slurry

30

28

25

23

18

16

14

14

10

9

7

7

6

Loose-holding with beds, slatted floor

24

34

36

39

42

44

44

44

42

44

45

45

46

Loose-holding with beds, slatted floor, scrapes

3

3

4

4

5

6

11

11

20

20

21

21

21

Loose-holding with beds, solid floor

3

6

9

11

16

17

11

11

13

14

14

14

15

Loose-holding with beds, drained floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Loose-holding with beds, solid floor with tilt

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

2

3

Deep litter (all)

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Deep litter, slatted floor

8

7

7

7

7

7

4

4

2

2

2

2

1

Deep litter, slatted floor, scrapes

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

Deep litter, solid floor, scrapes

1

3

3

3

3

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Deep litter, long eating space, solid floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

105

E) Continued… Heifers: Livestock categories

Housing type

Heifer calves, 0-6 mth.

Deep litter (boxes) Deep litter, solid floor

Heifer calves, 0-6 mth.

Deep litter (boxes) Deep litter, solid floor

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

100

100

100

89

84

83

80

93

93

96

96

96

96

0

0

0

11

16

17

20

7

7

4

4

4

4

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Tethered with liquid and solid manure

25

24

23

22

20

19

18

17

16

14

14

12

11

10

Tethered with slurry

25

24

23

22

20

19

18

17

16

14

14

12

11

10

Slatted floor-boxes

45

44

43

42

41

40

39

38

37

36

35

34

33

33

Loose-housing with beds, slatted floor

0

1

2

2

3

4

4

5

6

7

7

8

10

12

Loose-holding with beds, slatted floor, scrapes

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Loose-holding with beds, solid floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Loose-holding with beds, solid floor with tilt

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Deep litter (all)

5

4

4

4

4

3

3

2

2

2

1

1

0

0

Deep litter, solid floor

0

2

4

5

7

9

12

13

14

17

19

22

24

24

Deep litter, slatted floor

0

1

1

2

3

4

4

5

6

7

7

7

7

6

Deep litter, slatted floor, scrapes

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2 3

Housing type

Heifer, 6 mth.-calving

Deep litter, long eating space, solid floor

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

3

3

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Tethered with liquid and solid manure

10

9

8

7

7

5

6

7

7

6

6

6

5

Tethered with slurry

10

9

8

7

7

5

4

3

2

2

2

2

2

Slatted floor-boxes

32

32

31

30

30

29

32

36

39

37

35

35

31

Loose-housing with beds, slatted floor

13

14

17

20

21

23

19

16

12

14

16

16

19

Loose-holding with beds, slatted floor, scrapes

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

3

5

6

6

6

7

Loose-holding with beds, solid floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

3

5

6

6

6

7

Loose-holding with beds, solid floor with tilt

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Deep litter (all)

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

15

23

22

22

22

21

Deep litter, solid floor

106

1986

1985

Livestock categories

Heifer, 6 mth.-calving

1985

24

25

26

26

26

28

19

10

1

1

1

1

1

Deep litter, slatted floor

6

6

5

5

5

5

4

3

2

2

2

2

2

Deep litter, slatted floor, scrapes

2

2

2

2

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Deep litter, long eating space, solid floor

3

3

3

3

3

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

E) Continued… Bulls: Livestock categories

Housing type

Bull calves, 0-6 mth.

Deep litter (boxes) Deep litter, solid floor

Bull calves, 0-6 mth.

Deep litter (boxes) Deep litter, solid floor

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

100

100

100

91

86

82

77

95

95

97

97

97

97

0

0

0

9

14

18

23

5

5

3

3

3

3

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Tethered with liquid and solid manure

25

24

23

22

21

20

19

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

Tethered with slurry

25

24

23

22

21

20

19

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

Slatted floor-boxes

45

44

43

43

42

41

40

40

39

38

37

37

36

35

Loose-holding with beds, slatted floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Loose-holding with beds, slatted floor, scrapes

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Deep litter (all)

5

5

4

4

3

3

2

2

2

2

1

1

0

0

Deep litter, solid floor

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

15

17

19

21

22

25

27

Deep litter, slatted floor

0

1

2

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

8

9

10

11

Deep litter, slatted floor, scrapes

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

Deep litter, solid floor, scrapes

0

0

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

Deep litter, long eating space, solid floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 0

Livestock categories

Housing type

Bull, 6 mth -440 kg

Boxes with sloping bedded floor Bull, 6 mth -440 kg

1985

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Tethered with liquid and solid manure

11

10

9

8

8

7

9

9

4

4

3

3

2

Tethered with slurry

11

10

9

8

8

7

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

Slatted floor-boxes

34

33

32

31

30

28

31

31

30

30

27

27

25

Loose-holding with beds, slatted floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

Loose-holding with beds, slatted floor, scrapes

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

Deep litter (all)

0

0

0

0

0

0

47

47

57

58

60

60

58

Deep litter, solid floor

29

33

37

41

45

48

8

8

5

4

4

4

4

Deep litter, slatted floor

10

9

8

7

5

6

1

1

1

1

2

2

1

Deep litter, slatted floor, scrapes

2

2

2

2

1

1

0

0

1

1

2

2

2

Deep litter, solid floor, scrapes

3

3

3

3

3

3

2

2

0

0

0

0

0

Deep litter, long eating space, solid floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

Boxes with sloping bedded floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

107

E) Continued… Suckling cattle: Livestock categories

Housing type

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Suckling cattle

Tethered with liquid and solid manure

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

90

87

83

80

76

73

69

66

62

59

55

52

48

45

Deep litter, solid floor

0

3

7

10

14

17

21

24

28

31

35

38

42

45

Deep litter, long eating space, solid floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Deep litter, slatted floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Deep litter, slatted floor, scrapes

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Boxes with sloping bedded floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

10

9

8

7

4

5

9

14

18

16

15

15

13

Tethered with slurry Deep litter (all)

Suckling cattle

Tethered with liquid and solid manure Tethered with slurry

108

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

6

9

9

9

9

10

Deep litter (all)

45

45

44

43

44

43

51

58

66

68

69

69

69

Deep litter, solid floor

45

46

48

50

52

52

35

19

2

2

2

3

3

Deep litter, long eating space, solid floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

Deep litter, slatted floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

Deep litter, slatted floor, scrapes

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

Boxes with sloping bedded floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

E) Continued… Swine: Sows: Livestock categories

Housing type

Sows

Full slatted floor

Sows

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

3

5

7

8

10

11

13

13

14

14

15

16

16

16

Partly slatted floor

50

51

52

54

55

56

57

58

58

59

59

59

60

60

Solid floor

44

41

38

35

32

29

26

23

21

19

16

14

11

9

Deep litter

3

3

3

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

6

6

Deep litter + slatted floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

2

2

3

3

Deep litter + solid floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

2

2

2

3

Outdoor sows

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

2

2

3

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Full slatted floor

17

17

16

15

14

14

14

14

14

14

15

15

15

Partly slatted floor

61

59

60

60

59

59

65

70

75

77

77

77

79

Solid floor

6

6

5

5

5

5

4

3

2

1

1

1

0

Deep litter

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

4

1

1

1

1

1

Deep litter + slatted floor

3

4

5

6

7

7

6

5

5

5

4

4

4

Deep litter + solid floor

3

4

4

5

6

6

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

Outdoor sows

3

3

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

0

109

E) Continued… Weaners: Livestock categories Weaners

Weaners

110

Housing type

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Fully slatted floor

40

43

46

49

51

54

57

60

56

54

51

49

46

43

Partly slatted floor

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

24

27

31

34

37

41

Solid floor

35

32

29

26

24

21

18

15

14

13

11

9

8

7

Deep litter (to-climate housings)

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

Deep litter + slatted floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

3

4

4

Partly slatted and drained floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Fully slatted floor

40

38

36

35

33

31

29

27

26

23

22

22

20

Partly slatted floor

45

47

49

50

52

54

57

60

63

67

68

68

70

Solid floor

5

5

5

5

5

5

4

3

1

1

0

0

1

Deep litter (to-climate housings)

