Antenna Theory and Design

Antenna Theory and Design SECOND EDITION Warren L. Stutzman Gary A. Thiele ... 3.2.2 Main Beam Scanning and Beamwidth 102 3.2.3 The Ordinary Endfire A...

0 downloads 172 Views 1MB Size
Antenna Theory and Design SECOND EDITION

Warren L. Stutzman Gary A. Thiele

WILEY

Contents Chapter 1 • Antenna Fundamentals and Definitions

1

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

Introduction 1 How Antennas Radiate 4 Overview of Antennas 8 Electromagnetic Fundamentals 12 Solution of Maxwell's Equations for Radiation Problems 16 The Ideal Dipole 20 Radiation Patterns 24 1.7.1 Radiation Pattern Basics 24 1.7.2 Radiation from Line Currents 25 1.7.3 Far-Field Conditions and Field Regions 28 1.7.4 Steps in the Evaluation of Radiation Fields 31 1.7.5 Radiation Pattern Definitions 33 1.7.6 Radiation Pattern Parameters 35 1.8 Directivity and Gain 37 1.9 Antenna Impedance, Radiation Efficiency, and the Short Dipole 43 1.10 Antenna Polarization 48 References 52 Problems 52 Chapter 2 • Some Simple Radiating Systems and Antenna Practice

56

2.1 2.2 2.3

Electrically Small Dipoles 56 Dipoles 59 Antennas Above a Perfect Ground Plane 63 2.3.1 Image Theory 63 2.3.2 Monopoles 66 2.4 Small Loop Antennas 68 2.4.1 Duality 68 2.4.2 The Small Loop Antenna 71 2.5 Antennas in Communication Systems 76 2.6 Practical Considerations for Electrically Small Antennas 82 References 83 Problems 84 Chapter 3 • Arrays 3.1 3.2

3.3 3.4 3.5

The Array Factor for Linear Arrays 88 Uniformly Excited, Equally Spaced Linear Arrays 99 3.2.1 The Array Factor Expression 99 3.2.2 Main Beam Scanning and Beamwidth 102 3.2.3 The Ordinary Endfire Array 103 3.2.4 The Hansen-Woodyard Endfire Array 105 Pattern Multiplication 107 Directivity of Uniformly Excited, Equally Spaced Linear Arrays 112 Nonuniformly Excited, Equally Spaced Linear Arrays 116

87

xii

Contents 3.6

Mutual Coupling 121 3.6.1 Impedance Effects of Mutual Coupling 122 3.6.2 Array Pattern Evaluation Including Mutual Coupling 125 3.7 Multidimensional Arrays 128 3.8 Phased Arrays and Array Feeding Techniques 130 3.8.1 Scan Principles 130 3.8.2 Feed Networks for Beam Scanning 133 3.8.3 Scan Blindness 135 3.9 Perspective on Arrays 136 References 136 Problems 137 Chapter 4 • Line Sources 4.1 4.2 4.3

The Uniform Line Source 143 Tapered Line Sources 152 Fourier Transform Relations Between the Far-Field Pattern and the Source Distribution 157 4.4 Superdirective Line Sources 159 References 163 Problems 163 Chapter 5 • Resonant Antennas: Wires and Patches 5.1

Dipole Antennas 165 5.1.1 Straight Wire Dipoles 165 5.1.2 The Vee Dipole 173 5.2 Folded Dipole Antennas 175 5.3 Feeding Wire Antennas 180 5.4 Yagi-Uda Antennas 187 5.5 Corner Reflector Antennas 196 5.6 Wire Antennas Above an Imperfect Ground Plane 198 5.6.1 Pattern Effects of a Real Earth Ground Plane 198 5.6.2 Ground Plane Construction 203 5.7 Large Loop Antennas 205 5.8 Microstrip Antennas 210 5.8.1 Microstrip Patch Antennas 210 5.8.2 Microstrip Arrays 216 References 218 Problems 219 Chapter 6 • Broadband Antennas 6.1 6.2 6.3

6.4 6.5

Traveling-Wave Wire Antennas 225 Helical Antennas 231 6.2.1 Normal Mode Helix Antenna 232 6.2.2 Axial Mode Helix Antenna 235 Biconical Antennas 240 6.3.1 Infinite Biconical Antenna 240 6.3.2 Finite Biconical Antenna 242 6.3.3 Discone Antenna 243 Sleeve Antennas 246 6.4.1 Sleeve Monopoles 246 6.4.2 Sleeve Dipoles 248 Principles of Frequency-Independent Antennas 250

