Anthropogenic Compounds

Chemistry 8 Elemental Mercury 8 Mercury Compounds 10 Analytical Methods 12 ... Aquatic Chemistry 66 Analytical Methods 68 Sources, Pathways, and Reser...

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Anthropogenic Compounds

With Contributions by R. Anliker, G.C. Butler, E.A. Clarke, U. Förstner, W Funke, С. Hyslop, G. Kaiser, С Rappe, J. Russow, G. Tölg, M. Zander, V. Zitko

With 61 Figures

Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 1980

Contents

Mercury G. Kaiser and G. Tölg Historical Background Production-, Use-, Shipment-, and Release Data Anthropogenic Discharged Mercury Naturally Released Mercury Chemistry Elemental Mercury Mercury Compounds Analytical Methods Total Mercury Analysis Distinction Between Individual Mercury Compounds Transport Behaviour in the Environment Transport into the Environment Natural Input Transport in the Environment Chemical, Biochemical and Photochemical Reactions Conversion Between Inorganic Forms Conversion Between Organic and Inorganic Forms Conversion Between Organic Forms Transalkylation Reaction Metabolism Uptake of Inorganic Mercury Organic Mercury Compounds Biotransformation Biodegradation - Decontamination of Polluted Areas Accumulation Persistence Biological Effects and Toxicity Biological and Toxicological Effects References

1 3 3 8 8 8 10 12 12 16 17 17 17 19 23 23 24 25 25 25 25 26 26 28 29 38 39 39 43

X

Contents

Cadmium U. Förstner Introduction Production, Consumption, and Use Production Consumption Use General Chemistry, Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Aquatic Chemistry Chemistry Mineralogy Geochemistry Aquatic Chemistry Analytical Methods Sources, Pathways, and Reservoirs in the Environment Sources Pathways Reservoirs Cycling of Cadmium in Natural Systems Chemical Reactions: Sorption and Release of Cd on Particulates Leaching Methods Remobilization Processes Biological Uptake and Accumulation of Cadmium in Organisms Uptake in Plants Uptake, Absorption, Storage, and Excretion in Animals Food Chain Effects Indicator Organisms Human Intake, Absorption, and Excretion of Cadmium Food Concentrations Intake from Food, Water, and Air Absorption Body Distribution Excretion Biological Half-Time in Humans Toxicological Aspects of Cadmium Pollution Toxic Effects on Aquatic Organisms Toxic Effects on Humans Regulations References

59 60 60 61 62 . . 64 64 64 65 66 68 69 70 71 74 80 81 81 83 85 85 86 88 90 91 91 93 94 95 95 96 96 96 98 99 101

Polycyclic Aromatic and Heteroaromatic Hydrocarbons M. Zander Origin and Formation Chemistry Nomenclature

109 112 112

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Building Principles Relationships Between Topology, Stability, and Reactivity of PAH Synthetic Methods Analytical Methods Tansport Behaviour in the Environment Air Water Chemical and Photochemical Reactions Metabolism Biodegradation The Overall Environmental Fate of PAH Toxicology References

XI

112 114 116 118 119 119 120 120 122 125 125 126 128

Fluorocarbons /. Russow Introduction Production and Use Chemistry Analytical Methods Transport Behaviour in the Environment Chemical and Photochemical Reactions Metabolism Biodegradation Accumulation Biological Effects and Toxicity References

133 134 136 137 137 142 145 145 145 145 146

Chlorinated Paraffins V. Zitko Production and Applications Chemistry Determination Chlorinated Paraffins in the Environment References

149 151 153 154 156

Chloroaromatic Compounds Containing Oxygen C. Rappe Chlorophenols Production, Use, Contaminants Analytical Methods Physical and Chemical Properties

157 157 158 158

XII

Transport Behaviour Chemical and Photochemical Reactions Metabolism and Biodegradation Accumulation and Persistence Biological Effects Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans Chemical and Physical Data Occurrence of PCDDs and PCDFs in Industrial Chemicals Formation of PCDDs and PCDFs Analytical Methods Transport in the Environment Chemical and Photochemical Reactions Metabolism and Biodegradation Accumulation and Persistence Biological Effects References

Contents

159 159 159 159 160 160 161 161 163 165 169 170 171 171 174 176 176

Organic Dyes and Pigments E. A. Clarke and R. Antiker Introduction Chemistry and Uses Production Data Analytical Methods Ecological Aspects Environmental Assessment of Colorants Elimination and Degradation Cycle Effluent Treatment Processes Environmental Elimination Processes Azo Dyestuffs Triphenylmethane Dyestuffs Xanthene Dyestuffs Accumulation and Persistence Toxicological Aspects Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms Mammalian Toxicity Legislation References

181 182 184 185 186 186 188 188 193 196 197 198 198 199 199 200 204 210

Inorganic Pigments W. Funke Introduction Sources of Hazards in Using Inorganic Colorants Production Process

217 221 221

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Contents

XIII

Application Performance Removal Welding Waste Disposal Inorganic Colorants Based on Heavy Metals Lead Pigments Chromate Pigments Cadmium Pigments Silica, Silicates and Asbestos Miscellaneous Inorganic Colorants Antimony Arsenic Barium References

221 221 222 222 222 223 223 224 225 227 227 227 228 228 228

Radioactive Substances G. C. Butler and C. Hyslop Glossary Introduction Basic Concepts ' Radiation Doses and Units Effects of Radiation and Dose-Effect Functions Dose Equivalent (H) Committed Dose Equivalent (H50) Dose-Equivalent Commitment (Hc) Risk Estimates Effective Dose Equivalent (HE) Collective Dose Equivalent Collective Dose Commitment (Sk) Detriment and Dose Limits Transfer to Man Exposures of Non-Human Biota Selected Radionuclides Introduction Tritium Oxide Krypton-85 Strontium-90 Iodine-131 Caesium-137 Radium-226 Plutonium-239 References

231 232 232 232 233 233 233 234 235 235 235 238 238 238 240 241 241 242 248 251 255 257 260 264 268

Subject Index

271