5

5

5

5

5

5

4

4

3

2

2

2

1

Deep litter + slatted floor

5

5

5

5

5

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Partly slatted and drained floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

6

7

7

8

8

8

E) Continued… Fattening pigs: Livestock categories

Housing type

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Fattening pigs

Fully slatted floor

29

33

38

42

47

51

56

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

Partly slatted floor

30

29

27

26

24

23

21

20

21

23

24

25

26

28

Partly slatted floor (50-75 % solid floor)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Partly slatted floor (25-49 % solid floor)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Solid floor

40

36

33

29

26

22

19

15

14

12

11

9

8

6

Deep litter

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

4

4

3

3

2

2

Partly slatted floor and partly deep litter

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

3

4

4 0

Partly slatted and drained floor Fattening pigs

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Fully slatted floor

60

58

57

56

55

53

53

53

53

53

54

54

53

Partly slatted floor

29

31

33

34

35

38

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Partly slatted floor (50-75 % solid floor)

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

6

6

7

7

7

7

Partly slatted floor (25-49 % solid floor)

0

0

0

0

0

0

29

29

28

28

27

27

28

Solid floor

5

5

4

4

4

3

3

4

3

2

2

2

1

Deep litter

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

3

4

3

2

2

2

Partly slatted floor and partly deep litter

5

5

5

5

5

5

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

Partly slatted and drained floor

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

4

5

6

7

7

8

111

E) Continued… Poultry: Livestock categories

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Free-range hens

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

2

5

9

8

8

Organic hens

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

5

6

10

Barn hens

2

4

9

7

6

5

8

8

8

11

15

17

17

15

Battery hens, manure shed

20

21

20

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

26

25

26

26

Battery hens, manure tank

15

14

13

13

13

13

12

11

11

10

8

7

7

6

63

61

58

58

58

58

55

53

52

49

43

37

36

35

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Pullet, consumption, net

22

21

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

8

Pullet, consumption, floor

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

66

Pullet, brood egg, floor

26

26

26

26

26

26

26

26

26

26

26

26

26

26

Broilers, (conv. 30 days)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Broilers, (conv. 32 days)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Battery hens, manure cellar Hens for production of brood egg

Broilers, (conv. 35 days)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Broilers, (conv. 40 days)

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Broilers, (conv. 45 days)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Broilers, barn (56 days)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Organic broilers (81 days)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Turkey, male

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

Turkey, female

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

Ducks

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Geese

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

2

5

9

8

8

Pheasant

112

E) Continued… Livestock categories

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

9

9

9

8

9

7

8

6

6

6

6

7

8

organic hens

12

13

13

14

14

13

14

14

15

16

15

15

16

Barn hens

17

17

17

18

20

23

25

24

20

19

19

17

17

Battery hens, manure shed

26

29

29

33

29

33

32

36

39

42

44

45

45 8

Free-range hens

2011

Battery hens, manure tank

5

5

5

4

5

4

5

6

8

8

7

7

Battery hens, manure cellar

31

27

27

23

23

20

16

14

12

9

9

9

6

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Hens for production of brood egg Pullet, consumption, net

7

8

7

6

7

5

5

5

7

7

7

7

19

Pullet, consumption, floor

67

69

68

69

68

69

69

69

73

84

78

78

76

Pullet, brood egg, floor

26

23

25

25

25

26

26

26

20

9

15

15

5

Broilers, (conv. 30 days)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

Broilers, (conv. 32 days)

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

5

1

2

7

3

11

Broilers, (conv. 35 days)

0

0

0

0

0

0

45

41

45

49

57

76

86

Broilers, (conv. 40 days)

100

100

100

100

100

100

49

54

53

49

36

21

3

Broilers, (conv. 45 days)

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

Broilers, barn (56 days)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Organic broilers (81 days)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Turkey, male

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

Turkey, female

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

Ducks

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Geese

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

9

9

9

8

9

7

8

6

6

6

6

7

8

Pheasant

113

E) Continued… Fur farming: Livestock categories

Housing type

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Mink

Slurry system

10

12

13

15

17

18

20

20

22

23

25

26

27

29

Solid manure

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

90

88

87

85

83

82

80

80

78

77

75

74

73

71

Solid manure and urine Foxes

Slurry system Solid manure and urine

Mink

Slurry system Solid manure Solid manure and urine

Foxes

Slurry system Solid manure and urine

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

30

42

50

55

60

65

73

80

88

92

95

97

96

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

3

3

3

3

4

70

58

50

45

40

35

26

18

9

5

2

0

0

0

2

5

10

15

30

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

100

98

95

90

85

70

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Horses, sheep, goats, deer and ostrich: Horses, sheep, goats and ostrich are all housed in deep litter housings all years 1985-2011. Deer are on pasture all years 1985-2011

114

F) Number of grazing days corresponding to the proportion of N in manure deposited on the field during grazing. Days per year 1985-1990

1991-2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Cattle: Dairy Cattle Calves and bulls Heifers

55 0 165

55 0 171

46 0 180

39 0 168

32 0 156

25 0 144

18 0 132

18 0 132

18 0 132

18 0 132

18 0 132

-actual days on grass Suckling Cattle

165 184

165 192

152 224

141 224

131 224

121 224

111 224

111 224

111 224

111 224

111 224

F) Continued… 1985-2011 Swine: Sows, weaners and fattening pigs Sows, outdoor Poultry: Hens, pullets, Broilers, Turkeys and Ducks

0 365

Geese, Pheasant and Ostrich Other: Horses Sheep and Goats

365

Deer

365

Fur animals

0

183 265 0

115

G) Nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission according to livestock category 1985 – 2011. 1) Nitrogen excretion distributed on livestock groups. N-excretion 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

tonnes N Cattle

168 660

164 160

156 186

151 781

150 532

150 413

148 763

145 119

144 330

139 016

138 294

137 784

132 563

130 543

Swine Poultry Horses Sheep

117 025 7 472 6 309 835

120 565 7 820 6 264 1 100

117 899 8 092 6 219 1 248

116 654 9 111 6 174 1 533

113 536 10 211 6 129 1 749

112 451 10 329 5 960 1 947

112 539 10 335 5 901 2 272

116 642 10 949 5 839 2 199

120 872 11 718 5 775 1 907

114 432 13 043 5 707 1 740

107 500 12 271 5 637 1 767

107 494 12 034 5 696 1 891

110 132 11 958 5 756 1 758

116 459 11 798 5 815 1 668

168 10 071 144

166 11 397 152

164 12 268 160

162 14 481 160

160 15 066 160

159 11 089 160

158 10 189 160

157 10 952 160

156 7 295 160

154 8 588 160

153 8 608 160

139 8 935 160

124 10 294 160

128 10 893 160

310 685

311 625

302 237

300 055

297 544

292 508

290 316

292 018

292 213

282 841

274 391

274 134

272 745

277 465

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Goats Fur animals Deer N-excretion total

Continued… tonnes N Cattle

125 194

124 483

124 135

121 951

119 440

116 181

116 328

116 757

120 759

122 811

121 566

122 038

122 490

Swine

116 018

114 607

120 139

126 171

123 142

128 267

124 446

113 785

117 215

109 958

103 016

102 825

103 158

Poultry

12 231

12 171

12 346

12 308

12 506

13 266

12 986

11 469

11 231

11 510

10 934

11 288

10 763

Horses

5 874

5 934

6 131

6 329

6 527

6 725

6 923

7 121

7 319

7 516

7 022

6 527

6 132

Sheep

1 559

1 892

2 010

1 991

2 051

2 105

2 140

2 165

2 098

1 991

1 958

1 881

1 585

Goats

119

143

160

151

164

176

181

191

198

231

257

262

206

9 676

10 169

10 639

11 172

10 886

12 585

13 718

14 026

14 698

14 860

15 005

15 697

15 566

160 270 833

160 269 559

170 275 731

158 280 232

155 274 873

155 279 460

154 276 875

154 265 667

155 273 674

153 269 031

152 259 909

152 260 671

129 260 029

Fur animals Deer N-excretion total

116

G) Continued… 2) Ammonia emission from animal manure (incl. pasture) distributed on livestock groups. Ammonia emission 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

tonnes NH3-N Cattle Swine Poultry Horses Sheep Goats Fur animals Deer Emission total