Contents

xüi

6.6

Spiral Antennas 252 6.6.1 Equiangular Spiral Antenna 252 6.6.2 Archimedean Spiral Antenna 254 6.6.3 Conical Equiangular Spiral Antenna 257 6.6.4 Related Configurations 258 6.7 Log-Periodic Antennas 259 References 270 Problems 272 Chapter 7 • Aperture Antennas

275

7.1 7.2

Radiation from Apertures and Huygens' Principle 275 Rectangular Apertures 284 7.2.1 The Uniform Rectangular Aperture 285 7.2.2 Tapered Rectangular Apertures 289 7.3 Techniques for Evaluating Gain 291 7.3.1 Directivity 292 7.3.2 Gain and Efficiencies 294 7.3.3 Simple Directivity Formulas 296 7.4 Rectangular Horn Antennas 299 7.4.1 Я-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna 300 7.4.2 £-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna 306 7.4.3 Pyramidal Horn Antenna 310 7.5 Circular Apertures 316 7.5.1 The Uniform Circular Aperture 316 7.5.2 Tapered Circular Apertures 319 7.6 Reflector Antennas 322 7.6.1 Parabolic Reflector Antenna Principles 322 7.6.2 Axisymmetric Parabolic Reflector Antenna 329 7.6.3 Offset Parabolic Reflectors 334 7.6.4 Dual Reflector Antennas 335 7.6.5 Cross-Polarization and Scanning Properties of Reflector Antennas 338 7.6.6 Gain Calculations for Reflector Antennas 342 7.6.7 Other Reflector Antennas 347 7.7 Feed Antennas for Reflectors 349 7.7.1 Field Representations 349 7.7.2 Matching the Feed to the Reflector 350 7.7.3 A General Feed Model 352 7.7.4 Feed Antennas Used in Practice 354 References 356 Problems 358 Chapter 8 • Antenna Synthesis 8.1 8.2 8.3

The Synthesis Problem 365 8.1.1 Formulation of the Synthesis Problem 365 8.1.2 Synthesis Principles 367 Line Source Shaped Beam Synthesis Methods 368 8.2.1 Fourier Transform Method 368 8.2.2 Woodward-Lawson Sampling Method 370 Linear Array Shaped Beam Synthesis Methods 373 8.3.1 Fourier Series Method 373 8.3.2 Woodward-Lawson Sampling Method 376 8.3.3 Comparison of Shaped Beam Synthesis Methods 377

365

jdv

Contents 8.4

Low Side-Lobe, Narrow Main Beam Synthesis Methods 378 8.4.1 Dolph-Chebyshev Linear Array Method 378 8.4.2 Taylor Line Source Method 384 8.5 Perspective 390 References 390 Problems 391 Chapter 9 • Antennas in Systems and Antenna Measurements

395

9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6

Receiving Properties of Antennas 395 Antenna Noise Temperature and Radiometry 400 Radar 403 Reciprocity and Antenna Measurements 404 Pattern Measurement and Antenna Ranges 409 Gain Measurement 415 9.6.1 Gain Measurement of CP Antennas 416 9.6.2 Gain Estimation 418 9.7 Polarization Measurement 418 9.7.1 Polarization Pattern Method 419 9.7.2 Spinning Linear Method 420 9.7.3 Dual-Linear Method 421 9.8 Field Intensity Measurements 422 References 423 Problems 424

Chapter 1 0 • СЕМ for Antennas: The Method of Moments 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7

Introduction to Computational Electromagnetics 427 Introduction to the Method of Moments 429 Pocklington's Integral Equation 430 Integral Equations and Kirchhoff 's Network Equations 432 Source Modeling 435 Weighted Residuals and the Method of Moments 440 Two Alternative Approaches to the Method of Moments 445 10.7.1 Reaction 445 10.7.2 Linear Algebra Formulation of MoM 447 10.8 Formulation and Computational Considerations 449 10.8.1 Other Expansion and Weighting Functions 450 10.8.2 Other Electric Field Integral Equations for Wires 451 10.8.3 Computer Time Considerations 454 10.8.4 Toeplitz Matrices 455 10.8.5 Block Toeplitz Matrices 455 10.8.6 Compressed Matrices 456 10.8.7 Validation 457 10.9 Calculation of Antenna and Scatterer Characteristics 457 10.10 The Wire Antenna or Scatterer as an iV-Port Network 460 10.10.1 Series Connections 460 10.10.2 Parallel Connections 462 10.11 Antenna Arrays 465 10.11.1 The Linear Array 466 10.11.2 The Circular Array 467 10.11.3 Two-Dimensional Planar Array of Dipoles 470 10.11.4 Summary 471 10.12 Radar Cross Section of Antennas 472

