Antenna Theory Microstrip Antennas

2.6.1 Multi-Beam Antenna Array ... 3.4.5 Design Example 1.05 ... 4.10.5 Radiation Patterns of Microstrip Antennas 157 Bibliography 161...

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Antenna Theory and

Microstrip Antennas D. G. Fang

9 *Я a Science Press

(сЯР CRC Press

Taylor & Francis Group Boca Raton London New York

CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an i n f o n n a business

Contents Preface ix About the Author xi C h a p t e r 1 B a s i c C o n c e p t s of A n t e n n a s 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Radiation Mechanism 2 1.3 Two Kinds of Linear Elementary Sources and Huygens' P l a n a r Element 2 1.3.1 Radiation Fields Generated by an Infinitesimal Electric Dipole 3 1.3.2 Radiation Fields Generated by an Infinitesimal Magnetic Dipole 9 1.3.3 Radiation Fields Generated by Huygens' Planar Element 11 1.4 Fundamental P a r a m e t e r s of Antennas 14 1.4.1 Radiation Pattern 14 1.4.2 Directivity and Gain 15 1.4.3 Polarization 18 1.4.4 Characteristics and Parameters of an Antenna in Receiving Mode 24 1.4.5 Radar Equation and Friis Transmission Formula 28 Bibliography 29 Problems 30 Chapter 2 Arrays and Array Synthesis 33 2.1 Introduction 33 2.2 N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing 33 2.3 Phased (Scanning) Array, Grating Lobe and Sub-Array 34 2.4 N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Spacing, Nonuniform Amplitude 38 2.4.1 Schelkunoff's Unit Circle Representation (SUCR) 38 2.4.2 Dolpb-Tschebyseheff (DT) Distribution 39 2.4.3 Taylor Distribution 43 2.4.4 Woodward-Lawson (WL) Method 49 2.4.5 Supergain Arrays 53 2.5 N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude, Nonuniform Spacing 54 2.5.1 Density Taper-Deterministic 54 2.5.2 Density Taper-Statistical 56 2.6 Signal Processing A n t e n n a Array 57 2.6.1 Multi-Beam Antenna Array (Analog Beamforming) 59 2.6.2 Angular Super-Resolut ion for Phased Antenna Array through Phase Weighting- -61 2.6.3 Angular Super-Resolution for Conventional Antenna through Angle Weighting- • -63 2.6.4 Adaptive Beamforming Antenna Array 64 2.7 P l a n a r Arrays 66 2.7.1 Array Factor 66 2.7.2 Taylor Patterns of Circular Aperture 69 2.8 Array Synthesis t h r o u g h Genetic Algorithm (GA) 72 2.8.1 Introduction to Genetic Algorithms 72 2.8.2 Optimized Design of Planar Array by Using the Combination of GA and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) 77 Bibliography 80

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Contents

Problems Chapter 3 Microstrip Patch Antennas 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Cavity Model and Transmission Line Model 3.2.1 Field Distribution from Cavity Model 3.2.2 Radiation Pattern 3.2.3 Radiation Conductance 3.2.4 Input Impedance from Cavity Model 3.2.5 Input Impedance from Transmission Line Model 3.2.6 Bandwidth of Input Impedance, Efficiency and Directivity 3.2.7 Multiport Analysis 3.3 Improvement and Extension of the Cavity Model 3.3.1 Correction of Edge Effect by DC Fringing Fields 3.3.2 Irregularly Shaped Patch as Perturbation of Regularly Shaped Patch 3.4 Design Procedure of a Single Rectangular Microstrip P a t c h A n t e n n a 3.4.1 Choice of the Microstrip Substrate 3.4.2 Coarse Determination of the Dimensions for Initial Patch Design 3.4.3 Feeding Methods 3.4.4 Matching Between the Patch and the Feed 3.4.5 Design Example 3.5 Example of L T C C Microstrip Patch A n t e n n a Bibliography Problems Chapter 4 Spectral D o m a i n Approach and Its Application to Microstrip Antennas 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Basic Concept of Spectral Domain Approach 4.3 Some Useful Transform Relations 4.4 Scalarization of Maxwell's Equations 4.5 Dyadic Green's Function (DGF) 4.6 Mixed Potential Representations 4.7 Transmission-Line Green's Functions 4.7.1 Parallel Current Source 4.7.2 Series Voltage Source 4.7.3 Example 4.8 Introduction t o Complex Integration Techniques 4.8.1 Branch Points and Branch Cuts 4.8.2 Poles 4.8.3 Integration Paths 4.9 Full Wave Discrete Image and Full Wave Analysis of Microstrip Antennas 4.9.1 Extraction of Quasi-Static Images 4.9.2 Extraction of Surface Waves 4.9.3 Approximation for the Remaining Integrands 4.9.4 Application of Full Wave Discrete Image Method in Microstrip Structures 4.10 Asymptotic Integration Techniques and Their Applications 4.10.1 The Saddle Point Method 4.10.2 The Steepest Descent Method 4.10.3 The Stationary Phase Method 4.10.4 Extensions of the Above Asymptotic Formulas