35 230 36 137 2 510 1 099

34 152 36 969 2 594 1 081

32 326 35 914 2 718 1 063

31 218 35 294 3 034 1 046

30 803 34 094 3 395 1 028

31 385 33 971 3 411 998

30 485 33 530 3 462 988

29 240 34 253 3 702 976

28 534 34 885 3 936 964

27 106 32 718 4 334 952

26 468 30 051 4 187 939

26 089 29 712 4 087 947

24 973 30 028 4 105 954

24 384 31 401 4 050 962

106 21 4 132 10

138 21 4 681 11

156 20 5 041 11

190 20 5 952 11

215 20 6 199 11

239 19 4 578 11

278 19 4 212 11

269 19 4 519 11

233 19 3 013 11

212 19 3 550 11

215 19 3 558 11

230 17 3 694 11

214 15 4 258 11

204 16 4 505 11

79 245

79 648

77 249

76 765

75 764

74 613

72 985

72 989

71 595

68 902

65 448

64 787

64 558

65 533

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Continued… tonnes NH3-N Cattle

23 247

23 237

22 307

21 362

21 001

18 712

17 298

17 676

18 005

18 235

17 922

18 083

17 819

Swine

30 661

29 132

29 260

29 722

29 421

30 485

28 998

26 421

25 624

23 841

22 208

22 030

21 826

Poultry

4 212

4 217

4 279

4 270

4 356

4 545

4 456

3 904

3 477

3 560

3 375

3 477

3 354

Horses

989

982

1 016

1 054

1 083

1 113

1 140

1 169

1 126

1 156

1 080

1 004

951

Sheep

192

229

244

242

249

255

258

261

241

229

225

216

183

Goats

15

17

19

18

20

21

22

23

23

27

30

30

24

4 002

4 257

4 451

4 663

4 647

5 167

5 679

5 846

6 065

6 205

6 447

6 695

6 528

11

11

12

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

9

63 329

62 083

61 589

61 343

60 788

60 310

57 863

55 311

54 571

53 264

51 297

51 546

50 694

Fur animals Deer Emission total

117

G) Continued… 3) Ammonia emission from manure (incl. pasture) distributed on the different parts of the production. Ammonia emission 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

tonnes NH3-N Housing Storage

30 017 13 909

30 908 13 914

30 589 13 380

31 192 13 143

31 082 12 840

29 504 12 464

29 118 12 213

29 930 12 255

29 203 12 289

28 599 11 755

27 320 11 203

27 278 11 042

27 929 11 041

28 948 11 234

Spreading Pasture

32 741 2 579

32 306 2 521

30 860 2 419

30 039 2 390

29 458 2 384

30 243 2 403

29 196 2 459

28 343 2 461

27 600 2 503

26 098 2 449

24 433 2 493

23 958 2 510

23 138 2 451

22 911 2 440

Emission total

79 245

79 648

77 249

76 765

75 764

74 613

72 985

72 989

71 595

68 902

65 448

64 787

64 558

65 533

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Continued… tonnes NH3-N Housing

28 163

28 442

29 498

30 657

30 521

31 934

31 878

30 244

30 559

29 959

28 645

28 818

28 809

Storage

10 812

10 146

10 144

9 764

9 282

9 402

6 961

6 534

4 421

4 324

4 121

4 141

4 109

Spreading

21 963

21 088

19 499

18 565

18 872

17 028

17 201

16 807

17 954

17 338

16 962

17 045

16 283

2 391

2 407

2 447

2 357

2 112

1 946

1 823

1 725

1 638

1 643

1 569

1 542

1 493

63 329

62 083

61 589

61 343

60 788

60 310

57 863

55 311

54 571

53 264

51 297

51 546

50 694

Pasture Emission total

118

H) N ex animal. A) Cattle, large breed

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Dairy cows

Total N

125.0

127.3

129.5

131.8

134.0

133.0

132.0

131.0

130.0

129.0

128.0

127.8

127.7

127.5

Bullsa

Total N

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

Heifersb

Total N

39.2

Continued

39.2

39.2

39.2

39.2

39.2

39.2

39.2

39.2

39.2

39.2

39.2

39.2

39.2

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Dairy cows

Total N

127.3

128.0

128.0

130.0

132.8

134.5

136.3

137.4

140.2

140.6

140.9

141.4

141.4

a

Total N

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

24.3

39.2 39.2 a 6 month to slaughter. Kg N per produced animal. b 6 month to calving.

39.2

39.2

39.2

39.2

43.7

48.1

52.6

52.6

52.6

50.0

50.4

Bulls

Heifersb

Total N

Continued… B) Swine

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Sows

Total N

31.9

31.2

30.6

29.9

29.3

28.7

28.1

27.5

26.9

26.3

25.7

26.0

26.2

26.5

Fattening pigsc

Total N

5.1

5.0

4.9

4.9

4.8

4.5

4.3

4.0

3.8

3.5

3.3

3.3

3.2

3.2

Weanersc

Total N

0.7

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Total N

26.6

26.6

27.2

27.2

27.2

27.2

26.5

26.0

26.4

25.8

26.0

25.1

25.1

Total N

3.2

3.1

3.1

3.3

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.0

3.1

3.0

2.9

2.8

2.8

Total N

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.7

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.5

Continued Sows (incl. piglets) Fattening pigs

c

Weanersc c

per. produced animal.

Continued… C) Poultry

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Battery hensd

Total N

61.1

64.6

68.0

71.4

74.9

75.2

75.6

75.9

76.3

76.6

77.0

77.0

77.0

77.0

Broilerse

Total N

40.7

40.7

48.3

52.2

56.0

55.2

54.4

53.7

52.9

52.1

51.3

51.3

51.3

51.3

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

76.9

67.1

67.1

67.9

72.5

73.2

77.9

77.9

68.4

69.5

69.5

69.5

69.3

Continued Battery hensd

Total N

Broilerse

Total N

51.3 53.3 53.3 53.6 53.6 58.1 64.3 64.2 65.5 65.5 65.5 65.0 64.8 d pr. 100 animal. Change in methodology has taken place from N ex per produced hens to N ex per AAP (annual average population – see definition in section 4.1). In this table all years covers N ex per AAP. e pr. 1000 produced animal.

119

H) Continued… D) Fur animals Mink (incl. cubs)

1985 Total N

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998 4.6

5.2

5.1

5.0

5.0

4.9

4.8

4.8

4.7

4.7

4.6

4.6

4.6

4.6

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Total N 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 5.1 Sources: Laursen (1994), Poulsen & Kristensen (1997), Poulsen et al. (2001), Poulsen (2012).

5.4

5.2

5.2

5.3

5.5

5.8

5.6

Continued Mink (incl. cubs)

120

I) TAN ex animal. kg per animal

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

TAN

66.67

67.00

65.70

65.69

67.20

TAN

16.11

16.11

16.11

16.11

16.11

TAN

35.86

35.86

35.86

33.49

33.85

TAN

19.77

19.20

19.34

18.67

18.66

TAN

2.04

2.03

1.96

1.87

1.86

TAN

0.31

0.33

0.31

0.29

0.29

TAN

3.85

3.93

4.11

4.34

4.20

Cattle Dairy cows Bulls

a

Heifers

b

Swine Sows Fattening pigs Weanersc

c

Fur animals Mink a

6 month to slaughter. Per produced animal. b 6 month to calving. c per produced animal. Source: Poulsen (2012).