427

Contents

xv

10.13 Modeling of Solid Surfaces 477 10.13.1 Wire-Grid Model 477 10.13.2 Continuous Surface Model 482 10.14 Summary 487 References 487 Problems 488 Chapter 11 • СБМ for Antennas: Finite Difference Time Domain Method

493

11.1

Maxwell's Equations for the FD-TD Method 495 11.1.1 Three-Dimensional Problem Formulation 496 11.1.2 Two-Dimensional Problem Formulation 496 11.1.3 One-Dimensional Problem Formulation 497 11.2 Finite Differences and the Yee Algorithm 498 11.3 Cell Size, Numerical Stability, and Dispersion 505 11.4 Computer Algorithms and FD-TD Implementation 508 11.5 Absorbing Boundary Conditions 511 11.6 Source Conditions 515 11.6.1 Source Functionality 515 11.6.2 The Hard Source 517 11.6.3 The Soft Source 517 11.6.4 Total-Field/Scattered-Field Formulation 519 11.6.5 Pure Scattered-Field Formulation 522 11.7 Near Fields and Far Fields 522 11.8 A Two-Dimensional Example: An £-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna 524 11.9 Antenna Analysis and Applications 531 11.9.1 Impedance, Efficiency, and Gain 532 11.9.2 The Monopole over a PEC Ground Plane 533 11.9.3 The Vivaldi Slotline Array 538 11.10 Summary 542 References 542 Problems 543 Chapter 1 2 • СЕМ for Antennas: High-Frequency Methods 12.1 Geometrical Optics 546 12.2 Wedge Diffraction Theory 552 12.3 The Ray-Fixed Coordinate System 561 12.4 A Uniform Theory of Wedge Diffraction 564 12.5 £-Plane Analysis of Horn Antennas 568 12.6 Cylindrical Parabolic Antenna 571 12.7 Radiation by a Slot on a Finite Ground Plane 574 12.8 Radiation by a Monopole on a Finite Ground Plane 577 12.9 Equivalent Current Concepts 578 12.10 A Multiple Diffraction Formulation 581 12.11 Diffraction by Curved Surfaces 584 12.12 Extension of Moment Methods Using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction 12.13 Physical Optics 597 12.14 Method of Stationary Phase 601 12.15 Physical Theory of Diffraction 604 12.16 Cylindrical Parabolic Reflector Antenna-PTD 610 12.17 Summary 612 References 613 Problems 614

545

589

xvi

Contents

Appendix A • Tables of Commonly Used Frequencies A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4

Radio Frequency Bands 621 Television Channel Frequencies 621 Mobile Telephone Bands 622 Radar Bands 622

Appendix В • Data Material and Other Constants B.l B.2 B.3 B.4 B.5 B.6

623

Conductivities of Good Conductors 623 Wire Data 623 Dielectric Constant: Permittivity 624 Permeability 624 Velocity of Light 624 Intrinsic Impedance of Free Space 624

Appendix С • Vectors C.l C.2 C.3

621

625

Unit Vector Representations 625 Vector Identities 625 Vector Differential Operators 626

Appendix D • Trigonometric Relations

628

Appendix E • Hyperbolic Relations

630

Appendix F • Useful Mathematical Relations F.l Dirac Delta Function 631 F.2 Binomial Theorem 631 F.3 Bessel Functions 631 F.4 Some Useful Integrals 632

631

Appendix G • Computing Packages

633

G.l G.2 G.3 G.4 G.5

General Antenna Pagkage: APV 633 Array Plotting Package: PCARRPAT 633 Wire Antenna Code: WIRE 634 Parabolic Reflector Antenna Code: PRAC 634 Diffraction Codes 634

Appendix H • Bibliography

636

Index

643