81 85 85 85 85 89 90 91 95 96 97 98 98 101 102 103 103 103 104 1.05 107 109 110 Ill Ill 112 114 116 119 122 126 127 129 130 133 133 138 140 144 144 146 148 153 153 154 155 156 156

Contents 4.10.5 Radiation Patterns of Microstrip Antennas Bibliography Problems C h a p t e r 5 E f f e c t i v e M e t h o d s in U s i n g C o m m e r c i a l S o f t w a r e for A n t e n n a Design 5.1 Introduction 5.2 T h e Space Mapping (SM) Technique 5.2.1 Original Space Mapping Algorithm 5.2.2 Aggressive Space Mapping Algorithm (ASM) 5.2.3 Using the Closed Form Created by the Full Wave Solver as a Coarse Model in ASM 5.2.4 Using the Closed Form Created by the Cavity Model as a Coarse Model in ASM 5.3 Extrapolation and Interpolation Methods 5.3.1 One-Dimensional Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) 5.3.2 Two-Dimensional Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) 5.4 Using the Model from Physical Insight to Create a Formula 5.4.1 Mutual Impedance Formula Between Two Antenna Elements 5.4.2 Relationship Between Bailey's Formula and That in Formula (5.4.4) 5.4.3 Numerical Results 5.5 Using Models from the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to Train Formula 5.5.1 Concept of the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) 5.5.2 Hybrid of AWE and ANN 5.5.3 Hybrid of SM and ANN 5.5.4 Hybrid of SM/ANN and Adaptive Frequency Sampling (AFS) 5.6 S u m m a r y Bibliography Problems C h a p t e r 6 D e s i g n of C o n v e n t i o n a l a n d D B F M i c r o s t r i p A n t e n n a A r r a y s • 6.1 Introduction 6.2 feeding Architecture 6.2.1 Series Feed 6.2.2 Parallel Feed 6.2.3 Hybrid Series/Parallel Feed 6.2.4 Single-Layer or Multilayer Design and Other Considerations 6.3 Design of Power Divider and Transmission on the Transformer 6.4 Design Examples of Microstrip A n t e n n a Arrays 6.4.1 Design of a 16GHz Compact Microstrip Antenna Array 6.4.2 Design of a Low Side Lobe Level Microstrip Antenna Array 6.4.3 Design of a Compact Single Layer Monopulse Microstrip Antenna Array With Low Side Lobe Levels 6.4.4 Design of an Integrated LTCC mm-Wave Planar Antenna Array 6.5 M u t u a l Coupling in Finite Microstrip Antenna Arrays 6.5.1 Mutual Coupling Effects and Analysis 6.5.2 Mutual Coupling in a Linear Dipole Array of Finite Size 6.5.3 Mutual Coupling in Finite Microstrip Patch Arrays 6.6 Introduction to a Digital Beamforming Receiving Microstrip Antenna Array • • 6.6.1 Description of the Antenna Array 6.6.2 Mutual Coupling Reduction of the Microstrip Antenna Array

vii 157 161 163 167 167 167 168 170 172 174 175 175 179 181 181 185 185 190 190 195 199 202 203 204 206 207 207 208 208 209 210 210 210 215 215 219 221 229 233 233 234 239 • 244 244 244

viii 6.6.3 Adaptive Nulling Bibliography Problems Chapter 7 High Frequency M e t h o d s and Their Applications to Antennas 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Geometrical Optics 7.3 Physical Optics 7.4 Diffraction by a Conducting Half Plane W i t h Normal Incidence 7.5 Diffraction by a Conducting Half Plane W i t h Arbitrary Incidence 7.6 Applications of Geometrical Theory of Diffraction in Antennas 7.6.1 Radiation from a Slit Aperture 7.6.2 Edge Diffracted Fields from the Finite Ground Plane of a Microstrip Antenna 7.7 Fresnel Diffraction in Three Dimensions Bibliography Problems Chapter 8 Planar Near-Field Measurement and Array Diagnostics 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Fundamental Transformations 8.3 Probe Compensation 8.4 Integral Equation Approach 8.5 Array Diagnostics 8.5.1 Theory 8.5.2 Diagnostics Example of Microstrip Antenna Array Bibliography Problems Index

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