121

J) Ammonia emission factors for housing units. Swine Housing type Sows

Floor or manure type

Individual, mating and gestation Partly slatted floor

Farrowing crate

Weaners

Fattening pigs

Deep litter

TAN

TAN

Total N

Total N

Pct. loss of TAN ex animal

pct. loss of N ex animal

13

-

-

19

-

-

Solid floor

21

-

16

-

Deep litter

-

-

-

15

Deep litter + slatted floor

-

16

-

15

Deep litter + solid floor

-

19

-

15

Partly slatted floor

-

16

-

-

Full slatted floor

-

13

-

-

-

26

-

-

20

-

15

-

Partly slatted floor

-

22

15

-

Full slatted floor

-

24

-

-

Drained + Partly slatted floor

-

21

-

-

Deep litter (two-climate housing)

-

10

-

15

Solid floor

37

-

25

-

Deep litter

-

-

-

15

Partly slatted floor (50-75 % solid)

-

13

-

-

Partly slatted floor (25-49% solid)

-

17

-

-

Drained + Partly slatted floor

-

21

-

-

Full slatted floor

-

24

-

-

27

-

18

-

Deep litter, divided

-

18

-

15

Deep litter

-

-

-

15

Solid floor

Solid floor

122

Solid manure

-

Partly slatted floor Farrowing pen

Slurry

-

Full slatted floor Group, mating and gestation

Urine

J) Continued… Poultry

Hens and pullets

Solid manure

Deep litter

Total N

Total N

Housing type

Floor or manure type

pct. loss of N ex animal

Free-range, organic and barn

Deep pit

40

25

-

28

Manure belt

10

25

Deep pit

12

-

Manure belt

10

-

Deep litter Battery

Broilers

Conventional

Deep litter

-

20

Organic and barn

Deep litter

-

25

Deep litter

-

20

Turkeys, ducks and geese

J) Continued… Other

Urine

Slurry

Solid manure

Deep litter

TAN

TAN

Total N

Total N

Pct. loss of TAN ex animal Fur animals Horses, sheep and goats

pct. loss of N ex animal

35

47

35

-

-

-

-

15

123

K) Correction for lack of floating / fixed cover on slurry tanks. Emission factor1

Emissions faktor5

NH3-N in % of N ex housing-total

NH3-N in % of TAN ex housing-total

1985-19992

2000-20013

20024

2003-20064

2007-20114 TAN

Swine No cover

9%

11.4%

40%

20%

10%

5%

5%

Full cover

2%

2.5%

60%

80%

90%

95%

95%

4.8%

3.4%

2.7%

2.4%

2.9%

Emission under storage Cattle No cover

6%

10.3%

20%

5%

5%

2%

2%

Full cover

2%

3.4%

80%

95%

95%

98%

98%

2.8%

2.2%

2.2%

2.1%

3.5%

20%

5%

5%

2%

2%

Emission under storage Fur animals No cover

12.9%

Full cover

2.9%

Emission under storage 1

Poulsen et al., 2001. COWI 1999. 3 COWI 2000. 4 Estimate – DCA. 5 Hansen et al., 2008. 2

124

80%

95%

95%

98%

98%

4.9%

3.4%

3.4%

3.1%

3.1%

L) Correction for lack of cover on manure heaps. Emission factor

Solid manure

NH3-N in % of N ex housing-total

2007-2011

No cover

5%

50%

Full cover

3%

50%

Cattle

Emission under storage

4%

Swine No cover

25%

50%

Full cover

13%

50%

Emission under storage

19%

Hens No cover

10%

Full cover

5%

Emission under storage

50% 50% 7.5%

Broilers No cover

15%

Full cover

8%

Emission under storage

50% 50% 11,5%

Fur animals No cover

15%

Full cover

8%

Emission under storage

50% 50% 11.5%

Horses, sheep and goats No cover

5%

50%

Full cover

3%

50%

Emission under storage

4%

125

M) Estimate of how liquid and solid manure has been handled in practice, 1985-2011. Cattle and other livestock except from swine: Liquid manure: Crop stage

Application time

Lying time

Percent of N ex storage per manure type 1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Injection

Hours

-

March

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

April

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

+

March

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

+

April

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

+

Summer, grass injection 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

2

-

Summer, before winter rape

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

+

Autumn

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Autumn

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Hose application -

March

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

7

8

9

-

April

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

5

+

March

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

3

3

4

5

5

+

April

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

3

3

5

6

8

9

11

+

May

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

3

3

5

7

8

10

11

+

Summer

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

3

3

4

5

5

4

-

Summer

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

2

3

3

3

2

+

Autumn

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

3

3

4

4

4

-

Autumn

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

2

2

1

1 17

Broad spreading -

Winter-spring

< 12

26

27

28

29

30

26

25

24

23

22

21

20

18

-

Winter-spring

> 12

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

-

Winter-spring

< week

15

15

15

15

15

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

18

17

+

Spring-summer

< week

8

8

8

8

8

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

2

2

+

Late summer-autumn

< week

7

7

7

7

7

7

6

5

4

4

3

2

2

1

-

Late summer-autumn

< 12

2

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

3

3

3

2

-

Late summer-autumn

> 12

8

7

7

6

6

6

5

5

4

3

3

2

1

1

-

Late summer-autumn

< week

29

28

27

26

25

24

20

16

12

8

4

0

0

0

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Total - indicate bare soil+ indicate growth.

126

M) Continued… Crop stage

Application time

Lying time

Percent of N ex storage per manure type 1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Injection

Hours

-

March

0

1

2

5

8

11

21

20

20

20

21

21

21

25

-

April

0

1

3

5

8

12

21

21

20

20

21

21

21

30

+

March

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

3

3

3

3

8

+

April

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

3

4

4

4

4

0

+

Summer, grass injection

0

2

2

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

7

10

-

Summer, before winter rape

0

0

0

0

0

1

6

6

7

7

7

7

7

3

+

Autumn

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Autumn

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Hose application -

March

4

10

9

10

10

14

8

8

6

5

3

3

3

0

-

April

4

5

4

5

5

4

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

0

+

March

< week

6

6

7

7

7

5

5

5

4

4

4

4

5

+

April

< week

12

13

18

17

15

10

9

9

9

9

9

9

8

+

May

< week

12

13

18

17

15

10

9

9

9

9

9

9

7

+

Summer

< week

4

4

4

3

3

3

3

3

3

2

2

2

2

-

Summer

4

2

2

3

3

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

0

+

Autumn

< week

4

4

5

5

5

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

2

-

Autumn

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

15

14

6

5

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Broad spreading -

Winter-spring

< 12

-

Winter-spring

> 12

5

4

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Winter-spring

< week

15

14

6

4

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

+

Spring-summer

< week

2

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

+

Late summer-autumn

< week

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Late summer-autumn

< 12

2

2

1

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Late summer-autumn

> 12

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Late summer-autumn

< week Total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

- indicate bare soil+ indicate growth.

127

M) Continued… Solid manure: Crop stage

Application time

Lying time

Percent of N ex storage per manure type 1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

-

Broad spreading Winter-spring Winter-spring Winter-spring

4 6 < week

13 18 19

16 16 18

19 14 17

22 12 16

25 10 15

26 11 14

26 11 14

27 12 13

28 13 12

29 14 11

29 14 11

30 15 10

32 15 10

33 15 10

+ + -

Spring-summer Late summer-autumn Late summer-autumn Late summer-autumn

< week < week 4 6

0 0 13 13

0 0 16 11

0 0 19 9

0 0 22 7

0 0 25 5

0 0 25 5

0 0 25 5

0 0 25 5

0 0 25 5

0 0 25 5

0 0 25 5

0 0 25 5

0 0 25 5

0 0 25 5

-

Late summer-autumn

< week

24

23

22

21

20

19

19

18

17

16

16

15

13

12

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Total Continued… Broad spreading -

Winter-spring

4

35

38

49

54

54

56

57

59

60

60

60

60

70

-

Winter-spring

6

15

14

14

15

15

14

14

13

12

12

12

12

20

-

Winter-spring

< week

10

9

10

11

11

11

10

9

9

9

9

9

0

+

Spring-summer

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

+

Late summer-autumn

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Late summer-autumn

4

25

26

18

13

15

15

16

16

17

17

17

17

5

-

Late summer-autumn

6

5

5

3

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Late summer-autumn

< week Total

- indicate bare soil+ indicate growth.

128

10

9

6

5

4

4

3

3

2

2

2

2

0

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

M) Continued… Swine: Liquid manure: Crop status

Application time

Lying time

Percent of N ex storage per manure type 1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Injection

Hours

-

March

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

-

April

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

+

March

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

+

April

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

+

Summer, grass injection

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Summer, before winter rape 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

2

+

Autumn

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Autumn

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Hose application -

March

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

6

-

April

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

3

3

5

5

6

7

+

March

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

3

4

4

5

5

+

April

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

3

3

6

6

9

10

12

+

May

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

4

4

6

6

9

10

12

+

Summer

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

3

3

4

4

4

-

Summer

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

2

3

3

3

2

+

Autumn

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Autumn

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

3

3

5

5

4

3 17

Broad spreading -

Winter-spring

< 12

26

27

28

29

30

26

25

24

23

22

21

20

18

-

Winter-spring

> 12

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

-

Winter-spring

< week

15

15

15

15

15

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

18

17

+

Spring-summer

< week

8

8

8

8

8

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

2

2

+

Late summer-autumn

< week

7

7

7

7

7

7

6

5

4

4

3

2

2

1

-

Late summer-autumn

< 12

2

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

4

3

3

3

3

2

-

Late summer-autumn

> 12

8

7

7

6

6

6

5

5

4

3

3

2

2

1

-

Late summer-autumn

< week

29

28

27

26

25

24

20

16

12

8

4

0

0

0

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Total - indicate bare soil+ indicate growth.

129

M) Continued… Crop status

Application time

Lying time

Percent of N ex storage per manure type 1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Injection

Hours

-

March

0

1

2

5

8

6

6

7

7

8

10

10

10

14

-

April

0

1

3

6

8

7

7

7

8

8

9

9

9

11

+

March

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

2

2

2

2

+

April

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

3

3

3

3

3

+

Summer, grass injection

0

0

0

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

-

Summer, before winter rape

0

2

2

2

2

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

5

+

Autumn

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Autumn

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

7

7

9

8

7

6

4

2

2

2

0

Hose application -

March

4

10

7

-

April

4

5

7

8

8

9

8

7

6

4

3

3

3

0

+

March

< week

6

6

11

11

13

14

14

14

14

14

14

14

14

+

April

< week

13

14

16

15

20

23

28

30

32

32

32

32

33

+

May

< week

13

14

16

15

21

23

18

14

13

13

13

13

13

+

Summer

< week

4

4

5

5

3

3

3

3

3

2

2

2

1

-

Summer

4

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

0

+

Autumn

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

-

Autumn

4

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

0

Broad spreading -

Winter-spring

< 12

15

14

6

5

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Winter-spring

> 12

5

4

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Winter-spring

< week

15

13

6

4

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

+

Spring-summer

< week

2

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

+

Late summer-autumn

< week

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Late summer-autumn

< 12

2

2

1

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Late summer-autumn

> 12

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Late summer-autumn

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Total - indicate bare soil+ indicate growth.

130

M) Continued… Solid manure: Crop stage

Application time

Lying time

Broad spreading

Percent of N ex storage per manure type 1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

13

16

19

22

25

26

26

27

28

29

29

30

32

33

-

Winter-spring

4

18

16

14

12

10

11

11

12

13

14

14

15

15

15

-

Winter-spring

6

19

18

17

16

15

14

14

13

12

11

11

10

10

10

-

Winter-spring

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

+

Spring-summer

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

+

Late summer-autumn

< week

13

16

19

22

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

-

Late summer-autumn

4

13

11

9

7

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

-

Late summer-autumn

6

24

23

22

21

20

19

19

18

17

16

16

15

13

12

-

Late summer-autumn

< week

13

16

19

22

25

26

26

27

28

29

29

30

32

33

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

35

38

49

54

54

56

57

59

60

60

60

60

60

Total Continued… Broad spreading -

Winter-spring

4

15

14

14

15

15

14

14

13

12

12

12

12

16

-

Winter-spring

6

10

9

10

11

11

11

10

9

9

9

9

9

0

-

Winter-spring

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

+

Spring-summer

< week

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

+

Late summer-autumn

< week

25

26

18

13

15

15

16

16

17

17

17

17

19

-

Late summer-autumn

4

5

4

3

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Late summer-autumn

6

10

9

6

5

4

4

3

3

2

2

2

2

0

-

Late summer-autumn

< week

35

38

49

54

54

56

57

59

60

60

60

60

60

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Total - indicate bare soil+ indicate growth.

131

N) Emission of particular matter, 1985-2011. TSP Gg TSP

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Dairy cattle

0.93

0.90

0.85

0.81

0.80

0.80

0.79

0.76

0.76

0.75

0.76

0.76

0.72

0.71

Non-dairy cattle

1.20

1.14

1.07

1.03

1.00

1.01

0.99

0.97

0.95

0.90

0.87

0.87

0.84

0.83

Animal Category

Sheep

0.001

0.002

0.002

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.004

0.004

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.004

Goats

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0002

0.0003

Horses

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

Swine

6.40

6.52

6.46

6.41

6.38

6.58

6.77

7.22

8.07

7.52

7.60

7.40

7.74

8.65

Laying hens

0.31

0.29

0.27

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.28

0.35

0.31

0.40

0.39

0.40

0.37

0.32

Broilers

0.44

0.44

0.50

0.49

0.56

0.51

0.52

0.66

0.70

0.63

0.65

0.67

0.65

0.68

Turkeys

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

Other poultry

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

TSP total

9.33

9.34

9.20

9.09

9.10

9.25

9.39

10.01

10.85

10.25

10.33

10.16

10.38

11.24

Continued…

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

0.68

0.72

0.72

0.72

0.74

0.72

0.73

0.73

0.74

0.76

0.77

0.78

0.78

Other

Animal Category Dairy cattle

0.78

0.76

0.77

0.73

0.45

0.44

0.42

0.43

0.46

0.45

0.44

0.45

0.45

Sheep

0.004

0.004

0.004

0.004

0.004

0.005

0.005

0.005

0.004

0.004

0.004

0.004

0.003

Goats

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0004

0.0004

0.0004

0.0004

0.0005

0.0005

0.0006

0.0006

0.0005

Horses

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.03

0.03

0.03

Swine

8.26

8.47

8.93

9.00

9.13

9.34

9.53

9.37

9.64

8.88

8.52

9.13

8.95

Laying hens

0.37

0.33

0.31

0.30

0.34

0.32

0.38

0.26

0.28

0.35

0.29

0.36

0.40

Broilers

0.78

0.83

0.81

0.79

0.63

0.59

0.62

0.67

0.61

0.51

0.77

0.67

0.65

Turkeys

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.01

Other poultry

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.00

0.01

0.004

0.004

0.004

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

10.92

11.18

11.61

11.60

11.35

11.47

11.74

11.52

11.78

11.01

10.86

11.43

11.29

Non-dairy cattle

Other TSP total

132

N) Continued… PM10. Gg PM10

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Dairy cattle

0.43

0.41

0.39

0.37

0.37

0.37

0.36

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.33

0.33

Non-dairy cattle

0.55

0.52

0.49

0.47

0.46

0.47

0.45

0.45

0.44

0.41

0.40

0.40

0.39

0.38

Sheep

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.002

0.002

0.002

Goats

Animal Category

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

Horses

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

Swine

2.88

2.93

2.91

2.88

2.87

2.96

3.05

3.25

3.63

3.38

3.42

3.33

3.48

3.89

Laying hens

0.31

0.29

0.27

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.28

0.35

0.31

0.40

0.39

0.40

0.37

0.32

Broilers

0.44

0.44

0.50

0.49

0.56

0.51

0.52

0.66

0.70

0.63

0.65

0.67

0.65

0.68

Turkeys

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.012

0.011

0.010

0.010

0.012

0.010

0.011

0.010

0.010

0.012

0.013

0.009

0.008

0.009

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

PM10 total

4.64

4.64

4.59

4.55

4.60

4.64

4.70

5.08

5.47

5.20

5.26

5.19

5.27

5.64

Continued…

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Dairy cattle

0.31

0.33

0.33

0.33

0.34

0.33

0.34

0.34

0.34

0.35

0.36

0.36

0.36

Non-dairy cattle

0.36

0.35

0.36

0.33

0.21

0.20

0.19

0.20

0.21

0.21

0.20

0.20

0.21

Other poultry Other

Animal Category

Sheep

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

Goats

0.0001

0.0001

0.0002

0.0002

0.0002

0.0002

0.0002

0.0002

0.0002

0.0002

0.0003

0.0003

0.0002

Horses

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.01

0.01

Swine

3.72

3.81

4.02

4.05

4.11

4.20

4.29

4.22

4.34

4.00

3.84

4.11

4.03

Laying hens

0.37

0.33

0.31

0.30

0.34

0.32

0.38

0.26

0.28

0.35

0.29

0.36

0.40

Broilers

0.78

0.83

0.81

0.79

0.63

0.59

0.62

0.67

0.61

0.51

0.77

0.67

0.65

Turkeys

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.01

0.010

0.008

0.009

0.010

0.009

0.009

0.008

0.009

0.005

0.005

0.004

0.004

0.004

Other poultry Other PM10 total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5.57

5.70

5.87

5.84

5.66

5.69

5.86

5.72

5.81

5.44

5.50

5.73

5.68

133

N) Continued… PM2,5. Gg PM2,5

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

0.27

0.27

0.25

0.24

0.24

0.24

0.23

0.22

0.23

0.22

0.22

0.22

0.21

0.21

Animal Category Dairy cattle Non-dairy cattle

0.35

0.33

0.31

0.30

0.29

0.30

0.29

0.29

0.28

0.26

0.26

0.26

0.25

0.24

Sheep

0.0002

0.0003

0.0003

0.0004

0.0004

0.0005

0.0005

0.0005

0.0004

0.0004

0.0004

0.0005

0.0005

0.0005

Goats

0.00004

0.00004

0.00004

0.00004

0.00004

0.00004

0.00004

0.00004

0.00004

0.00003

0.00003

0.00003

0.00003

0.00004

Horses

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

Swine

0.47

0.48

0.47

0.47

0.47

0.48

0.50

0.53

0.59

0.55

0.56

0.54

0.57

0.63

Laying hens

0.06

0.05

0.05

0.06

0.05

0.06

0.05

0.06

0.06

0.07

0.07

0.08

0.07

0.06

Broilers

0.06

0.06

0.07

0.06

0.07

0.07

0.07

0.09

0.09

0.08

0.09

0.09

0.09

0.09

Turkeys

0.001

0.002

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

Other poultry

0.002

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.002

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.002

0.001

0.001

0.001

PM2,5 total

0 1.22

0 1.20

0 1.16

0 1.14

0 1.14

0 1.15

0 1.15

0 1.20

0 1.26

0 1.20

0 1.21

0 1.20

0 1.19

0 1.25

Continued…

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

0.20

0.21

0.21

0.21

0.22

0.21

0.22

0.22

0.22

0.22

0.23

0.23

0.23

Other

Animal Category Dairy cattle Non-dairy cattle

0.23

0.22

0.23

0.21

0.13

0.13

0.12

0.13

0.14

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

Sheep

0.0005

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

0.0005

0.0005

Goats

0.00004

0.00004

0.00005

0.00005

0.00005

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

Horses

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

Swine

0.61

0.62

0.66

0.66

0.67

0.69

0.70

0.69

0.71

0.65

0.63

0.67

0.66

Laying hens

0.07

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.07

0.05

0.05

0.07

0.06

0.07

0.08

Broilers

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.10

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.09

0.08

0.07

0.10

0.09

0.09

Turkeys

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.001

0.002

0.002

0.001

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

Other poultry

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.0005

0 1.22

0 1.24

0 1.27

0 1.26

0 1.18

0 1.18

0 1.21

0 1.18

0 1.21

0 1.16

0 1.16

0 1.20

0 1.20

Other PM2,5 total

134

O) Feeding plans - average feeding level. Winter feeding plans

Feeding code

Pct. dm

Pct. Crude protein

Pct. Raw fat

Pct. Raw ashes

Pct. Carbonhydrates

FU per kg dm

kg feed per day

MJ per day

MJ per FU

AgriFish (2002)

Heifers:

Straw

781

85.0

4.0

1.9

4.5

89.6

0.2

33.4

571.8

Maize silage

593

31.0

8.7

2.2

4.2

84.9

0.9

57.5

1 009.0

Toasted soya

155

87.5

49.1

3.2

7.4

40.3

1.4

8.1

161.7

Total

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

99.0

1 742.4

Suckling cattle:

Straw

781

85.0

4.0

1.9

4.5

89.6

0.2

1.6

119.1

Period 1 (2 mth)

Toasted soya

155

87.5

49.1

3.2

7.4

40.3

1.4

3.4

49.6

Barley

201

85.0

11.2

2.9

2.2

83.7

1.1

1.8

29.2

Straw

781

85.0

4.0

1.9

4.5

89.6

0.2

3.2

238.2

Toasted soya

155

87.5

49.1

3.2

7.4

40.3

1.4

3.0

29.1

Barley

202

85.0

11.2

2.9

2.2

83.7

1.1

3.2

52.0

Total

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

15.2

517.1

Straw

781

85.0

4.0

1.9

4.5

89.6

0.2

4.0

58.2

Hay

665

85.0

12.1

2.6

7.7

77.6

0.6

3.0

44.0

Oat

202

86.0

12.1

5.7

2.7

79.5

0.9

2.5

40.1

86.4

15.4

4.3

6.6

73.7

1.0

1.0

15.5

Period 2 (4 mth)

Horses:

Supplemental Sheep and Goats:

Summer grazing Grazing Swine:

25.8

34.0

Total

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

157.7

Straw

781

85.0

4.0

1.9

4.5

89.6

0.2

1.0

14.6

29.8

Toasted soya

155

87.5

49.1

3.2

7.4

40.3

1.4

0.1

1.8

Barley

202

85.0

11.2

2.9

2.2

83.7

1.1

0.4

6.2

Grass pills (dried)

707

92.0

17.0

3.1

11.0

68.9

0.6

1.0

15.7

Total

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

38.2

Clover grass, 2 weeks old

422

18.0

22.0

4.1

9.4

64.5

1.0

1.0

18.8

Total

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.0

18.8

18.8

Sows

-

87.1

16.1

5.2

5.5

73.2

1.2

-

64.2

17.5

Weaners

-

87.4

18.8

5.7

5.5

70.0

1.3

-

2.1

16.5

Fattening pigs

-

86.9

17.0

4.7

5.1

73.3

1.2

-

9.6

17.3

30.0

1

Full feeding

135

P) 1) Area grown with sugar beet and maize for feeding, ha. Area, ha

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

102 347

93 170

80 979

70 993

60 380

52 927

41 347

37 414

32 188

22 917

17 577

18 735

19 164

20 245

26 187

31 269

36 583

41 652

42 701

46 992

48 452

61 493

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Sugar beet for feeding

13 302

9 953

7 991

6 233

4 974

4 035

3 819

5 206

5 257

4 118

3 985

Maize for feeding

78 814

95 741

118 267

129 317

131 027

135 245

144 869

159 030

168 917

172 168

173 693

Sugar beet for feeding Maize for feeding

Continued…

2) Average CH4 conversion rate (Ym) – national factor used for dairy cattle and heifer > ½ year 1990 – 2011, %. Dairy cattle + Heifer > ½ year

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Ym - average

6.78

6.70

6.60

6.51

6.42

6.36

6.26

6.23

6.19

6.11

6.06

Continued…

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Ym - average

6.03

6.00

5.98

5.97

5.96

5.95

5.95

5.96

5.96

5.95

5.95

136

Q) Area for N-fixing crops. Area, ha

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

126 836

144 595

203 604

146 927

122 572

114 354

98 876

118 123

120 295

100 883

74 178

69 158

95 256

106 051

4 189

4 742

4 555

4 608

6 373

8 494

10 810

10 838

11 650

10 629

10 099

11 145

7 342

6 850

50 629

55 220

47 416

52 819

50 104

47 772

53 621

63 761

68 015

77 696

87 893

58 997

101 124

115 657

243 473

177 131

181 671

212 662

154 420

186 217

199 957

116 007

94 678

138 940

154 963

54 449

16 602

28 019

11 194

11 716

7 456

7 949

8 992

8 791

8 716

8 723

8 977

6 103

5 529

3 758

3 124

3 962

3 138

3 535

3 932

3 835

3 735

2 334

2 017

2 047

2 975

3 555

3 835

2 977

2 848

3 890

Grass and clover in rotation

277 857

263 719

247 327

256 032

252 453

248 815

250 129

255 069

287 109

330 370

238 384

257 398

235 285

249 128

Grass not in rotation

220 564

214 446

210 480

216 775

219 085

217 235

212 030

207 932

197 229

316 668

207 122

192 851

167 600

156 260

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

232 000

180 000

228 000

231 000

241 000

236 000

258 000

270 000

274 000

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

65 762

35 590

31 964

40 184

31 356

26 593

15 819

11 353

5 639

4 910

6 332

10 349

7 109

5 514

5 245

3 451

3 566

3 946

4 147

4 575

3 982

3 682

3 756

5 366

6 405

6 926

117 782

118 763

113 504

112 469

110 089

102 041

75 512

63 998

60 348

52 251

55 851

62 845

56 672

25 000

23 000

34 000

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

4 172

4 149

3 441

2 689

3 386

2 979

2 999

2 841

2 741

3 592

3 737

2 677

2 935

Legumes to maturity Lucerne Crops for silage Legumes/marrow-stem kale Peas for conservation Seeds of leguminous grass crops

Fields with catch crop Continued… Legumes to maturity Lucerne Crops for silage Legumes/marrow-stem kale Peas for conservation Seeds of leguminous grass crops

4 385

4 603

4 157

3 812

4 271

4 386

5 258

6 274

5 454

4 457

4 542

4 483

3 742

Grass and clover in rotation

238 107

246 656

240 320

218 000

211 950

196 375

253 007

270 840

262 429

300 251

305 889

320 914

329 135

Grass not in rotation

159 530

166 261

173 702

177 546

177 635

172 536

192 968

189 384

196 630

189 962

192 433

199 859

186 652

Fields with catch crop

325 800

309 100

297 200

282 400

190 200

152 700

121 800

115 400

126 000

113 900

115 200

116 600

116 700

137

R) Model calculation of nitrogen leaching nationwide by SKEP/DAISY and N-LES.

Basic DAISY calculations of N-leaching

Farm type

Crop

Cattle

Sand/Clay

Sand/Clay

Up scaling by the SKEP model

Swine

Mixed In the up scaling of DAISY calculations a climate normalisation and yield correction is made

Crop rotation

Each crop rotation calculates for: 6 climate regions 30 fertilizer plan 4 soil type (here 2 w/w.out water)

Sand/Clay

Sand/Clay

Denmark 38.000 combinations

Data base Calculation for all combinations for each of 4 climate year Calculation for 12 combinations for each year in an 11 years period (1989-2001).

Model calculations for the crop rotations and fertiliser planes in SKEP plus appurtenant percolations from the DAISY calculations. Model calculations for each of the 11 years in the period 1989-2001, mean of the 11 years is up scaled nationwide by SKEP

138

...

total 274

Farm type

Crop

Cattle

Swine

Mixed

Crop distribution

Sand Clay

Sand Clay

Sand Clay

Sand Clay

Fertiliser plan N-LES calculations

...

Municipality

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

S) Biogas production. Production of biogas 1990-2011, and the amount of slurry used. Energy production

Estimated M tonnes slurry used in biogas production

Reduction

Communal plants T Joule

Farm plants T Joule

Total T Joule

Cattle slurry, 1000 Gg

Pig slurry, 1000 Gg

Gg CH4

Gg N2O

CO2-eq. 1000 Gg CO2

1990

211

19

230

0.09

0.10

0.088

0.005

0.003

1991

369

19

388

0.14

0.18

0.149

0.008

0.006

1992

449

24

473

0.18

0.21

0.181

0.010

0.007

1993

529

27

556

0.21

0.25

0.214

0.012

0.008

1994

632

26

658

0.24

0.30

0.251

0.014

0.010

1995

745

27

772

0.29

0.35

0.298

0.017

0.011

1996

803

27

830

0.31

0.38

0.321

0.018

0.012

1997

973

32

1005

0.37

0.46

0.386

0.022

0.015

1998

1166

56

1222

0.45

0.56

0.470

0.026

0.018

1999

1183

70

1253

0.47

0.57

0.483

0.027

0.019

2000

1279

129

1408

0.52

0.64

0.539

0.030

0.021

2001

1345

179

1524

0.57

0.69

0.586

0.033

0.023

2002

1403

344

1747

0.65

0.79

0.669

0.038

0.026

2003

1508

625

2133

0.79

0.97

0.818

0.046

0.031

2004

1531

745

2276

0.85

1.03

0.874

0.049

0.034

2005

1593

745

2338

0.87

1.06

0.897

0.051

0.035

2006

1678

907

2585

0.96

1.18

0.995

0.056

0.038

2007

1699

904

2603

0.97

1.18

1.000

0.056

0.038

2008

1739

907

2646

0.99

1.20

1.018

0.057

0.039

2009

1839

1046

2885

1.08

1.31

1.111

0.063

0.043

2010

1839

1046

2885

1.08

1.31

1.111

0.063

0.043

2011

1839

1046

2885

1.08

1.31

1.111

0.063

0.043

Source: Pers. comm.. Søren Tafdrup (The Danish Energy Authority) and own calculations.

139

T) Emission of different pollutants from field burning of agricultural residue. Pollutants

Unit

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

NH3

Gg

1.53

1.32

1.25

0.93

0.98

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.09

0.09

0.10

0.12

CH4

Gg

1.72

1.48

1.41

1.05

1.11

0.09

0.09

0.09

0.09

0.09

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.14

N2O

Gg

0.045

0.038

0.036

0.027

0.029

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.004

NOx

Gg

1.53

1.32

1.25

0.93

0.98

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.09

0.09

0.10

0.12

CO

Gg

37.58

32.29

30.67

22.93

24.13

1.89

1.97

1.88

2.06

1.98

2.24

2.23

2.37

2.98

CO2

Gg

966.54

830.46

788.90

589.70

620.62

48.73

50.66

48.44

52.89

51.00

57.72

57.40

60.85

76.60

SO2

Gg

0.19

0.16

0.16

0.12

0.12

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

NMVOC

Gg

4.02

3.45

3.28

2.45

2.58

0.20

0.21

0.20

0.22

0.21

0.24

0.24

0.25

0.32

TSP

Gg

3.70

3.18

3.02

2.26

2.38

0.19

0.19

0.19

0.20

0.20

0.22

0.22

0.23

0.29

PM10

Gg

3.70

3.18

3.02

2.26

2.38

0.19

0.19

0.19

0.20

0.20

0.22

0.22

0.23

0.29

PM2.5

Gg

3.51

3.01

2.86

2.14

2.25

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.19

0.19

0.21

0.21

0.22

0.28

PM

Metals Pb

Tonnes

0.55

0.47

0.45

0.34

0.35

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.04

Cd

Tonnes

0.031

0.027

0.026

0.019

0.020

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

Hg

Tonnes

0.0051

0.0044

0.0042

0.0031

0.0033

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0003

0.0004

As

Tonnes

0.037

0.032

0.030

0.023

0.024

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.003

Cr

Tonnes

0.140

0.121

0.115

0.086

0.090

0.007

0.007

0.007

0.008

0.007

0.008

0.008

0.009

0.011

Ni

Tonnes

0.113

0.097

0.092

0.069

0.073

0.006

0.006

0.006

0.006

0.006

0.007

0.007

0.007

0.009

Se

Tonnes

0.023

0.020

0.019

0.014

0.015

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.002

Zn

Tonnes

0.015 0.0002

0.011 0.0001

0.011 0.0001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

Tonnes

0.015 0.0002

0.001

Cu

0.018 0.0002

0.00001

0.00001

0.00001

0.00001

0.00001

0.00001

0.00001

0.00001

0.00002

Dioxin

g I-TEQ

0.38

0.32

0.31

0.23

0.24

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.03

Benzo(a)pyrene

Tonnes

1.78

1.53

1.45

1.08

1.14

0.09

0.09

0.09

0.10

0.09

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.14

Benzo(b)fluoranthene

Tonnes

1.74

1.50

1.42

1.06

1.12

0.09

0.09

0.09

0.10

0.09

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.14

Benzo(k)fluoranthene

Tonnes

0.68

0.59

0.56

0.42

0.44

0.03

0.04

0.03

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.05

Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene

Tonnes

0.65

0.56

0.53

0.40

0.42

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.04

0.03

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.05

HCB

kg

2.22

1.90

1.80

1.33

1.40

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.09

0.08

0.10

0.09

0.10

0.12

PCB

kg

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.001

0.001

0.00002

0.00002

0.00001

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

PAH

140

T) Continued… 

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

NH3

Gg

0.12

0.11

0.12

0.10

0.12

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.11

0.10

0.12

0.09

0.09

CH4

Gg

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.11

0.13

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.13

0.12

0.14

0.10

0.10

N2O

Gg

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.004

0.004

0.004

0.003

0.003

0.004

0.003

0.003

NOx

Gg

0.12

0.11

0.12

0.10

0.12

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.11

0.10

0.12

0.09

0.09

CO

Gg

2.83

2.79

2.93

2.44

2.93

3.07

3.12

3.16

2.73

2.53

2.98

2.17

2.15

CO2

Gg

72.77

71.68

75.33

62.66

75.33

78.98

80.14

81.30

70.35

65.15

76.64

55.89

55.32

SO2

Gg

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.01

0.01

NMVOC

Gg

0.30

0.30

0.31

0.26

0.31

0.33

0.33

0.34

0.29

0.27

0.32

0.23

0.23

Gg

0.28

0.27

0.29

0.24

0.29

0.30

0.31

0.31

0.27

0.25

0.29

0.21

0.21 0.21

PM TSP PM10

Gg

0.28

0.27

0.29

0.24

0.29

0.30

0.31

0.31

0.27

0.25

0.29

0.21

PM2.5

Gg

0.26

0.26

0.27

0.23

0.27

0.29

0.29

0.30

0.26

0.24

0.28

0.20

0.20

Pb

Tonnes

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.03

0.03

Cd

Tonnes

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

Hg

Tonnes

0.0004

0.0004

0.0004

0.0003

0.0004

0.0004

0.0004

0.0004

0.0004

0.0003

0.0004

0.0003

0.0003

As

Tonnes

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.002

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.002

0.003

0.002

0.002

Cr

Tonnes

0.011

0.010

0.011

0.009

0.011

0.011

0.012

0.012

0.010

0.009

0.011

0.008

0.008

Ni

Tonnes

0.009

0.008

0.009

0.007

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.009

0.008

0.008

0.009

0.007

0.006

Se

Tonnes

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.001

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.001

0.001

Zn

Tonnes

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.002

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.001

Cu

Tonnes

0.00001

0.00001

0.00001

0.00001

0.00001

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

0.00001

0.00001

0.00002

0.00001

0.00001

Dioxin

g I-TEQ

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.02

0.02

Benzo(a)pyrene

Tonnes

0.13

0.13

0.14

0.12

0.14

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.13

0.12

0.14

0.10

0.10

Benzo(b)fluoranthene

Tonnes

0.13

0.13

0.14

0.11

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.15

0.13

0.12

0.14

0.10

0.10

Benzo(k)fluoranthene

Tonnes

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.04

0.04

Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene

Tonnes

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.04

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.04

0.05

0.04

0.04

HCB

kg

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.10

0.12

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.11

0.11

0.12

0.09

0.09

PCB

kg

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

0.00002

Metals

PAH

141

U) QA/QC procedure, stage I – III. Stage I: Check of input data

Variable

Reference

Livestock production

- number of animal

DSt

- slaughter data Normative figures

- N-excretion

DCA

- use of straw - amount of manure - feed intake - milk yield Housing types

- distribution

Grazing days Crops

DAAS + DAFA DAAS

- land use

DSt

- crop yield - crop production Synthetic fertiliser

- N-content

DAFA

- fertiliser types N-leaching

- amount of nitrogen leached

DCE

Atmospheric deposition

- all NH3 emission sources

DCE – NH3 inventory

Sewage sludge and industrial waste

- Amount of sludge applied to soils EPA + DAFA

Stage II: Check of IDA data – overall

Emission source

Variable

Recalculation

- CO2 eqv. total emission

- compared with latest submission

- CH4, N2O, NMVOC - emission from field burning Time series

- CO2 eqv. total emission

- trends

- CH4, N2O, NMVOC

- jumps and dips

- emission from field burning Stage III: Check of IDA data – specific Emission source

Variable

CH4

- IEF (jumps and dips)

- enteric fermentation

- Ym (dairy cattle + heifer) - GE CH4

- manure management

- IEF (jumps and dips) - VS - biogas

N2O

- manure management

- trends (jumps and dips) - IEF - biogas

N2O

- synthetic fertiliser

N2O

- animal waste applied to soil

- trends (jumps and dips) - IEF - trends (jumps and dips) - IEF

N2O

- N-fixing crops

N2O

- crop residue

- trends (jumps and dips) - IEF - trends (jumps and dips) - IEF

N2O

- pasture, range and paddock

N2O

- atmospheric deposition

N2O

- N-leaching and run-off

- trends (jumps and dips) - IEF - trends (jumps and dips) - IEF - trends (jumps and dips) - IEF

N2O

- sewage sludge + industrial waste - trends (jumps and dips)

NMVOC

- crops

- IEF

142

- trends (jumps and dips)

DANISH EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR AGRICULTURE Inventories 1985 – 2011 Regulations in international conventions obligate Denmark to prepare annual emission inventories and document the methodologies used to calculate emissions. The responsibility for preparing the emissions inventory for agriculture is undertaken by the Danish Centre for Environment and Energy (DCE), Aarhus University, Denmark. This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2011 and includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on international guidelines as well as national methodologies. The emission is calculated by using an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA), which covers all aspects of the agricultural inputs and estimates both greenhouse gases and air pollutants; methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants, which mainly are related to the field burning of agricultural residue such as NOx, CO2, CO, SO2, heavy metals, dioxins, PAHs, HCB and PCBs. The largest contribution to agricultural emissions originates from livestock production, which is dominated by production of cattle and swine. The agricultural NH3 emission from 1985 to 2011 has decreased from 116 800 tonnes NH3 to 71 300 tonnes NH3, corresponding to a reduction of approximately 39 %. The emission of greenhouse gases in 2011 is estimated at 9.7 million tonnes CO2 equivalents and reduced from 13.4 million tonnes CO2 equivalents in 1985. Since 1990, which is the base year of the Kyoto protocol a reduction of 23 % is obtained. Improvements in feed efficiency, the utilisation of nitrogen in livestock manure and a significant decrease in the consumption of synthetic fertiliser are the most important explanations for the reduction of NH3. This has furthermore resulted in a significant reduction of N2O emission, which is the main reason for a considerable fall in the total greenhouse gas.

ISBN: 978-87-7156-083-1 ISSN: 2245-0203